Government College for Men

Cuddapah, India

Government College for Men

Cuddapah, India
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Subramani P.A.,Yogi Vemana University | Subramani P.A.,Vels Institute of Science and Technology and Advanced Studies | Panati K.,Government College for Men | Narala V.R.,Yogi Vemana University
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2017

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Curcumin is a well-established anticancer agent in vitro but its efficacy is yet to be proven in clinical trials. Poor bioavailability of curcumin is the principal reason behind the lack of efficiency of curcumin in clinical trials. Many studies prove that the bioavailability of curcumin can be improved by administering it through nanoparticle drug carriers. This review focuses on the efforts made in the field of nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability of curcumin. Nanotechnologies of curcumin come in various shapes and sizes. The simplest curcumin nanoparticle that increased the bioavailability of curcumin is the curcumin–metal complex. On the other hand, we have intricate thermoresponsive nanoparticles that can release curcumin upon stimulation (analogous to a remote control). Future research required for developing potent curcumin nanoparticles is also discussed. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Ravi Sekhar P.,SKR and SKR Government College for Women | Sreekanth Reddy M.,Government College for Men
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2016

Albino rats were treated with sub lethal concentration (1/10th LD50 i.e., 20mg/kg body weight) of an organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos as single, double and multiple doses with 48 hr intervals. The toxic effect of chlorpyrifos is investigated by measuring the antioxidant enzyme activities Viz. Xanthine Oxidase (XOD), Super Oxode Dismutase (SOD) and Catalases (CAT). In the present study the activity of XOD is increased under chlorpyrifos stress, significant increased xanthine oxidase activity might be due to conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase. The inhibition of SOD and Catalase (CAT) activities were observed, it shows that the impairment of antioxidant defense mechanism and reduction in molecular oxygen and it is due to the oxidative stress produces depleted activity of both the antioxidant enzymes. © 2016, Global Research Online. All rights reserved.


Kamsala R.V.,University of Hyderabad | Lepakshi B.M.,Government College for Men | Padma Y.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University | Venkata Raju R.R.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: To study the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Syzygium alternifolium (SA) leaf extracts by using in vitro methods. Methods: Hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EAE), ethanol (EE) and water (WE) extracts of S. alternifolium leaf, were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using in vitro methods. Total phenolic and total antioxidant capacity of SA-leaf extracts were quantified as gallic acid equivalents, using the spectrophotometric method. Results: Among the test extracts ethanol and aqueous extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity than that of hexane and ethyl acetate. Free radicals, DPPH and H2O2 were significantly inhibited by aqueous extract (IC50 4μg and 10 μg/mL), while nitric oxide was strongly inhibited by ethanol extract (IC 5030 μg/mL). Ethanol and water extracts contained the higher amount of total phenolic content (29±0.4 and 30±0.8 mg GAE/g dwt) and total antioxidant activity (40±0.1 and 49±0.7 mg AAE mg/g dwt), respectively. The antioxidant activity of ethanol and water extracts exhibited a dose dependent activity and well correlated to its phenol concentration, which is not followed as in hexane and ethyl acetate extract. Further, the leaf extracts were investigated for antimicrobial activity, on five bacterial and one fungal strain using disc diffusion and micro dilution methods. Of the test extracts, hexane extract, showed pronounced antimicrobial spectrum, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed feeble activity, while aqueous extract showed faint inhibition against the test pathogens. Conclusion: The present observations suggest that S. alternifolium leaves may be considered as a new source for antioxidant and antimicrobial constituents for therapeutic use. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.


Venkata Ratnam K.,University of Hyderabad | Md. Bhakshu L.,Government College for Men | Venkata Raju R.R.,Andhra University
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research | Year: 2015

The present aim of the study is to evaluate chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the fruits of Piper hymenophyllum Miq. GC-MS analysis of the hydro distilled oil resulted in the identification of 15 compounds in fruit constitutes 98.65% of the oil. (E) phytol (21.87%), dihydro terpineol (17.42), α – terpineol (13.93%), trans-piperitol (9.66%), endo-fenchol (4.09%), camphene (3.92%) and γ-terpinen (3.91%) were the major compounds of fruit oil. The fruit essential oil was tested against human pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Among the tested microorganisms, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneuminiae exhibited highest sensitivity and strongly inhibited at very low MIC indicating the efficacy of the fruit oil on the Gram negative bacteria. In conclusion, essential oil obtained from P. hymenophyllum fruit showed beneficial effects to inhibit tested human pathogenic organisms by in vitro methods. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.


