Time filter

Source Type

Gothenburg, Sweden

The University of Gothenburg is a university in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg.The University of Gothenburg is the third-oldest of the current Swedish universities, and with 24,900 full-time students it is also among the largest universities in the Nordic countries. Wikipedia.

Johannesson K.,Gothenburg University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

Physical isolation has long been the null hypothesis of speciation, with exceptional evidence required to suggest speciation with gene flow. Following recent persuasive theoretical support and strong empirical examples of nonallopatric speciation, one might expect a changed view. However, a review of 73 recent empirical studies shows that when allopatric speciation is suggested, a nonallopatric alternative is rarely considered, whereas the opposite is true in studies suggesting sympatric speciation, indicating a biased treatment of different speciation models. Although increasing support for ecological speciation suggests natural selection as the most critical component of speciation, gene flow remains an issue. Methods for unbiased hypothesis testing are available, and the genetic and phylogeographic data required for appropriate tests can be generated. Focus on phylogenies and functions of individual genes have revealed strong idiosyncratic elements of speciation, such as single genes with possible allopatric origin that make significant contributions during nonallopatric phases of speciation. Hence a more complex picture of speciation is now emerging that will benefit from unbiased evaluation of both allopatric and sympatric mechanisms of speciation. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

Starke M.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities | Year: 2010

Seven Swedish mothers with an intellectual disability were interviewed for this exploratory study, aimed at charting such mothers' views and experiences of their encounters with different health and social service professionals.Three distinct themes emerged from the interviews. First, the mothers experienced the interaction to be marred by lack of comprehensibility, resulting from inadequate information and their perception of not being treated properly. Second, despite their reservations about the nature of the interaction, several of the mothers also reported having received support that had strengthened their parental ability and had been experienced as empowering.Third, several of the mothers also clearly perceived themselves as subjects needing support.The results, overall, indicated that the interaction between the mother and the professionals suffered from a certain paternalism in the attitude of the latter.© The Author(s), 2010.

Pleijel H.,Gothenburg University | Hogy P.,University of Hohenheim
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

Data from three Swedish open-top chamber and four German FACE experiments were combined to derive response functions for elevated CO2 (eCO2) effects on Cd, Zn, Mn, protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number of wheat. Grain yield and grain number were increased by ∼6% and ∼7%, respectively, per 100 ppm CO2; the former effect was linked to plant nitrogen status. Grain mass was not influenced by eCO2, whereas Cd concentration was reduced. Unlike Zn, Mn and protein, effects on Cd yield were not related to effects on grain yield. Yields of Mn, Zn and (weakly) protein were positively affected by eCO2. For protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number, the results were consistent among the FACE and OTC experiments. A key conclusion was that yields of essential nutrients were enhanced (Mn > Zn > protein), although less than grain yield, which would not be expected from a simple dilution model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Magdalinou N.,University College London | Lees A.J.,University College London | Zetterberg H.,Gothenburg University
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry | Year: 2014

Parkinsonian diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders, which show significant clinical and pathological overlap. Accurate diagnosis still largely relies on clinical acumen; pathological diagnosis remains the gold standard. There is an urgent need for biomarkers to diagnose parkinsonian disorders, particularly in the early stages when diagnosis is most difficult. In this review, several of the most promising cerebrospinal fluid candidate markers will be discussed. Their strengths and limitations will be considered together with future developments in the field. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

RATIONALE:: Cell proliferation and cell cycle control mechanisms are believed to play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The transcription factor Zinc finger protein 148 (Zfp148) was recently shown to maintain cell proliferation under oxidative conditions by suppressing p53, a checkpoint protein that arrests proliferation in response to various stressors. It is established that inactivation of p53 accelerates atherosclerosis, but whether increased p53 activation confers protection against the disease remains to be determined.OBJECTIVE:: We aimed to test the hypothesis that Zfp148 deficiency reduces atherosclerosis by unleashing p53 activity.METHODS AND RESULTS:: Mice harbouring a gene-trap mutation in the Zfp148 locus (Zfp148) were bred onto the Apoe genetic background and fed a high-fat or chow diet. Loss of one copy of Zfp148 markedly reduced atherosclerosis without affecting lipid metabolism. Bone marrow transplantation experiments revealed that the effector cell is of hematopoietic origin. Peritoneal macrophages and atherosclerotic lesions from Zfp148Apoe mice showed increased levels of phosphorylated p53 compared to controls, and atherosclerotic lesions contained fewer proliferating macrophages. Zfp148Apoe mice were further crossed with p53-null mice (Trp53). There was no difference in atherosclerosis between Zfp148Apoe mice and controls on a Trp53 genetic background, and there was no difference in levels of phosphorylated p53 or cell proliferation.CONCLUSIONS:: Zfp148 deficiency increases p53 activity and protects against atherosclerosis by causing proliferation arrest of lesional macrophages, suggesting that drugs targeting macrophage proliferation may be useful in the treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

von Mentzer A.,Gothenburg University
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a major cause of infectious diarrhea, produce heat-stable and/or heat-labile enterotoxins and at least 25 different colonization factors that target the intestinal mucosa. The genes encoding the enterotoxins and most of the colonization factors are located on plasmids found across diverse E. coli serogroups. Whole-genome sequencing of a representative collection of ETEC isolated between 1980 and 2011 identified globally distributed lineages characterized by distinct colonization factor and enterotoxin profiles. Contrary to current notions, these relatively recently emerged lineages might harbor chromosome and plasmid combinations that optimize fitness and transmissibility. These data have implications for understanding, tracking and possibly preventing ETEC disease. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Heister D.,University of California at San Diego | Brewer J.B.,University of California at San Diego | Magda S.,CorTechs Labs | Blennow K.,Gothenburg University | McEvoy L.K.,University of California at San Diego
Neurology | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine the ability of clinically available volumetric MRI (vMRI) and CSF biomarkers, alone or in combination with a quantitative learning measure, to predict conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We stratified 192 MCI participants into positive and negative risk groups on the basis of 1) degree of learning impairment on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test; 2) medial temporal atrophy, quantified from Food and Drug Administration-approved software for automated vMRI analysis; and 3) CSF biomarker levels. We also stratified participants based on combinations of risk factors. We computed Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for age, to assess 3-year risk of converting to AD as a function of risk group and used Kaplan-Meier analyses to determine median survival times. Results: When risk factors were examined separately, individuals testing positive showed significantly higher risk of converting to AD than individuals testing negative (hazard ratios [HR] 1.8- 4.1). The joint presence of any 2 risk factors substantially increased risk, with the combination of greater learning impairment and increased atrophy associated with highest risk (HR 29.0): 85% of patients with both risk factors converted to AD within 3 years, vs5%of those with neither. The presence of medial temporal atrophy was associated with shortest median dementia-free survival (15 months). Conclusions: Incorporating quantitative assessment of learning ability along with vMRI or CSF biomarkers in the clinical workup of MCI can provide critical information on risk of imminent conversion to AD. Copyright © 2011 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.

