Gotland University College
Visby, Sweden

Uppsala University - Campus Gotland is a campus of Uppsala University and a former university college previously known in English as Gotland University located in Visby on Gotland, Sweden. The school became a part of Uppsala University on July 1, 2013, from whence the entity is known.The university college was originally established in 1998 and had around 4 300 registered students in 2007, many of them part-time and distance students. The main building which used to be an old Whiskey distillery is located in the central part of Visby, between the city marina and the Almedalen park. The Rindi Student Union, which organises the students, has its own building, called Rindi-borgen. Wikipedia.

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Stout D.,Emory University | Passingham R.,University of Oxford | Frith C.,University College London | Apel J.,Gotland University College | Chaminade T.,Aix - Marseille University
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Paleolithic stone tools provide concrete evidence of major developments in human behavioural and cognitive evolution. Of particular interest are evolving cognitive mechanisms implied by the cultural transmission of increasingly complex prehistoric technologies, hypothetically including motor resonance, causal reasoning and mentalizing. To test the relevance of these mechanisms to specific Paleolithic technologies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of Naïve, Trained and Expert subjects observing two toolmaking methods of differing complexity and antiquity: the simple 'Oldowan' method documented by the earliest tools 2.5million years ago; and the more complex 'Acheulean' method used to produce refined tools 0.5million years ago. Subjects observed 20-s video clips of an expert demonstrator, followed by behavioural tasks designed to maintain attention. Results show that observational understanding of Acheulean toolmaking involves increased demands for the recognition of abstract technological intentions. Across subject groups, Acheulean compared with Oldowan toolmaking was associated with activation of left anterior intraparietal and inferior frontal sulci, indicating the relevance of resonance mechanisms. Between groups, Naïve subjects relied on bottom-up kinematic simulation in the premotor cortex to reconstruct unfamiliar intentions, and Experts employed a combination of familiarity-based sensorimotor matching in the posterior parietal cortex and top-down mentalizing involving the medial prefrontal cortex. While no specific differences between toolmaking technologies were found for Trained subjects, both produced frontal activation relative to Control, suggesting focused engagement with toolmaking stimuli. These findings support motor resonance hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of human social cognition and cumulative culture, directly linking these hypotheses with archaeologically observable behaviours in prehistory. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rosenqvist G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Rosenqvist G.,Gotland University College
Ethology | Year: 2013

Anthropogenic disturbance is currently altering the environment of terrestrial as well as aquatic organisms. Those changes affect a variety of animal behaviours, which in turn may cause changes in species interactions, population dynamics and evolutionary processes. In marine ecosystems, nutrient enrichment may elevate pH, while it is reduced by carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification. These two processes are not expected to balance one another but rather to affect the environment at different times and scales. We here show experimentally that an increase in water pH has a negative effect on mating propensity in the broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle, whereas lowered pH did not elicit the same detrimental effect. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that mating propensity is impaired by an increase in pH, suggesting that anthropogenic nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems may change the processes of sexual selection and population dynamics solely on the basis of altered water pH. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 6.56M | Year: 2009

Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our time which also threatens cultural heritage. As a non-renewable important resource to the European identity, sustainable adaptation strategies are required for long term preservation. For this purpose and for the first time ever, the CLIMATE FOR CULTURE project will couple completely new high resolution (10x10km) climate change evolution scenarios with whole building simulation models to identify the risks for specific regions. The innovation lies in the elaboration of a more reliable damage assessment by connecting the future climate data with whole building simulation models and new damage assessment functions. In situ measurements at UNESCO sites throughout Europe will allow a much more precise and integrated assessment of the real damage impact of climate change on cultural heritage. Appropriate sustainable mitigation/adaptation strategies, also from previous projects, are further developed and applied on the basis of these findings simultaneously. All these results will be incorporated into an assessment of the economic impacts. In order to ensure an efficient use of resources, this project will build on the results of already concluded EU research projects (Noahs Ark). Techniques from FP5/6 projects will be reassessed for their applicability in future scenarios at different regions in Europe and Mediterranean to fully meet sustainability criteria. The proposed project will thus be able to estimate more systematically the damage potential of climate change on European cultural heritage. The team consists of 27 multidisciplinary partners from all over Europe and Egypt including the worlds leading institutes in climate modelling and whole building simulation. The final achievement of the project will be a macro-economic impact report on cultural heritage in the times of climate change akin to the STERN report which would be a truly European contribution to future IPCC Reports.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: EeB.ENV.2012.6.6-2 | Award Amount: 6.79M | Year: 2012

