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Amrāvati, India

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Amrāvati, India
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Reddy D.R.K.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Naidu R.L.,GMR Institute of Technology | Ramprasd T.,GMR Institute of Technology | Ramana K.V.,Government
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2013

A locally rotationally symmetric(LRS) Bianchi type-II space-time is considered in the frame work of a modified theory of gravitation proposed by Canuto et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39:429, 1977) when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. A special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Bermann (Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) is used to obtain determinate solution of the field equations. We have also used the barotropic equation of state and the bulk viscous pressure is assumed to be proportional to the energy density. The physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Naidu R.L.,GMR Institute of Technology | Reddy D.R.K.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Ramprasad T.,GMR Institute of Technology | Ramana K.V.,Government
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2013

In this paper, we investigate a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological model in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011) when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. To obtain a determinate solution, a special law of variation proposed by Berman (Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) is used. We have also used the barotropic equation of state for the pressure and density and bulk viscous pressure is assumed to be proportional to energy density. It is interesting to note that the strings in this model do not survive. Also the model does not remain anisotropic throughout the evolution of the universe. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Public Health and 153 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2014

Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and to identify models of success.We generated updated estimates of child mortality in early neonatal (age 0-6 days), late neonatal (7-28 days), postneonatal (29-364 days), childhood (1-4 years), and under-5 (0-4 years) age groups for 188 countries from 1970 to 2013, with more than 29,000 survey, census, vital registration, and sample registration datapoints. We used Gaussian process regression with adjustments for bias and non-sampling error to synthesise the data for under-5 mortality for each country, and a separate model to estimate mortality for more detailed age groups. We used explanatory mixed effects regression models to assess the association between under-5 mortality and income per person, maternal education, HIV child death rates, secular shifts, and other factors. To quantify the contribution of these different factors and birth numbers to the change in numbers of deaths in under-5 age groups from 1990 to 2013, we used Shapley decomposition. We used estimated rates of change between 2000 and 2013 to construct under-5 mortality rate scenarios out to 2030.We estimated that 63 million (95% UI 60-66) children under-5 died in 2013, a 64% reduction from 176 million (171-181) in 1970. In 2013, child mortality rates ranged from 1525 per 1000 livebirths (1306-1774) in Guinea-Bissau to 23 (18-29) per 1000 in Singapore. The annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2013 ranged from -68% to 01%. 99 of 188 countries, including 43 of 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, had faster decreases in child mortality during 2000-13 than during 1990-2000. In 2013, neonatal deaths accounted for 416% of under-5 deaths compared with 374% in 1990. Compared with 1990, in 2013, rising numbers of births, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, led to 14 million more child deaths, and rising income per person and maternal education led to 09 million and 22 million fewer deaths, respectively. Changes in secular trends led to 42 million fewer deaths. Unexplained factors accounted for only -1% of the change in child deaths. In 30 developing countries, decreases since 2000 have been faster than predicted attributable to income, education, and secular shift alone.Only 27 developing countries are expected to achieve MDG 4. Decreases since 2000 in under-5 mortality rates are accelerating in many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The Millennium Declaration and increased development assistance for health might have been a factor in faster decreases in some developing countries. Without further accelerated progress, many countries in west and central Africa will still have high levels of under-5 mortality in 2030.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, US Agency for International Development.


Ray D.P.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology | Dutta D.,Government | Srivastava S.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Kumar B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Saha S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality | Year: 2013

Screening for insect growth regulatory activity (IGR) of Thevetia nerifolia leaf extracts were evaluated against Spodoptera litura (Fab.)- Methanol extract of leaves provided 53.8% larval mortality, 29.6% pupation and 22.3% adult emergence at 2.5% concentration level. The extract was further subfractioned with solvents of different polarity in search of better IGR activity and chloroform extract was found to be most active in terms of larval mortality (27.5-61.5%), pupation (28.4-60.2%) and adult emergence (19.8-52.8%). GI 50 of the extract was recorded to be 3.02%. Activity was attributed to the glycosides present in the extract.

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