Fatsignndriks L.,Gothenburg University
JRAAS - Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System | Year: 2010

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is well known for its vital involvement in body fluid homeostasis and circulation. However, very little research has been devoted to the impact of this regulatory system on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. This is surprising because the GI tract is fundamental for the intake and excretion of fluid and electrolytes (and nutrients), and it accommodates a large proportion of bodily haemodynamics and host defence systems. The RAS is well expressed and active in the GI tract, although the exact roles for the key mediator angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptors in general, and the type 2 (AT2) receptor in particular, are not completely settled. There are several reports showing Ang II regulation of intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport. For example, mucosaprotective duodenal bicarbonate-rich secretion is inhibited by Ang II via type 1 (AT 1) receptor-mediated facilitation of sympathoadrenergic activity, but this secretory process can also be stimulated by Ang II via AT2 receptors. Novel data from human oesophagus and jejunum suggest that the AT 1 receptor mediates muscular contractions and that the AT2 receptor regulates epithelial functions. Data are accumulating suggesting involvement of AT1 and AT2 receptors in GI inflammation and carcinogenesis. The picture of the RAS and AT2 receptor in the GI tract is, however, far from complete. Much more basic research is needed with regard to GI pathophysiology before concluding clinical significance and potential applicability of pharmacological interferences with the RAS.

Blomberg A.,Gothenburg University
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Growth rate is an important variable and parameter in biology with a central role in evolutionary, functional genomics, and systems biology studies. In this review the pros and cons of the different technologies presently available for high-throughput measurements of growth rate are discussed. Growth rate can be measured in liquid microcultivation of individual strains, in competition between strains, as growing colonies on agar, as division of individual cells, and estimated from molecular reporters. Irrespective of methodology, statistical issues such as spatial biases and batch effects are crucial to investigate and correct for to ensure low false discovery rates. The rather low correlations between studies indicate that cross-laboratory comparison and standardization are pressing issue to assure high-quality and comparable growth-rate data. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Baczyk M.,Academy of Physical Education in Poznan | Jankowska E.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2014

The main aim of the present study was to examine to what extent long-lasting subcortical actions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be related to its presynaptic actions. This was investigated in the red nucleus, where tDCS was recently demonstrated to facilitate transmission between interpositorubral and rubrospinal neurons. Changes in the excitability of preterminal axonal branches of interpositorubral neurons close to rubrospinal neurons were investigated during and after tDCS (0.2 mA) applied over the sensorimotor cortical area in deeply anaesthetized rats and cats. As a measure of the excitability, we used the probability of antidromic activation of individual interpositorubral neurons by electrical stimuli applied in the red nucleus. Our second aim was to compare effects of weak (≤1 μA) direct current applied within the red nucleus with effects of tDCS to allow the use of local depolarization in a further analysis of mechanisms of tDCS instead of widespread and more difficult to control depolarization evoked by distant electrodes. Local cathodal polarization was found to replicate all effects of cathodal tDCS hitherto demonstrated in the rat, including long-lasting facilitation of trans-synaptically evoked descending volleys and trisynaptically evoked EMG responses in neck muscles. It also replicated all effects of anodal tDCS in the cat. In both species, it increased the excitability of preterminal axonal branches of interpositorubral neurons up to 1 h post-tDCS. Local anodal polarization evoked opposite effects. We thus show that presynaptic actions of polarizing direct current may contribute to both immediate and prolonged effects of tDCS. © 2014 The Physiological Society.

Fredriksson N.J.,Gothenburg University
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Somatic mutations in noncoding sequences are poorly explored in cancer, a rare exception being the recent identification of activating mutations in TERT regulatory DNA. Although this finding is suggestive of a general mechanism for oncogene activation, this hypothesis remains untested. Here we map somatic mutations in 505 tumor genomes across 14 cancer types and systematically screen for associations between mutations in regulatory regions and RNA-level changes. We identify recurrent promoter mutations in several genes but find that TERT mutations are exceptional in showing a strong and genome-wide significant association with increased expression. Detailed analysis of TERT across cancers shows that the strength of this association is highly variable and is strongest in copy number–stable cancers such as thyroid carcinoma. We additionally propose that TERT promoter mutations control expression of the nearby gene CLPTM1L. Our analysis provides a detailed pan-cancer view of TERT transcriptional activation but finds no clear evidence for frequent oncogenic promoter mutations beyond TERT. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Wang Y.,Napier University | Cullinane K.,Gothenburg University
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2014

The proliferation of hub-and-spoke operations in maritime container transportation has resulted in the widespread consolidation of traffic flows. Utilising liner shipping network configurations, this paper assesses the impact of freight traffic consolidation in the container port industry by exploring the spatial pattern of traffic flow movements and identifying the variety of roles that container ports play within this context. On the basis of the network concept, the spatial inequality of freight traffic consolidation is determined by the density and direction of all meaningful connections (i.e. significant flows) identified by applying Multiple Linkage Analysis (MLA) to an initial traffic flow matrix. The effectiveness of the chosen methodology is tested empirically using a sample comprising the 18 major container ports in East Asia, together with another 21 important container ports located on the East-West trading route. Based on this sample network, the spatial structure of traffic flow consolidation reveals the nature and structure of hub-and-spoke operations within a port system, the relative hub-dependence of ports, the variety of roles which individual ports play within the overall structure of inter-port interactions and the hierarchical configuration of the port industry structure. The paper concludes that MLA offers new insights into the distributional inequality of traffic flows, the spatial and economic interactions between ports and the extent to which hinterlands overlap. Furthermore, the analysis clearly shows that inter-port relationships can no longer be evaluated as isolated phenomena; any change in a specific port's competitiveness will directly impact upon the structure of the whole maritime transportation system. Port authorities and terminal operators will need, therefore, to carefully analyse and disentangle specific inter-port relationships in order to provide the most appropriate basis for their decision making. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Hasselqvist-Ax I.,Center for Resuscitation Science | Riva G.,Center for Resuscitation Science | Herlitz J.,Karolinska Institutet | Herlitz J.,University of Boras | And 10 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND Three million people in Sweden are trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Whether this training increases the frequency of bystander CPR or the survival rate among persons who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrests has been questioned. METHODS We analyzed a total of 30,381 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests witnessed in Sweden from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2011, to determine whether CPR was performed before the arrival of emergency medical services (EMS) and whether early CPR was correlated with survival. RESULTS CPR was performed before the arrival of EMS in 15,512 cases (51.1%) and was not performed before the arrival of EMS in 14,869 cases (48.9%). The 30-day survival rate was 10.5% when CPR was performed before EMS arrival versus 4.0% when CPR was not performed before EMS arrival (P<0.001). When adjustment was made for a propensity score (which included the variables of age, sex, location of cardiac arrest, cause of cardiac arrest, initial cardiac rhythm, EMS response time, time from collapse to call for EMS, and year of event), CPR before the arrival of EMS was associated with an increased 30-day survival rate (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.88 to 2.45). When the time to defibrillation in patients who were found to be in ventricular fibrillation was included in the propensity score, the results were similar. The positive correlation between early CPR and survival rate remained stable over the course of the study period. An association was also observed between the time from collapse to the start of CPR and the 30-day survival rate. CONCLUSIONS CPR performed before EMS arrival was associated with a 30-day survival rate after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest that was more than twice as high as that associated with no CPR before EMS arrival. Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Although corruption is often mentioned as an obstacle to fisheries management, its negative effects have seldom been investigated empirically in a systematic manner. This article examines the impact of corruption on regulatory compliance among South African small-scale fishermen. Results from scenario experiments with 181 participants confirm that perceived corruptibility of the enforcing authority corrodes the willingness to comply with regulations. Both grand and petty types of corruption have significant effects. Attitudes related to moral support of the regulations, perceived inclusion in the decision making leading to regulations and an individual record of law breaking all affect the willingness to comply. However, these effects are trumped by the relative size of the negative impact of corruption. These findings underline the importance of curbing corruption involving public officials in the small-scale fisheries sector. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jagers S.C.,Lulea University of Technology | Berlin D.,Gothenburg University | Jentoft S.,University of Tromso
Marine Policy | Year: 2012