Europe can become the leader in CO2 emission reduction by applying innovative solutions to its built cultural heritage. According to the European Recovery Plan one of the actions that needs to be taken to tackle the current crisis, is investing in energy efficiency. Historic urban buildings consume 4% of all energy and are responsible for 3% of CO2 emissions. Therefore, improving energy efficiency in historic buildings and historic districts is essential. Nevertheless, most of the current developments in energy efficiency address new construction without dealing with the unique problems of historic structures. A number of technologies and products have been developed, however many of the solutions are not acceptable for historic structures due to the necessity of preserving integrity and authenticity. Therefore, the main goal of EFFESUS is to develop and demonstrate, through case studies a methodology for assessing and selecting energy efficiency interventions, based on existing and new technologies that are compatible with heritage values. A Decision Support System will be a primary deliverable. The environment in historic buildings and urban districts is controlled differently from modern cities and accordingly the project will also develop a multi-scale data model for the management of energy. In addition, new non-invasive, reversible yet cost-effective technologies for significantly improving thermal properties will also be developed. Finally, existing regulations and building policies may not fit cultural heritage specificities so the EFFESUS project will also address these non-technical barriers. These outcomes will be achieved through 10 work packages, performed by an interdisciplinary consortium of 23 partners from 13 countries. Due to the attractiveness of this niche market, 36 % of the project budget is allocated to SMEs, which will work together with large companies, research institutions and end users throughout the duration of the project.

Landis S.H.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Sundin J.,Uppsala University | Rosenqvist G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Rosenqvist G.,Gotland University College | Roth O.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2012

Animals can profit from increasing temperatures by prolonged breeding seasons and faster growth rates. However, these fitness benefits are traded off against higher parasite load and increased virulence of temperature-sensitive pathogens. In thermally stratified habitats, behavioral plasticity can allow hosts to choose the optimal temperature to enhance individual fitness and to escape parasite pressure. To test this idea, we performed a temperature choice experiment with the host-parasite system of the sex-role reversed broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) and its bacterial pathogen Vibrio spp. In this species, pregnant males are expected to face a trade-off between shortening their brooding period in warm water and decreasing the effect of the infection in cold water. We found that exposure to Vibrio changed the temperature preference for both pregnant and nonpregnant males, as well as females compared to nonchallenged fish that tended to prefer warm water. This study shows that behavioral plasticity is one option for avoidance of higher bacterial prevalence, as expected due to rising ocean temperatures. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Sundin J.,Uppsala University | Jacobsson O.,Gotland University College | Berglund A.,Uppsala University | Rosenqvist G.,Gotland University College | Rosenqvist G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2011

