Gothenburg, Sweden
Gothenburg, Sweden

The University of Gothenburg is a university in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg.The University of Gothenburg is the third-oldest of the current Swedish universities, and with 24,900 full-time students it is also among the largest universities in the Nordic countries. Wikipedia.

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Pekny M.,Gothenburg University | Pekna M.,Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2014

Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that provide nutrients, recycle neurotransmitters, as well as fulfill a wide range of other homeostasis maintaining functions. During the past two decades, astrocytes emerged also as increasingly important regulators of neuronal functions including the generation of new nerve cells and structural as well as functional synapse remodeling. Reactive gliosis or reactive astrogliosis is a term coined for the mor-phological and functional changes seen in astroglial cells/astrocytes responding to CNS injury and other neurological diseases. Whereas this defensive reaction of astrocytes is conceivably aimed at handling the acute stress, limiting tissue damage, and restoring homeostasis, it may also inhibit adaptive neural plasticity mechanisms underlying recovery of function. Understanding the multifaceted roles of astrocytes in the healthy and diseased CNS will undoubtedly contribute to the development of treatment strategies that will, in a context-dependent manner and at appropriate time points, modulate reactive astrogliosis to promote brain repair and reduce the neurological impairment. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

Kvarnemo C.,Gothenburg University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

The Darwin-Bateman paradigm recognizes competition among males for access to multiple mates as the main driver of sexual selection. Increasingly, however, females are also being found to benefit from multiple mating so that polyandry can generate competition among females for access to multiple males, and impose sexual selection on female traits that influence their mating success. Polyandry can reduce a male's ability to monopolize females, and thus weaken male focused sexual selection. Perhaps the most important effect of polyandry on males arises because of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Polyandry favours increased male ejaculate expenditure that can affect sexual selection on males by reducing their potential reproductive rate. Moreover, sexual selection after mating can ameliorate or exaggerate sexual selection before mating. Currently, estimates of sexual selection intensity rely heavily on measures of male mating success, but polyandry now raises serious questions over the validity of such approaches. Future work must take into account both pre- and post-copulatory episodes of selection. A change in focus from the products of sexual selection expected in males, to less obvious traits in females, such as sensory perception, is likely to reveal a greater role of sexual selection in female evolution.

Fredriksson N.J.,Gothenburg University
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Somatic mutations in noncoding sequences are poorly explored in cancer, a rare exception being the recent identification of activating mutations in TERT regulatory DNA. Although this finding is suggestive of a general mechanism for oncogene activation, this hypothesis remains untested. Here we map somatic mutations in 505 tumor genomes across 14 cancer types and systematically screen for associations between mutations in regulatory regions and RNA-level changes. We identify recurrent promoter mutations in several genes but find that TERT mutations are exceptional in showing a strong and genome-wide significant association with increased expression. Detailed analysis of TERT across cancers shows that the strength of this association is highly variable and is strongest in copy number–stable cancers such as thyroid carcinoma. We additionally propose that TERT promoter mutations control expression of the nearby gene CLPTM1L. Our analysis provides a detailed pan-cancer view of TERT transcriptional activation but finds no clear evidence for frequent oncogenic promoter mutations beyond TERT. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

von Mentzer A.,Gothenburg University
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a major cause of infectious diarrhea, produce heat-stable and/or heat-labile enterotoxins and at least 25 different colonization factors that target the intestinal mucosa. The genes encoding the enterotoxins and most of the colonization factors are located on plasmids found across diverse E. coli serogroups. Whole-genome sequencing of a representative collection of ETEC isolated between 1980 and 2011 identified globally distributed lineages characterized by distinct colonization factor and enterotoxin profiles. Contrary to current notions, these relatively recently emerged lineages might harbor chromosome and plasmid combinations that optimize fitness and transmissibility. These data have implications for understanding, tracking and possibly preventing ETEC disease. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Larsson D.G.J.,Gothenburg University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

As long ago as the sixteenth century, Paracelsus recognized that ‘the dose makes the poison’. Indeed, environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals excreted by humans are limited, most importantly because a defined dose is given to just a fraction of the population. By contrast, recent studies have identified direct emission from drug manufacturing as a source of much higher environmental discharges that, in some cases, greatly exceed toxic threshold concentrations. Because production is concentrated in specific locations, the risks are not linked to usage patterns. Furthermore, as the drugs are not consumed, metabolism in the human body does not reduce concentrations. The environmental risks associated with manufacturing therefore comprise a different, wider set of pharmaceuticals compared with those associated with risks from excretion. Although pollution from manufacturing is less widespread, discharges that promote the development of drug-resistant microorganisms can still have global consequences. Risk management also differs between production and excretion in terms of accountability, incentive creation, legal opportunities, substitution possibilities and costs. Herein, I review studies about industrial emissions of pharmaceuticals and the effects associated with exposure to such effluents. I contrast environmental pollution due to manufacturing with that due to excretion in terms of their risks and management and highlight some recent initiatives. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Sayin V.I.,Gothenburg University
Science translational medicine | Year: 2014