Why do fishers break rules? And why do they follow them? The answers to these pertinent questions could contribute to reducing overfishing, stock decimation, environmental degradation, economic losses and community failures. This explorative paper presents findings from a nationwide survey among Swedish fishers, who were asked what, in their opinion, would justify non-compliance, why fisheries management regulations are not being respected, and what might help improve the situation. The survey was conducted to test four inducements often suggested in the literature: Fishers' compliance/non-compliance is based on (a) their own benefit, (b) whether they feel morally compelled to do one way or another, (c) whether compliance is believed to create a negative impression among peers and (d) whether they accept the justification given for introducing the rules. Among other things, the study finds that the moral motives of law-abidingness and peer group solidarity rank the highest among the reasons for compliance, that large-scale fishers are more concerned about deterrence than small- and medium-scale fishers and also that co-management experience makes fishers less inclined to accept non-compliance by fishers who seek to boost their income. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Gangappa S.N.,Gothenburg University | Botto J.F.,CONICET | Botto J.F.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2014

The B-box (BBX) proteins are a class of zinc-finger transcription factors containing a B-box domain with one or two B-box motifs, and sometimes also feature a CCT (CONSTANS, CO-like, and TOC1) domain. BBX proteins are key factors in regulatory networks controlling growth and developmental processes that include seedling photomorphogenesis, photoperiodic regulation of flowering, shade avoidance, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this review we discuss the functions of BBX proteins and the role of B-box motif in mediating transcriptional regulation and protein-protein interaction in plant signaling. In addition, we provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of their action and the evolutionary significance of their functional divergence. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Heuschele J.,Technical University of Denmark | Selander E.,Technical University of Denmark | Selander E.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2014

An increasing number of studies show the importance of chemical interactions in the aquatic environment. Our understanding of the role of chemical cues and signals in larger crustaceans has advanced in the last decades. However, for copepods, the most abundant metazoan zooplankton and essential for the functioning of the marine food web, much is still unknown.We synthesize current knowledge about chemical ecology of copepods including foraging, survival and reproduction. We also compile information on the sensory apparatus and new analytical approaches that may facilitate the identification of signal molecules. The review illustrates the importance of chemical interactions in many aspects of copepod ecology and identifies gaps in our knowledge, such as the lack of identified infochemicals and electrophysiological studies to confirm the function of sensory structures. We suggest approaches that are likely to further our understanding of the role of chemical interactions in the pelagic ecosystem. © 2014 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Charkoudian N.,U.S. Army | Wallin B.G.,Gothenburg University
Comprehensive Physiology | Year: 2014

The sympathetic nervous system is a ubiquitous, integrating controller of myriad physiological functions. In the present article, we review the physiology of sympathetic neural control of cardiovascular function with a focus on integrative mechanisms in humans. Direct measurement of sympathetic neural activity (SNA) in humans can be accomplished using microneurography, most commonly performed in the peroneal (fibular) nerve. In humans, muscle SNA (MSNA) is composed of vasoconstrictor fibers; its best-recognized characteristic is its participation in transient, moment-to-moment control of arterial blood pressure via the arterial baroreflex. This property of MSNA contributes to its typical "bursting" pattern which is strongly linked to the cardiac cycle. Recent evidence suggests that sympathetic neural mechanisms and the baroreflex have important roles in the long term control of blood pressure as well. One of the striking characteristics of MSNA is its large interindividual variability. However, in young, normotensive humans, higher MSNA is not linked to higher blood pressure due to balancing influences of other cardiovascular variables. In men, an inverse relationship between MSNA and cardiac output is a major factor in this balance, whereas in women, beta-adrenergic vasodilation offsets the vasoconstrictor/pressor effects of higher MSNA. As people get older (and in people with hypertension) higher MSNA is more likely to be linked to higher blood pressure. Skin SNA (SSNA) can also be measured in humans, although interpretation of SSNA signals is complicated by multiple types of neurons involved (vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, sudomotor and pilomotor). In addition to blood pressure regulation, the sympathetic nervous system contributes to cardiovascular regulation during numerous other reflexes, including those involved in exercise, thermoregulation, chemoreflex regulation, and responses to mental stress. © 2000-2014 by John Wiley & Sons.

Naredla R.R.,Northern Illinois University | Zheng C.,Northern Illinois University | Nilsson Lill S.O.,Gothenburg University | Klumpp D.A.,Northern Illinois University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

This Article presents the results from studies related to the chemistry of tricationic superelectrophiles. A series of triaryl methanols were ionized in Brønsted superacids, and the corresponding tricationic intermediates were formed. The trications are found to participate in two types of reactions; both are characteristic of highly charged organic cations. One set of reactions occurs through charge migration. A second set of reactions occurs through deprotonation of an unusually acidic site on the tricationic species. One of the tricationic intermediates has been directly observed by low temperature NMR spectroscopy. These highly charged ions and their reactions have also been studied using density functional theory calculations. As a result of charge migration, electron density at a carbocation site is found to increase with progression from monocationic to pentacationic structures. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Tian B.-X.,National University of Ireland | Eriksson L.A.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2012

Oxidosqualene-lanosterol cyclase (OSC) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. The catalytic mechanism and the product specificity of OSC have herein been studied using QM/MM calculations. According to our calculations, the protonation of the epoxide ring of oxidosqualene is rate-limiting. Wild-type OSC (which generates lanosterol), and the mutants H232S (which generates parkeol) and H232T (which generates protosta-12,24-dien-3-β-ol) were modeled, in order to explain the product specificity thereof. We show that the product specificity of OSC at the hydride/methyl-shifting stage is unlikely to be achieved by the stabilization of the cationic intermediates, as the precursor of lanosterol is in fact not the most stable cationic intermediate for wild-type OSC. The energy barriers for the product-determining conversions are instead found to be related to the product specificity of different OSC mutants, and we thus suggest that the product specificity of OSC is likely to be controlled by kinetics, rather than thermodynamics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Albertsson D.,Gothenburg University
BMC musculoskeletal disorders | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: One in four Swedish women suffers a hip fracture yielding high morbidity and mortality. We wanted to revalidate a 4-item clinical risk score and evaluate a portable heel bone mineral density (BMD) technique regarding hip and fragility fracture risk among elderly women. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study we used clinical risk factors from a baseline questionnaire and heel BMD to predict a two-year hip and fragility fracture outcome for women, in a fracture preventive program. Calcaneal heel BMD was measured by portable dual X-ray laser absorptiometry (DXL) and compared to hip BMD, measured with stationary dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique. RESULTS: Seven women suffered hip fracture and 14 women fragility fracture/s (at hip, radius, humerus and pelvis) among 285 women; 60% having heel BMD or=80 years, weight <60 kg, prior fragility fracture, and impaired rise-up ability. Women having 2-4 risk factors showed odds ratio (OR) for hip fracture of 5.9 and fragility fracture of 4.4. High risk group hip fracture risk was 2.8% annually compared to 0.5% for the low risk majority (69%). Heel BMD showed hip fracture OR of 3.1 and fragility fracture OR of 2.6 per SD decrease. For 30 DXA assessed participants mean hip BMD at -2.5 SD level corresponded to a lower BMD at the heel. Five of seven hip fractures occurred within a small risk group of 32 women, identified by high FRAMO Index + prior fragility fracture + heel T-score