In a habitat choice experiment straight-nosed pipefish Nerophis ophidion and broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle avoided eelgrass Zostera marina covered with filamentous algae. Both juveniles as well as brooding adult males of the two species clearly preferred to position themselves in Z. marina without growth of filamentous algae. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Faisal A.,Imperial College London | Stout D.,Emory University | Apel J.,Gotland University College | Bradley B.,University of Exeter
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Early stone tools provide direct evidence of human cognitive and behavioral evolution that is otherwise unavailable. Proper interpretation of these data requires a robust interpretive framework linking archaeological evidence to specific behavioral and cognitive actions. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we employ a data glove to record manual joint angles in a modern experimental toolmaker (the 4th author) replicating ancient tool forms in order to characterize and compare the manipulative complexity of two major Lower Paleolithic technologies (Oldowan and Acheulean). To this end we used a principled and general measure of behavioral complexity based on the statistics of joint movements. Conclusions/Significance: This allowed us to confirm that previously observed differences in brain activation associated with Oldowan versus Acheulean technologies reflect higher-level behavior organization rather than lower-level differences in manipulative complexity. This conclusion is consistent with a scenario in which the earliest stages of human technological evolution depended on novel perceptual-motor capacities (such as the control of joint stiffness) whereas later developments increasingly relied on enhanced mechanisms for cognitive control. This further suggests possible links between toolmaking and language evolution. © 2010 Faisal et al.

Falavarjani B.R.,Gotland University College
European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition 2012, EWEC 2012 | Year: 2012

The Global Wind Energy Council annual market statistics published on February 2012, show that the wind industry installed just over 41,000 MW of new clean, reliable wind power in 2011, bringing the total installed capacity globally to more than 238,000 MW at the end of last year. [1] European wind power has recorded an average annual market growth of 15.6% from 1995, with a cumulative capacity of 94 GW in 2011. [2] Corresponding to the growth of wind turbine industries, wind turbine blades are also growing fast in both size and number. The problem that now arises is how to dispose of the blades at the end of their lifecycle. There are currently three available methods considering disposing blades as waste materials: Landfill, incineration and recycling. Based on environmental, economical and technological concerns these three methods are not completely applicable for blades considering the different materials uses in their structures. [3] In order to promoting of artificial reefs in fishery and coastal management, this paper considers blade material as a positive resource for the environment and introduces an alternative way of disposal using as artificial reef structure in the sea. The feasibility of applying wind turbine blades as artificial reefs can have a major effect on worldwide development of wind power regarding creation of specific relation between wind power management and coastal management.

Stahl B.,Gotland University College
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

A new species, Tropaeolum sparrei Ståhl (Tropaeolaceae), is described from submontane cloud forest habitat in western Ecuador. It differs from T. papillosum Hughes (the species it resembles most) by having thinner, tomentose stems, smaller, glabrous or subglabrous leaves with the petiole inserted relatively closer to the lower leaf margin, and flowers with uniformly coloured and straight calyx spurs. In leaf shape it is also similar to T. repandum Heilborn, from which it differs in its larger flowers with entirely black petals and blue anthers. © 2010 The Authors.

Nissling A.,Gotland University College | Dahlman G.,Gotland University College
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2010

Two sympatric flounder populations with different reproductive strategies, offshore spawning at 10-20psu producing pelagic eggs and coastal spawning at 5-7psu with demersal eggs respectively, inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Salinity governs the reproductive success by irregular saline water inflows and hence stock abundance and distribution. The potential fecundity (the standing stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary) was assessed for fish sampled at five locations (two for offshore spawners and three for coastal spawners) along the salinity gradient (ICES SD 25, 27/28, 28 and 29). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in r2-values of 0.698-0.894 for the respective sampling location with somatic weight or total fish length as the main predictor, and otolith weight (proxy for age) and oocyte density (by gravimetric counting) as additional predictors. Analysis by univariate regressions using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity for coastal spawning- than offshore spawning flounder (~69% more oocytes for an intermediate sized fish) but no intra-population differences. Similarly, gonad dry weight was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder. Further, growth estimations indicated higher growth in offshore spawning- than in coastal spawning flounder suggesting that the coastal spawning population allocate relatively more resources into reproductive growth than somatic, potentially a result of strong selection for high fecundity of flounder producing demersal eggs due to poor egg survival for this spawning strategy. Earlier studies on fecundity of Baltic flounder are reviewed and discussed with consideration of inter-population differences questioning the idea of in general higher fecundity of flounder in the Baltic Sea. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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