The University of Gothenburg is a university in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg.The University of Gothenburg is the third-oldest of the current Swedish universities, and with 24,900 full-time students it is also among the largest universities in the Nordic countries. Wikipedia.
Awad A.A.,Gothenburg University
Nature Physics | Year: 2016
The spin Hall effect in a non-magnetic metal with spin–orbit coupling injects transverse spin currents into adjacent magnetic layers, where the resulting spin transfer torque can drive spin wave auto-oscillations. Such spin Hall nano-oscillators (SHNOs) hold great promise as extremely compact and broadband microwave signal generators and magnonic spin wave injectors. Here we show that SHNOs can also be mutually synchronized with unprecedented efficiency. We demonstrate mutual synchronization of up to nine individual SHNOs, each separated by 300 nm. Through further tailoring of the connection regions we can extend the synchronization range to 4 μm. The mutual synchronization is observed electrically as an increase in the power and coherence of the microwave signal, and confirmed optically using micro-Brillouin light scattering microscopy as two spin wave regions sharing the same spectral content, in agreement with our micromagnetic simulations. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.16M | Year: 2017
In the Roadmap for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research in Europe (ROAMER), top-priority is research into child and adolescent mental health symptoms. CAPICE (Childhood and Adolescence Psychopathology: unravelling the complex etiology by a large Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Europe) will address this priority. This network will elaborate on the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, a well-established collaboration of the many European birth and adolescent population based (twin and family) cohorts with unique longitudinal information on lifestyle, family environment, health, and emotional and behavioral problems. Phenotypic and genome-wide genotypic data are available for over 60,000 children, in addition to genome-wide genotypes for over 20,000 mothers and epigenome-wide data for over 6,000 children. Combined with the enormous progress in methodology, the results of the research performed in this network will greatly expand our knowledge regarding the etiology of mental health symptoms in children and adolescents and shed light on possible targets for prevention and intervention, e.g. by drug target validation. Moreover, it will provide Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) with an excellent training in the psychiatric genomics field given by a multidisciplinary team of eminent scientists from the academic and non-academic sector highly experienced in e.g., gene-environment interaction and covariation analyses, (epi)genome-wide association studies, Mendelian Randomization (MR) and polygenic analyses. With a focus on common and debilitating problems in childhood and adolescence, including depression, anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, CAPICE will contribute to improving later outcomes of young people in European countries with child and adolescent psychopathology.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: REV-INEQUAL-04-2016 | Award Amount: 4.91M | Year: 2017
The overarching goal of the project is to understand the economic, social, institutional and policy factors that have shaped the impacts of free movement and public debates about it. It aims to help European policymakers develop policy responses that inspire public trust, ensure the fairness and sustainability of free movement, and maintain inclusive policies that reduce inequalities across the continent. First, the project will generate a deeper understanding of the nature and impacts of intra-EU mobility, focusing in particular on how countries institutional and policy environments shape the impacts of free movement on individuals, households, labour markets, public services and public finances. Second, it will assess how political and media narratives about intra-EU mobility are formed, focusing on the role of traditional and social media, political discourse, and influential participants in public debates. Third, it will assess the relationship between real and perceived impacts, examining the factors that drive realities and misperceptions about free movement and why these debates have unfolded in different ways across the EU. A consortium of researchers with deep understanding of policies and institutions across Europe will implement a multi-disciplinary research strategy. Cutting-edge research methods will range from content analysis based on machine-learning techniques to multi-wave panel and survey experiments to theoretical and empirical analysis of the role of institutions and norms in shaping free movement and public debates about it. The project combines qualitative and quantitative approaches, carefully integrating work packages to allow data and results to flow seamlessly between them. Policy specialists will develop concrete options for reforms. An experienced communications team will work with consortium members to develop accessible resources, ensuring wide reach to policymakers, media practitioners and influential stakeholders across Europe.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-22-2016 | Award Amount: 5.55M | Year: 2017
The overarching aim of the iRead project is to develop a software infrastructure of personalised, adaptive technologies and a diverse set of applications for supporting learning and teaching of reading skills. The specific goals of the project proposed are to: 1. Develop a scalable, cloud-based software infrastructure of open, interoperable components, including real-time user modelling and domain knowledge components, to support learning of reading skills by children with different abilities and linguistic backgrounds 2. Develop domain models for English, Greek, German and Spanish learners, and to contextualise those models with respect to skills and difficulties of (i) typically developing readers, (ii) English and Greek readers with dyslexia and (ii) learners of English as a Foreign language. The domain models will utilise and generalise the domain model implemented in a previous FP7 project iLearnRW 3. Develop applications for supporting learning (literacy games, interactive e-books, Reader app) that utilise the infrastructure to yield different types of personalised learning services and experiences 4. Develop and evaluate personalised content classification metrics that enable reading for use by electronic publishers and libraries 5. Enable orchestrated use of the learning applications (games, e-books, Reader app) based on learning analytics, and a personalised experience through adaptive support 6. Implement a number of large-scale evaluation pilots across European countries and providers in order to evaluate the pedagogical effectiveness of the iRead ecosystem.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-25-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.82M | Year: 2017
Imagine a scenario where multiple robots have been deployed to provide services such as object handling/transportation, or pickup and delivery operations. In such a context, different robots with varying capabilities must be coordinated in order to achieve various multi-tasking procedures. Thus, the effective supervision and coordination of the overall heterogeneous system mandates a decentralized framework that integrates high-level task-planning, low-level motion control and robust, real-time sensing of the robots dynamic environment. Current practice is at a great deal based on offline, centralized planning and related tasks are usually fulfilled in a predefined manner: this does not utilize the capabilities of the system to operate efficiently in a dynamic environment. In most cases, sudden changes in the environment, the type of tasks, and the need for coordination, would cause the system to halt, ask for human intervention and restart. Despite the fact that public facilities are in some degree prestructured, the need for a framework for decentralized, real-time, automated task (re)-planning is evident in a twofold manner: (i) it will pave the way to an improved use of resources and a faster accomplishment of tasks inside public facilities and workspaces with high social activity (ii) it will make an important contribution towards the vision of more flexible multirobot applications in both professional or domestic environments, also in view of the Industry 4.0 vision and the general need to deploy such systems in everyday life scenarios. Within Co4Robots our goal is to build a systematic methodology to accomplish complex specifications given to a team of potentially heterogeneous robots; control schemes appropriate for the mobility and manipulation capabilities of the considered robots; perceptual capabilities that enable robots to localize themselves and estimate the state of the dynamic environment; and their systematic integration approach.