Holmberg J.,Gothenburg University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

Adkins's result for the time component of the renormalized vertex operator in Coulomb-gauge QED is separated according to its tensor structure and some of the Feynman parameter integrals are carried out analytically, yielding a form suited for numerical bound-state QED calculations. This modified form is applied to the evaluation of the self-energy shift to the binding energy in hydrogenic ions of high nuclear charge. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Chaplin J.E.,Gothenburg University
Hormone Research in Paediatrics | Year: 2011

Measuring a child's quality of life (QoL) is a complex dynamic, involving consideration of both present circumstances and future limitations. In relation to short stature, health-related QoL, with its emphasis on current health status, may be inadequate to describe QoL in children with treatable growth problems. Growth problems concern not only current physical health (being) and adaptation to the physical and social environment (belonging) but also what will happen in the future as a consequence of growth problems and the possibility of achieving the potential of the individual (becoming). These three aspects of QoL should be included in growth-related QoL in order to reflect the reduced QoL resulting from continued short stature and the potential benefit of growth enhancement. Future QoL instruments for growth-related problems should incorporate aspects of 'becoming' and the long-term consequences of growth improvement for the individual. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Karlsson N.G.,Gothenburg University | Karlsson N.G.,University of Queensland | McGuckin M.A.,University of Queensland
Glycobiology | Year: 2012

The O-linked glycosylation of the main acidic high-molecular-weight glycoprotein from ascites fluid from patients with ovarian cancer were analyzed. The O-linked oligosaccharides were shown to consist of mainly highly sialylated core 1 and 2 structures with a smaller amount of sulfated core 2 structures. These structures were shown to be able to be further extended into small keratan sulfate (KS)-type oligosaccharides with up to four N-acetyllactosamine units. Proteomic studies of the acidic fraction of ascites fluid from patients with ovarian cancer showed that this fraction was enriched in proteoglycans. Among them, lumican, agrin, versican and dystroglycans were potential candidates, with threonine-and serine-rich domains that could carry a significant amount of O-linked glycosylation, including also the O-linked KS. Glycomic analysis using liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) also showed that the disialic acid NeuAc-NeuAc-was frequently found as the terminating structure on the O-linked core 1 and 2 oligosaccharides from one ascites sample. Also, a small amount of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-associated O-linked fucose structure Gal-GlcNAc-Fucitol was detected with and without sialic acid in the LC-MS/MS analysis. Candidate proteins containing O-linked fucose were suggested to be proteoglycan-type molecules containing the O-linked fucose EGF consensus domain. © 2012 The Author.

Lofgren A.,Gothenburg University | Muller A.,University of Zurich
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2010

This study undertakes a decomposition analysis to identify the drivers of carbon dioxide emissions change in the Swedish business and industry sectors 1993-2006. On aggregate, energy intensity decreased, but this does not seem to have been very important for reducing emissions. Rather, fuel substitution seems to have been more important, which is in line with findings from the decomposition literature on Sweden. However, at the sectoral level, we find no clear pattern of the effect of fuel substitution and energy intensity on emissions. We also draw some methodological conclusions: Decomposition analysis should be undertaken at the most disaggregate level possible; assessing decomposition results by summing results over several time periods leads to biased results; and decomposition analysis should not be based only on some initial and final years of a long time period. Furthermore, we address the problem of double counting energy flows in decomposition analysis of aggregate effects when the energy sector is included, and point out potential problems related to output measured in monetary terms. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sunday J.M.,Simon Fraser University | Sunday J.M.,University of British Columbia | Calosi P.,University of Plymouth | Dupont S.,Gothenburg University | And 4 more authors.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Ocean acidification poses a global threat to biodiversity, yet species might have the capacity to adapt through evolutionary change. Here we summarize tools available to determine species' capacity for evolutionary adaptation to future ocean change and review the progress made to date with respect to ocean acidification. We focus on two key approaches: measuring standing genetic variation within populations and experimental evolution. We highlight benefits and challenges of each approach and recommend future research directions for understanding the modulating role of evolution in a changing ocean. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Carlsson F.,Gothenburg University
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2010

We discuss the design of stated preference (SP) surveys in light of findings in behavioral economics such as context dependence of preferences, learning, and differences between revealed and normative preferences. More specifically, we discuss four different areas: (1) revealed and normative preferences, (2) learning and constructed preferences, (3) context dependence, and (4) hypothetical bias. We argue that SP methods would benefit from adapting to some of the findings in behavioral economics, but also that behavioral economics may gain insights from studying SP methods. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Coria J.,Gothenburg University | Coria J.,Diego Portales University | Calfucura E.,Diego Portales University | Calfucura E.,McGill University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

A large part of the literature analyzing the links between biodiversity conservation and community development assumes that nature-based tourism managed by indigenous communities will result not only in conservation of natural resources but also in increased development. In practice, ecotourism has often failed to deliver the expected benefits to indigenous communities due to a combination of factors, including shortages in the endowments of human, financial and social capital within the community, lack of mechanisms for a fair distribution of the economic benefits of ecotourism, and land insecurity. Based on a review of experiences, we analyze the complex interaction among the factors shaping the success and failure of ecotourism experiences in indigenous communities, and we stress the need for a better approach to enhance the indigenous communities' livelihood possibilities coming from ecotourism, as well as to promote land tenure and communities' empowerment. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Binde P.,Gothenburg University
Addiction | Year: 2014

Aim: To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. Method: A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Results: Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. Conclusions: The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Sterner T.,Gothenburg University
Nature | Year: 2015

An attempt to reconcile the effects of temperature on economic productivity at the micro and macro levels produces predictions of global economic losses due to climate change that are much higher than previous estimates. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Lundh C.,Gothenburg University
Scandinavian Economic History Review | Year: 2012