Sivaramaiah G.,Government College for Men | Lakshmanarao J.,Sri Venkateswara University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

Electron Spin Resonance and optical absorption spectral studies of Cu 2+ ions in 5 Al2O3 + 75 B2O 3 + (20-z) PbO + z CuO (where z = 0.1-1.5 mol.% of CuO) glasses have been reported. The EPR spectra of all the glasses show resonance signals characteristic of Cu2+ ions at both room and low temperatures. The number of spins and Gibbs energy were calculated at different concentrations and temperatures. From the plot of the ratio of logarithmic number of spins and absolute temperature and the reciprocal of absolute temperature, the entropy and enthalpy have been evaluated. The optical absorption spectra of all the glasses exhibit three bands and these bands have been assigned to 2B 1g → 2Eg, 2B1g → 2B2g, and 2B1g → 2A1g transitions in the decreasing order of energy. It is for the first time to observe three optical absorption bands for Cu2+ ions in oxide glasses. Such type of results is due to excellent sample preparation. From the EPR and optical absorption spectroscopies data, the molecular orbital coefficients have been evaluated. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sivaramaiah G.,Government College for Men | Rao J.L.,Sri Venkateswara University
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy | Year: 2012

Using the electron paramagnetic resonance data of VO2+ and Cr+3centers in alkali lead borotellurite glasses, the thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy AG, entropy AS and enthalpy AH have been evaluated. The effect of temperature, concentration and alkali ions on Gibbs free energy is studied for VO2+ and Cr3+ centers in alkali lead borotellurite glasses. It is observed that the Gibbs free energy has increased with the increase of concentration and temperature. The Pauli magnetic susceptibility is calculated at different temperatures ( 123-433 K) for VO 2+ center in lithium lead borotellurite glass. The Pauli magnetic susceptibility is also calculated for Cr3+center in potassium lead borotellurite glass at different temperatures (123-313 K). The pre-exponential coefficient (PEC) is calculated from the logarithmic of number of spins and the reciprocal of absolute temperature graph of VO2+and Cr3+ centers in alkali lead borotellurite glasses. The preexponential coefficient indicates the collision frequency between the transition metal ion and the glass lattice. The relaxation time Tm or T2, is determined from the number of spins and the temperature effect on relaxation time has been studied for the two ions. The Gibbs free energy, pre-exponential coefficient, Pauli magnetic susceptibility, relaxation time are compared between VO 2+ and Cr3+centers in alkali lead borotellurite glasses. These values are also compared between alkali ions in alkali lead borotellutite glasses. © Printed in India.


Sivaramaiah G.,Government College for Men | Lakshmanarao J.,Sri Venkateswara University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and optical absorption studies of 5Al 2O3 + 75H3BO3 + (20-x)PbO + xMnSO4 (where x = 0.5, 1,1.5 and 2 mol% of MnSO4) glasses at room temperature have been studied. The ESR spectrum of all the glasses exhibits resonance signals with effective isotropic g values at ≈2.0, 3.3 and 4.3. The ESR resonance signal at isotropic g ≈ 2.0 has been attributed to Mn2+ centers in an octahedral symmetry. The ESR resonance signals at isotropic g ≈ 3.3 and 4.3 have been attributed to the rhombic symmetry of the Mn2+ ions. The zero-field splitting parameter (zfs) has been calculated from the intensities of the allowed hyperfine lines. The optical absorption spectrum exhibits an intense band in the visible region and it has been attributed to 5Eg → 5T2g transition of Mn3+centers in an octahedral environment. The optical band gap and the Urbach energies have been calculated from the ultraviolet absorption edges. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