Kvarnemo C.,Gothenburg University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013
The Darwin-Bateman paradigm recognizes competition among males for access to multiple mates as the main driver of sexual selection. Increasingly, however, females are also being found to benefit from multiple mating so that polyandry can generate competition among females for access to multiple males, and impose sexual selection on female traits that influence their mating success. Polyandry can reduce a male's ability to monopolize females, and thus weaken male focused sexual selection. Perhaps the most important effect of polyandry on males arises because of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Polyandry favours increased male ejaculate expenditure that can affect sexual selection on males by reducing their potential reproductive rate. Moreover, sexual selection after mating can ameliorate or exaggerate sexual selection before mating. Currently, estimates of sexual selection intensity rely heavily on measures of male mating success, but polyandry now raises serious questions over the validity of such approaches. Future work must take into account both pre- and post-copulatory episodes of selection. A change in focus from the products of sexual selection expected in males, to less obvious traits in females, such as sensory perception, is likely to reveal a greater role of sexual selection in female evolution.
Fredriksson N.J.,Gothenburg University
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014
Somatic mutations in noncoding sequences are poorly explored in cancer, a rare exception being the recent identification of activating mutations in TERT regulatory DNA. Although this finding is suggestive of a general mechanism for oncogene activation, this hypothesis remains untested. Here we map somatic mutations in 505 tumor genomes across 14 cancer types and systematically screen for associations between mutations in regulatory regions and RNA-level changes. We identify recurrent promoter mutations in several genes but find that TERT mutations are exceptional in showing a strong and genome-wide significant association with increased expression. Detailed analysis of TERT across cancers shows that the strength of this association is highly variable and is strongest in copy number–stable cancers such as thyroid carcinoma. We additionally propose that TERT promoter mutations control expression of the nearby gene CLPTM1L. Our analysis provides a detailed pan-cancer view of TERT transcriptional activation but finds no clear evidence for frequent oncogenic promoter mutations beyond TERT. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
von Mentzer A.,Gothenburg University
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a major cause of infectious diarrhea, produce heat-stable and/or heat-labile enterotoxins and at least 25 different colonization factors that target the intestinal mucosa. The genes encoding the enterotoxins and most of the colonization factors are located on plasmids found across diverse E. coli serogroups. Whole-genome sequencing of a representative collection of ETEC isolated between 1980 and 2011 identified globally distributed lineages characterized by distinct colonization factor and enterotoxin profiles. Contrary to current notions, these relatively recently emerged lineages might harbor chromosome and plasmid combinations that optimize fitness and transmissibility. These data have implications for understanding, tracking and possibly preventing ETEC disease. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Sayin V.I.,Gothenburg University
Science translational medicine | Year: 2014
Antioxidants are widely used to protect cells from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The concept that antioxidants can help fight cancer is deeply rooted in the general population, promoted by the food supplement industry, and supported by some scientific studies. However, clinical trials have reported inconsistent results. We show that supplementing the diet with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E markedly increases tumor progression and reduces survival in mouse models of B-RAF- and K-RAS-induced lung cancer. RNA sequencing revealed that NAC and vitamin E, which are structurally unrelated, produce highly coordinated changes in tumor transcriptome profiles, dominated by reduced expression of endogenous antioxidant genes. NAC and vitamin E increase tumor cell proliferation by reducing ROS, DNA damage, and p53 expression in mouse and human lung tumor cells. Inactivation of p53 increases tumor growth to a similar degree as antioxidants and abolishes the antioxidant effect. Thus, antioxidants accelerate tumor growth by disrupting the ROS-p53 axis. Because somatic mutations in p53 occur late in tumor progression, antioxidants may accelerate the growth of early tumors or precancerous lesions in high-risk populations such as smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who receive NAC to relieve mucus production.
Hansson G.C.,Gothenburg University
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2012
The intestinal mucus is an efficient system for protecting the epithelium from bacteria by promoting their clearance and separating them from the epithelial cells, thereby inhibiting inflammation and infection. The function of the colon inner mucus layer is especially important as this explains how we can harbor the large number of bacteria in our gut. The major component of this mucus system is the MUC2 mucin which organizes the mucus by its enormously large net-like polymers. Pathogenic microorganisms, in turn, have developed mechanisms for circumventing this well-organized mucus protective system. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.