One common finding of studies of industrialising economies in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is the existence of an urban-rural nominal wage gap. For the analysis of its causes and context it is however essential to know the extent to which the gap is due to urban-rural differences in payments in kind, cost of living and consumption patterns. Only a few studies have tried to estimate the real urban-rural wage gap though. This paper belongs to this stream of literature, aiming to develop a method for the estimation of the real wage gap given the kind of data available in the Swedish context, and to use it to estimate the real wage gap for Malmö County in 1881-1930. The main result is that the gap is reduced to about one-half of its nominal size when differences in payments in kind, cost of living and consumption patterns are accounted for. The real wage gap was still substantial though, and the trend was increasing. While urban real wages were ranging from 10% less to 40% more than agrarian wages in the nineteenth century, urban real wages were 30-100% above agrarian wages in the 1920s. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Cossu R.,University of Toronto | Wells M.G.,University of Toronto | Whlin A.K.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2010

Large-scale turbidity currents in submarine channels often show a significant asymmetry in the heights of their levee banks. In the Northern Hemisphere, there are many observations of the right-hand channel levee being noticeably higher than the left-hand levee, a phenomenon that is usually attributed to the effect of Coriolis forces upon turbidity currents. This article presents results from an analog model that documents the influence of Coriolis forces on the dynamics of gravity currents flowing in straight submarine channels. The observations of the transverse velocity structure, downstream velocity, and interface slope show good agreement with a theory that incorporates Ekman boundary layer dynamics. Coriolis forces will be important for most large-scale turbidity currents and need to be explicitly modeled when the Rossby number of these flows (defined as Ro = U/Wf, where U is the mean downstream velocity, W is the channel width, and f is the Coriolis parameter defined as f = 2Ω sin(θ), with Ω being the Earth's rotation rate and θ being the latitude) is less than order 1. When Ro ≪ 1, the flow is substantially slower than a nonrotating flow with the same density contrast. The secondary flow field consists of frictionally induced Ekman transports across the channel in the benthic and interfacial boundary layers and a return flow in the interior. The cross-channel velocities are of the order of 10% of the along-channel velocities. The sediment transport associated with such transverse flow patterns should influence the evolution of submarine channel levee systems. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hellman J.,Gothenburg University
Disaster Prevention and Management | Year: 2015

Purpose – Using Anthropological methodology to achieve an understanding from a “local point of view” the purpose of this paper is to explore how safety is established in what clearly is, at least from the outside, a risky everyday. Floods are a recurring problem for people in Jakarta. However, for poor families living on river banks in the city center the floods also constitute a necessary condition to create a viable livelihood. The floods keep land grabbers and urban developers at bay and keep costs for living low. For the families living in these areas there is a constant “trade off” between safety and risk taking with the purpose to create a living. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology applied in the paper is conventional Anthropological field work. The material is collected through participant observation and formal interviews. The data produced are of an experience near quality which is analyzed in terms of how it addresses and relate to the infrastructural policies of Jakarta and the specific project of normalizing the river Ciliwung. Findings – The fact that people perceive floods as normal part of everyday life does not mean that they are unproblematic. Furthermore, the flood mitigation programs that authorities claim are “normalizing” the river system actually increase riverbank settler’s problems. Research limitations/implications – Additional long-term field work on conditions for political mobilization inside and outside the formal political system in urban Jakarta is needed to better understand why organized resistance seldom materializes and how to strengthen the bargaining capacity of local communities in urban planning processes. Social implications – As flood mitigation programs demand relocation of people, the argument forwarded in the paper is that general social and economic security systems have to be strengthened, enhancing capacity for mobility, before instigating flood mitigation programs. Originality/value – Studies of disasters and risk often portray local subjects as either victims or losers. In this paper a more nuanced picture is presented. Vulnerability as well as livelihood is related to floods. The paradoxical situation is that people’s vulnerability as well as safety is related to their embeddedness in local socio-economic networks. People are dependent on specific networks and a specific space to produce a livelihood. However, the same embeddedness makes their livelihood vulnerable to the demands of being relocated. If relocated their networks are scattered. Just offering alternative living space and economical remuneration for lost property is not sufficient to replace a lost livelihood. Relocation without a new form for subsistence economy creates new forms of vulnerability. Hence, relocation rather than flood is perceived as the main danger by people living on river banks in Jakarta. © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Bayat A.,University College London | Johannesson H.,Gothenburg University | Bose S.,University College London | Sodano P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Sodano P.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

A quantum phase transition may occur in the ground state of a system at zero temperature when a controlling field or interaction is varied. The resulting quantum fluctuations which trigger the transition produce scaling behaviour of various observables, governed by universal critical exponents. A particularly interesting class of such transitions appear in systems with quantum impurities where a non-extensive term in the free energy becomes singular at the critical point. Curiously, the notion of a conventional order parameter that exhibits scaling at the critical point is generically missing in these systems. Here we explore the possibility to use the Schmidt gap, which is an observable obtained from the entanglement spectrum, as an order parameter. A case study of the two-impurity Kondo model confirms that the Schmidt gap faithfully captures the scaling behaviour by correctly predicting the critical exponent of the dynamically generated length scale at the critical point. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Alstermark B.,Umea University | Pettersson L.-G.,Gothenburg University
Frontiers in Neurology | Year: 2014

The corticospinal system is a major motor pathway in the control of skilled voluntary movements such as reaching and grasping. It has developed considerably phylogenetically to reach a peak in humans. Because rodents possess advanced forelimb movements that can be used for reaching and grasping food, it is commonly considered that the corticospinal tract (CST) is of major importance for this control also in rodents. A close homology to primate reaching and grasping has been described but with obvious limitations as to independent digit movements, which are lacking in rodents. Nevertheless, it was believed that there are, as in the primate, direct cortico-motoneuronal connections. Later, it was shown that there are no such connections. The fastest excitatory pathway is disynaptic, mediated via cortico-reticulospinal neurons and in the spinal cord the excitation is mainly polysynaptically mediated via segmental interneurons. Earlier behavioral studies have aimed at investigating the role of the CST by using pyramidotomy in the brainstem. However, in addition to interrupting the CST, a pyramidal transection abolishes the input to reticulospinal neurons. It is therefore not possible to conclude if the deficits after pyramidotomy result from interruption of the CST or the input to reticulospinal neurons or both. We have re-investigated the role of the CST by examining the effect of a CST lesion in the C1-C2 spinal segments on the success rate of reaching and grasping. This lesion spares the cortico-reticulospinal pathway. In contrast to investigations using pyramidal transections, the present study did not demonstrate marked deficits in reaching and grasping. We propose that the difference in results can be explained by the intact cortical input to reticulospinal neurons in our study and thus implicate an important role of this pathway in the control of reaching and grasping in the rat. © 2014 Alstermark and Pettersson.