SivaRamaiah G.,University of Saskatchewan | SivaRamaiah G.,Government College for Men | Lin J.,University of Saskatchewan | Pan Y.,University of Saskatchewan
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals | Year: 2011

Single-crystal and powder electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies of natural amethyst quartz, before and after isochronal annealing between 573 and 1,173 K, have been made from 90 to 294 K. Single-crystal EPR spectra confirm the presence of two substitutional Fe3+ centers. Powder EPR spectra are characterized by two broad resonance signals at g = ~10.8 and 4.0 and a sharp signal at g = 2.002. The sharp signal is readily attributed to the well-established oxygen vacancy electron center E1′. However, the two broad signals do not correspond to any known Fe3+ centers in the quartz lattice, but are most likely attributable to Fe3+ clusters on surfaces. The absolute numbers of spins of the Fe3+ species at g = ~10.8 have been calculated from powder EPR spectra measured at temperatures from 90 to 294 K. These results have been used to extract thermodynamic potentials, including Gibbs energy of activation ΔG, activation energy Ea, entropy of activation ΔS and enthalpy of activation ΔH for the Fe3+ species in amethyst. In addition, magnetic susceptibilities (χ) have been calculated from EPR data at different temperatures. A linear relationship between magnetic susceptibility and temperature is consistent with the Curie-Weiss law. Knowledge about the stability and properties of Fe3+ species on the surfaces of quartz is important to better understanding of the reactivity, bioavailability and heath effects of iron in silica particles. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


SivaRamaiah G.,University of Saskatchewan | SivaRamaiah G.,Government College for Men | Pan Y.,University of Saskatchewan
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals | Year: 2012

Samples of a natural amethyst, pulverized in air, and irradiated for gamma-ray doses from 0.14 to 70 kGy, have been investigated by powder electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy from 90 to 294 K. The powder EPR spectra show that the surface Fe 3+ species on the gamma-ray-irradiated quartz differ from its counterpart without irradiation in both the effective g value and the observed line shape, suggesting marked radiation effects. This suggestion is supported by quantitatively determined thermodynamic properties, magnetic susceptibility, relaxation times, and geometrical radius. In particular, the surface Fe 3+ species on gamma-ray-irradiated quartz has larger Gibbs and activation energies than its non-irradiated counterpart, suggesting radiation-induced chemical reactions. The shorter phase-memory time (T m) but longer spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1) of the surface Fe 3+ species on the gamma-ray-irradiated quartz than that without irradiation indicate stronger dipolar interactions in the former. Moreover, the calculated geometrical radius of the surface Fe 3+ species on the gamma-ray-irradiated quartz is three orders of magnitude larger than that of its counterpart on the as-is sample. These results provide new insights into radiation-induced aerosol nucleation, with relevance to atmospheric cloud formation and global climate changes. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Siva Ramaiah G.,Government College for Men
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy | Year: 2011

From electron paramagnetic resonance data of Fe3+ and Mn 2+ ions in alkali lead tetraborate glasses, the thermodynamic potentials such as Gibbs potential AG, entropy of activation AS, enthalpy of activation AH have been evaluated. The effect of temperature, concentration and alkali ions on Gibbs potential is studied for Fe3+ and Mn 2+ ions in alkali lead tetraborate glasses. It is observed that the Gibbs potential has increased with the increase of concentration and temperature. The Pauli magnetic susceptibility is calculated at 296 K and different temperatures (123-393 K) for Fe3+ and Mn2+ ions in alkali lead tetraborate glasses. The pre-exponetial coefficient is calculated from the logarithmic of number of spins and the reciprocal of absolute temperature graph of Fe3+ and Mn2+ ions in alkali lead tetraborate glasses. The pre-exponential coefficient indicates the collision frequency between the transition metal ion and the glass host lattice. The phase memory relaxation time Tm (T2) and the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 were calculated for the two ions. The temperature effect of the relaxation times was studied for the two ions. The Gibbs potential, pre-exponential coefficient, Pauli magnetic susceptibility, relaxation times were compared among Fe3+ and Mn2+ ions in alkali lead tetraborate glasses. These values were compared among alkali ions in alkali lead tetraborate glasses. © Printed in India.

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