Antioxidants are widely used to protect cells from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The concept that antioxidants can help fight cancer is deeply rooted in the general population, promoted by the food supplement industry, and supported by some scientific studies. However, clinical trials have reported inconsistent results. We show that supplementing the diet with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E markedly increases tumor progression and reduces survival in mouse models of B-RAF- and K-RAS-induced lung cancer. RNA sequencing revealed that NAC and vitamin E, which are structurally unrelated, produce highly coordinated changes in tumor transcriptome profiles, dominated by reduced expression of endogenous antioxidant genes. NAC and vitamin E increase tumor cell proliferation by reducing ROS, DNA damage, and p53 expression in mouse and human lung tumor cells. Inactivation of p53 increases tumor growth to a similar degree as antioxidants and abolishes the antioxidant effect. Thus, antioxidants accelerate tumor growth by disrupting the ROS-p53 axis. Because somatic mutations in p53 occur late in tumor progression, antioxidants may accelerate the growth of early tumors or precancerous lesions in high-risk populations such as smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who receive NAC to relieve mucus production.

MicroRNA are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. To investigate the role of microRNA in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), we performed genome-wide expression analyses of mRNA and microRNA in T cells from ITP patients and controls. We identified 1915 regulated genes and 22 regulated microRNA that differed between ITP patients and controls. Seventeen of the 22 regulated microRNA were linked to changes in target gene expression; 57 of these target genes were associated with the immune system, eg, T-cell activation and regulation of immunoglobulin production. CXCL13 and IL-21 were two microRNA target genes significantly increased in ITP. We could demonstrate increased plasma levels of CXCL13 and others have reported increased plasma levels of interleukin-21 in ITP. Thus, regulated microRNA were significantly associated with both gene and protein expression of molecules in immunological pathways. We suggest that microRNA may be important regulatory molecules involved in the loss of tolerance in ITP.

Hansson G.C.,Gothenburg University
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2012

The intestinal mucus is an efficient system for protecting the epithelium from bacteria by promoting their clearance and separating them from the epithelial cells, thereby inhibiting inflammation and infection. The function of the colon inner mucus layer is especially important as this explains how we can harbor the large number of bacteria in our gut. The major component of this mucus system is the MUC2 mucin which organizes the mucus by its enormously large net-like polymers. Pathogenic microorganisms, in turn, have developed mechanisms for circumventing this well-organized mucus protective system. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Erdelyi M.,Gothenburg University | Erdelyi M.,Swedish Center
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Halogen bonding is the electron density donation based weak interaction of halogens with Lewis bases. Its applicability for molecular recognition processes long remained unappreciated and has so far mostly been studied in silico and in solid state. As most physiological processes and chemical reactions take place in solution, investigations in solutions are of highest relevance for its use in the pharmaceutical and material scientific toolboxes. Following a short discussion of the phenomenon of halogen bonding, this tutorial review presents an overview of the methods hitherto applied for gaining an improved understanding of its behaviour in solutions and summarizes the gained knowledge in order to indicate the scope of the techniques and to facilitate exciting future developments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Jabbar K.S.,Gothenburg University
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2014

Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) are increasingly frequent radiological incidentalomas, with a considerable proportion representing precursors of pancreatic cancer. Better diagnostic tools are required for patients to benefit from this development. To evaluate whether cyst fluid mucin expression could predict malignant potential and/or transformation in PCLs, a proteomic method was devised and prospectively evaluated in consecutive patients referred to our tertiary center for endoscopic ultrasound-guided aspiration of cystic lesions from May 2007 through November 2008 (discovery cohort) and from December 2008 through October 2012 (validation cohort). Cytology and cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; premalignancy > 192 ng/mL, malignancy > 1000 ng/mL) were routinely analyzed, and samples were further processed as follows: one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, excision of high-mass areas, tryptic digestion and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with peptide identification by Mascot software and an in-house mucin database. All diagnostic evaluations were blinded to proteomics results. Histology was required to confirm the presence/absence of malignant transformation. All statistical tests were two-sided. Proteomic mucin profiling proved statistically significantly more accurate (97.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 90.3% to 99.6%) than cytology (71.4%; 95% CI = 59.8% to 80.9%; P < .001) and cyst fluid CEA (78.0%; 95% CI = 65.0% to 87.3%; P < .001) in identifying the 37 (out of 79; 46.8%) lesions with malignant potential (ie, premalignant or malignant tumors). The accuracy of proteomics was nearly identical (96.6% vs 98.0%) between the discovery (n = 29) and validation (n = 50) cohorts. Furthermore, mucin profiling predicted malignant transformation, present in 16 out of 29 (discovery cohort: 9, validation cohort: 20) lesions with available histology, with 89.7% accuracy (95% CI = 71.5% to 97.3%) (for the validation cohort only: 95.0%; 95% CI = 73.1% to 99.7%). This markedly exceeded corresponding results for cytology (51.7%; 95% CI = 32.9% to 70.1%; P = .003) and CEA (57.1%; 95% CI = 34.4% to 77.4%; P = .02). Proteomic cyst fluid mucin profiling robustly discriminates benign, premalignant, and malignant PCLs. Consequently, it may improve pancreatic cancer prevention and reduce the morbidity burden of unwarranted pancreatic surgery.

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