The recent questioning of the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is partly based on the observation that approximately half of company-sponsored trials have failed to reveal a significant difference between active drug and placebo. Most of these have applied the Hamilton depression rating scale to assess symptom severity, the sum score for its 17 items (HDRS-17-sum) serving as effect parameter. In this study, we examined whether the negative outcomes of many SSRI trials may be partly caused by the use of this frequently questioned measure of response. We undertook patient-level post-hoc analyses of 18 industry-sponsored placebo-controlled trials regarding paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline or fluoxetine, and including in total 6669 adults with major depression, the aim being to assess what the outcome would have been if the single item depressed mood (rated 0–4) had been used as a measure of efficacy. In total, 32 drug-placebo comparisons were reassessed. While 18 out of 32 comparisons (56%) failed to separate active drug from placebo at week 6 with respect to reduction in HDRS-17-sum, only 3 out of 32 comparisons (9%) were negative when depressed mood was used as an effect parameter (P<0.001). The observation that 29 out of 32 comparisons detected an antidepressant signal from the tested SSRI suggests the effect of these drugs to be more consistent across trials than previously assumed. Further, the frequent use of the HDRS-17-sum as an effect parameter may have distorted the current view on the usefulness of SSRIs and hampered the development of novel antidepressants.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 28 April 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.53. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Irwin D.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Kopp Z.S.,Pfizer | Agatep B.,Pfizer | Milsom I.,Gothenburg University | Abrams P.,Bristol Urological Institute
BJU International | Year: 2011

Objective • To estimate and predict worldwide and regional prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), overactive bladder (OAB), urinary incontinence (UI) and LUTS suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction (LUTS/BOO) in 2008, 2013 and 2018 based on current International Continence Society symptom definitions in adults aged ≥20 years. Patients and Methods • Numbers and prevalence of individuals affected by each condition were calculated with an estimation model using gender- and age-stratified prevalence data from the EPIC study along with gender- and age-stratified worldwide and regional population estimates from the US Census Bureau International Data Base. Results • An estimated 45.2%, 10.7%, 8.2% and 21.5% of the 2008 worldwide population (4.3 billion) was affected by at least one LUTS, OAB, UI and LUTS/BOO, respectively. By 2018, an estimated 2.3 billion individuals will be affected by at least one LUTS (18.4% increase), 546 million by OAB (20.1%), 423 million by UI (21.6%) and 1.1 billion by LUTS/BOO (18.5%). • The regional burden of these conditions is estimated to be greatest in Asia, with numbers of affected individuals expected to increase most in the developing regions of Africa (30.1-31.1% increase across conditions, 2008-2018), South America (20.5-24.7%) and Asia (19.7-24.4%). Conclusions • This model suggests that LUTS, OAB, UI and LUTS/BOO are highly prevalent conditions worldwide. Numbers of affected individuals are projected to increase with time, with the greatest increase in burden anticipated in developing regions. • There are important worldwide public-health and clinical management implications to be considered over the next decade to effectively prevent and manage these conditions. © 2010 The Authors. BJU International.

The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires—Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)—designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10-7 in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10-5. Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one potential target in the treatment of aggressive antisocial behavior.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 22 September 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.144. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Millqvist E.,Gothenburg University
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

After exclusion of diverse pulmonary illnesses, the remaining explanations for chronic cough include medication with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and post-nasal drip. Different clinics report shifting frequencies for both the causes of chronic cough and the success of treatment. However, after all evaluations, differential diagnosis still leaves a group of patients with unexplained cough. This unexplained cough is also known as chronic idiopathic cough (CIC), though there are widely varying opinions as to its existence. Among patients previously diagnosed with CIC, a subgroup has been identified with both upper and lower airway symptoms, including cough induced by odours and chemicals, and with increased cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to stimulate the airway sensory nerves. A suggested explanation for this condition is a hyperreactivity of the sensory nerves of the entire airways, and hence the condition is known as sensory hyperreactivity (SHR). SHR affects more than 6% of the adult population in Sweden. It is a longstanding condition, and is clearly associated with significant social and psychological impacts. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Persson I.,Gothenburg University | Savulescu J.,Oxford Uehiro Center for Practical Ethics
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy | Year: 2010

In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens. Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens. In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research and therapy should make humans in the biological sense more human in the moral sense, even if they cease to be human in the biological sense. This serves valuable biomedical ends like the promotion of health and well-being, for if humans do not become more moral, civilization is threatened. It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens. © The Author 2010.

Nowrouzian F.L.,Gothenburg University | Oswald E.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Oswald E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2012

The pks genomic island found in Escherichia coli strains of phylogenetic group B2 encodes colibactin, a polyketide-peptide genotoxin that causes DNA double-strand breaks. We investigated the relationship between carriage of the pks island and the capacity of E. coli strains to persist in the gut microbiota of 130 Swedish infants, who were followed from birth to 18 months of age. Long-term colonizers were significantly more likely to have the pks island than either intermediate-term colonizers or transient strains, which suggests that the pks island contributes to the pronounced gut-colonizing capacity of group B2 strains. Long-term persistence in the colon of pks island-containing E. coli strains may be associated with the induction of genomic mutations in the host intestine. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Cornelis G.,Gothenburg University
Environmental Science: Nano | Year: 2015

Developments in hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) have not been met with proper fate descriptors to calculate travel distances and the bioavailable concentration of ENP. Three possible fate descriptors for ENP in soils are compared - batch partitioning coefficients (Kd values), batch retention coefficients (Kr values) and column attachment efficiency - in view of both technical and practical aspects of environmental risk assessments of ENP. Kd values are deemed not appropriate fate descriptors for ENP because the equilibrium assumption is not valid. The kinetic interpretation of batch studies offered by Kr values bears a link to relevant ENP processes in the environment, but interpretation may be confounded by the conditions of high shear during batch tests complicating direct use in transport or bioavailability calculations. Column experiments are, to some extent, also operationally defined and require a more experimentally dedicated approach that does not necessarily lead to a widely carrying physical parameter. Future efforts should therefore be investigated in development of tests that strike a better balance between operational simplicity and technical accuracy. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Charalampakis G.,Gothenburg University | Belibasakis G.N.,Institute of Oral Biology
Virulence | Year: 2015

Osseointegrated dental implants are now a wellestablished treatment option in the armament of restorative dentistry. These technologically advanced devices are designed to functionally and esthetically replace missing teeth. Despite the revolutionary advances that implants have incurred, they have also provided the oral cavity with new artificial surfaces prone to the formation of oral biofilms, similarly to the hard tissue surfaces of natural teeth. Biofilm formation on the implant surface can trigger the inflammatory destruction of the peri-implant tissue, in what is known as peri-implantitis. The mixed microbial flora of periimplant infections resembles that of periodontal infections, with some notable differences. These are likely to expand with the ever increasing application of metagenomics and metatrascriptomics in the analysis of oral ecology. This review presents the wealth of knowledge we have gained from microbiological methods used in the characterization of periimplant microflora and sheds light over potential new benefits, as well as limitations, of the new sequencing technology in our understanding of peri-implant disease pathogenesis. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Haast R.A.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Gustafson D.R.,Gothenburg University | Gustafson D.R.,New York University | Kiliaan A.J.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Sex differences in stroke are observed across epidemiologic studies, pathophysiology, treatments, and outcomes. These sex differences have profound implications for effective prevention and treatment and are the focus of this review. Epidemiologic studies reveal a clear age-by-sex interaction in stroke prevalence, incidence, and mortality. While premenopausal women experience fewer strokes than men of comparable age, stroke rates increase among postmenopausal women compared with age-matched men. This postmenopausal phenomenon, in combination with living longer, are reasons for women being older at stroke onset and suffering more severe strokes. Thus, a primary focus of stroke prevention has been based on sex steroid hormone-dependent mechanisms. Sex hormones affect different (patho)physiologic functions of the cerebral circulation. Clarifying the impact of sex hormones on cerebral vasculature using suitable animal models is essential to elucidate male-female differences in stroke pathophysiology and development of sex-specific treatments. Much remains to be learned about sex differences in stroke as anatomic and genetic factors may also contribute, revealing its multifactorial nature. In addition, the aftermath of stroke appears to be more adverse in women than in men, again based on older age at stroke onset, longer prehospital delays, and potentially, differences in treatment. © 2012 ISCBFM.

Lindkvist B.,Gothenburg University | Lindkvist B.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is an important cause of maldigestion and a major complication in chronic pancreatitis. Normal digestion requires adequate stimulation of pancreatic secretion, sufficient production of digestive enzymes by pancreatic acinar cells, a pancreatic duct system without significant outflow obstruction and adequate mixing of the pancreatic juice with ingested food. Failure in any of these steps may result in pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, which leads to steatorrhea, weight loss and malnutrition-related complications, such as osteoporosis. Methods evaluating digestion, such as fecal fat quantification and the 13C-mixed triglycerides test, are the most accurate tests for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, but the probability of the diagnosis can also be estimated based on symptoms, signs of malnutrition in blood tests, fecal elastase 1 levels and signs of morphologically severe chronic pancreatitis on imaging. Treatment for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency includes support to stop smoking and alcohol consumption, dietary consultation, enzyme replacement therapy and a structured follow-up of nutritional status and the effect of treatment. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is administered in the form of enteric-coated minimicrospheres during meals. The dose should be in proportion to the fat content of the meal, usually 40-50000 lipase units per main meal, and half the dose is required for a snack. In cases that do not respond to initial treatment, the doses can be doubled, and proton inhibitors can be added to the treatment. This review focuses on current concepts of the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. © 2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.

Wernstedt Asterholm I.,Touchstone Diabetes Center | Wernstedt Asterholm I.,Gothenburg University | Tao C.,Touchstone Diabetes Center | Morley T.S.,Touchstone Diabetes Center | And 5 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2014

Chronic inflammation constitutes an important link between obesity and its pathophysiological sequelae. In contrast to the belief that inflammatory signals exert a fundamentally negative impact on metabolism, we show that proinflammatory signaling in the adipocyte is in fact required for proper adipose tissue remodeling and expansion. Three mouse models with an adipose tissue-specific reduction in proinflammatory potential were generated that display a reduced capacity for adipogenesis in vivo, while the differentiation potential is unaltered in vitro. Upon high-fat-diet exposure, the expansion of visceral adipose tissue is prominently affected. This is associated with decreased intestinal barrier function, increased hepatic steatosis, and metabolic dysfunction. An impaired local proinflammatory response in the adipocyte leads to increased ectopic lipid accumulation, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation is therefore an adaptive response that enables safe storage of excess nutrients and contributes to a visceral depot barrier that effectively filters gut-derived endotoxin. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Carbohydrates (glycans) and their conjugates with proteins and lipids contribute significantly to many biological processes. That makes these compounds important targets to be detected, monitored and identified. The identification of the carbohydrate content in their conjugates with proteins and lipids (glycoforms) is often a challenging task. Most of the conventional instrumental analytical techniques are time-consuming and require tedious sample pretreatment and utilising various labeling agents. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been intensively developed during last two decades and has received the increasing attention for different applications, from the real-time monitoring of affinity bindings to biosensors. SPR does not require any labels and is capable of direct measurement of biospecific interaction occurring on the sensing surface. This review provides a critical comparison of modern analytical instrumental techniques with SPR in terms of their analytical capabilities to detect carbohydrates, their conjugates with proteins and lipids and to study the carbohydrate-specific bindings. A few selected examples of the SPR approaches developed during 2004-2011 for the biosensing of glycoforms and for glycan-protein affinity studies are comprehensively discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Holmlid L.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Cluster Science | Year: 2012

A review is given of experimental studies of clusters of Rydberg matter (RM) with applications. This is a metallic type of matter with angular momentum l ≥ 1 for the conduction band electrons. The atoms in RM can be one-electron atoms like K, H and D which are most used in the laboratory, or two-electron atoms like He. Mixed clusters of one-electron atoms are easily studied. This material is stable in a vacuum both in the laboratory and in interstellar space. The large stability is valid for the lowest excitation level for each atom type, at l = 1 for H(1) which is the lowest energy state for protium. Typical clusters of RM are planar with magic numbers 7, 19, 37, 61 and 91. Small planar cluster can form stacks of clusters. Close-packed clusters exist for H(1) with magic numbers 4, 6, and 12, and chain clusters mainly formed by D-D "beads" are common for D(1). Several methods to study RM clusters are reviewed. Stimulated spectroscopy methods like stimulated emission and stimulated Raman are emphasized. Cluster properties like large polarizability and giant magnetic dipoles are described. Results on rotational levels, vibrational levels and electronic levels are reviewed. The observational evidence for RM clusters in space is discussed in relation to the fundamental experimental studies of the specific cluster properties. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Elam M.J.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2015

Background: E-cigarettes are currently hotly debated as threatening to re-normalize cigarette smoking and make nicotine addiction publicly acceptable once more. In this paper I contextualize the e-cigarette controversy in light of longstanding disagreements about the meaning and significance of nicotine replacement technologies. A concerted effort to develop such technologies first emerged in Sweden at the end of the 1960s, embodying a vital tension. Two competing 'scripts' vied to influence and shape innovative designs. On the one hand, Nicorette chewing gum was conceived as a therapeutic device aiding smoking cessation. On the other hand, it was cast as a cigarette substitute designed to deliver nicotine 'in the right way', thereby advancing the creative destruction of the combustible cigarette as a drug delivery platform. Method: Drawing on historical and archival research I outline how these two alternative innovation scripts started out entangled with each other before becoming disentangled, leading to the eventual stabilization of Nicorette gum as a therapeutic product to be deployed in the treatment of smoking as a dependence disorder. Results and Conclusion: While a post-therapeutic future for nicotine replacement was charted by Michael Russell at the beginning of the 1990s, it is only with the rise of e-cigarettes after 2003 that such a future has started to verge on reality. E-cigarettes can be seen as resurrecting the historically marginalized script of nicotine replacement as dedicated to righting nicotine consumption and freeing it from the wrongful drug delivery of the modern cigarette. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Croy I.,Gothenburg University | Maboshe W.,University of Dresden Medical School | Hummel T.,University of Dresden Medical School
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2013

Objective: The hedonic value of odors is reflected in chemosensory evoked potentials with more salient unpleasant odors being processed differently from pleasant odors. However, it is not known if this effect is stable over time. It was examined if chemosensory evoked potentials towards pleasant and unpleasant odors change with repeated presentation. Methods: 42 participants received two pleasant (Peach and PEA) and one unpleasant (H2S) intensity matched odors in a block design. Intensity and pleasantness were rated after each presentation. Subjective ratings, as well as N1 and P2 of the first stimulus of each block were compared with the two following stimuli of each block. Results: Early and late components of the chemosensory evoked potentials had shorter latencies in response to the unpleasant H2S compared to PEA and Peach. Pleasantness ratings for H2S increased with repeated presentation but were far below neutral even for the third stimulus in a row. In line with this, for H2S only, the P2 amplitude diminished with repeated presentation. Conclusion: We assume that unpleasant stimuli catch more attention first hand. However, repeated presentation leads to reduced emotional salience of unpleasant stimuli only, which is mirrored in a decrease of neuronal activation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

Kyllerman M.,Gothenburg University
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2013

Angelman syndrome combines severe mental retardation, epilepsy, ataxia, speech impairment, and unique behavior with happy demeanor, laughing, short attention span, hyperactivity, and sleep disturbance. Occurrence has been calculated at 1:20. 000 to 1:12. 000 constituting about 6% of all children with severe mental retardation and epilepsy. The physical " prototype" includes microcephaly with flat neck, fair skin and hair, wide-spaced teeth, and open mouth with tongue protrusion.Epilepsy is characterized by atypical absences, erratic myoclonus, and occasional tonic-clonic seizures. EEG demonstrates high-amplitude 2-3. Hz delta activity with spike and slow-wave discharges and sleep-activated generalized epileptiform discharges. Sodium valproate, benzodiazepines, and priacetam are frequently used and effective. Development is generally slow, the majority attaining independent walking in the first 2.5-6 years. Vocabulary is limited to a few single words with superior speech and object apprehension. The condition is due to a lack of expression of the UBE3A gene on chromosome 15q. Maternal deletions of 15q11-13 produce the most pronounced phenotype (65-70% of probands), uniparental disomy and imprinting center mutations (10%), and UBE3A point mutations (11%) produce milder phenotypes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Devries K.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mak J.Y.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Bacchus L.J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Child J.C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2013

Background:Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men.Methods and Findings:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I2 = 50.4%, pheterogeneity = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I2 = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV.Conclusions:In women, IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms with incident IPV. IPV was associated with incident suicide attempts. In men, few studies were conducted, but evidence suggested IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms. There was no clear evidence of association with suicide attempts.Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2013 Devries et al.

Pleijel H.,Gothenburg University
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011

This study considered effects of reduced [O3] on wheat yield. Open-top chamber charcoal filtered air treatments were compared with non-filtered treatments for field-grown wheat. 30 experiments meeting requirements were found, representing nine countries in North America, Europe and Asia. 26 experiments reported improved yield and 4 experiments reduced yield by filtration, a significant positive effect. Average yield improvement was 9%. Average daytime [O3] was reduced by filtration from 35 to 13 nmol mol-1. Filtration efficiency was 63% for O3 and 56% for SO2. For NOx it was observed that NO2 was reduced and NO increased by filtration. Thus, filters convert NO2 to NO. Most experiments reported low or very low [SO2] and [NO x]. Thus, O3 can be concluded to be the main phytotoxic component in the experiments. Elevated [NO2] was observed in one experiment. The conclusion is that current [O3] over large parts of the world adversely affect wheat yield. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nystrom T.,Gothenburg University
Current Biology | Year: 2013

During yeast cytokinesis an aged mother cell gives rise to an immaculate daughter cell. A new study now demonstrates that this rejuvenation encompasses a novel Sir2- and actin-cable-dependent filtering process that prevents feeble mitochondria from entering the daughter cell. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ranjbar V.,Gothenburg University
Violence and victims | Year: 2013

Twenty-seven adult females' responses from an online qualitative questionnaire were analyzed to explore their views on being recovered from an experience of sexual assault, and identify aspects of their postassault health service encounters that facilitated or impeded their recovery process. Being recovered involved accepting the experience, being freed from negative states, regaining control and trust, and receiving help from and being believed by others. Participants predominantly reported negative experiences with health services. Factors perceived as impeding the recovery process include health professionals' inexperience in dealing with survivors of sexual assault, adhering to rape myths and stereotypes, and disrespectful or inconsiderate treatment of survivors. We argue that these postassault negative experiences revictimized survivors. Addressing these factors may reduce revictimization, facilitate recovery, and decrease assaulted women's long-term use of health services.

Bjorling A.,University of Alicante | Ahlberg E.,Gothenburg University | Feliu J.M.,University of Alicante
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2010

Electrochemical oxygen adsorption/desorption below monolayer level leads to a disordering of platinum single-crystal surfaces vicinal to the (1 1 1) plane. The kinetics can be described by means of a consecutive reaction from (1 1 1)-terrace sites to (1 1 0)-defect sites, in which (1 0 0)-defects act as intermediates. The first oxidation of the electrode reflects independent contributions from terrace and step sites, the latter being structure sensitive. Oxygen adsorption charges amount to a mean value of one electron per step site. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Engsbro A.L.,Copenhagen University | Simren M.,Gothenburg University | Bytzer P.,Copenhagen University
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Background In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtyping is used in research and clinical practice. Knowledge of subtype stability is needed for proper design of trials and treatment strategies. Aims To evaluate the stability of Rome III IBS subtypes over time and to determine the optimal time period for prospective, diary-based subtyping. Methods Rome III IBS patients aged 18-70 years enrolled in two identical, randomised, placebo-controlled trials of probiotics, were included. No difference was found on stool pattern, thus patients were analysed as one group. Patients scored defaecations according to Bristol Stool Form Scale for 10 weeks. IBS subtypes were determined for all 1- and 2-week periods. Subtype distribution and stool pattern over time were determined. The proportions of patients having the same subtype all weeks (stable patients) or having a predominant subtype (same subtype ≥60% of time) were determined. Results A total of 126 patients, mean age 46 ± 15 years, 72% women were included. Subtype distribution was similar over time with IBS with constipation, IBS with diarrhoea and IBS unsubtyped constituting one-third of the population each. Even though only 18-35% had the same subtype all weeks, the majority of patients had the same subtype for ≥60% of time (82-98%). Sixty-nine per cent had the same predominant and baseline subtypes. Two-week data increased the proportion of stable patients, of patients with a predominant subtype, and of patients who had similar baseline and predominant subtype. Conclusions Most IBS patients change subtype over time. However, an underlying stool pattern stability was demonstrated in the majority of patients. To increase stability, we recommend 2-week data for IBS subtyping. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bjorck S.,Regionens Hus | Palaszewski B.,Regionens Hus | Friberg L.,Karolinska Institutet | Bergfeldt L.,Gothenburg University
Stroke | Year: 2013

Background and Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. This study aims to update the knowledge about AF and associated stroke risk and benefits of anticoagulation. Methods: We extracted data from the hospital, specialized outpatient, and primary healthcare and drug registries in a Swedish region with 1.56 million residents. We identified all individuals who had received an AF diagnosis during the previous 5 years; all stroke events during 2010; and patients with AF aged ≥50 years who had received warfarin during 2009. Results: AF had been diagnosed in 38 446 subjects who were alive at the beginning of 2010 (prevalence of 3.2% in the adult [≥20 years] population); ≈46% received warfarin therapy. In 2010, there were 4565 ischemic stroke events and 861 intracranial hemorrhages. AF had been diagnosed in 38% of ischemic events (≥50% among those aged ≥80 years) and in 23% of intracranial hemorrhages. An AF diagnosis was often lacking in hospital discharge records after stroke events. Warfarin therapy was associated with an odds ratio of 0.50 (confidence interval, 0.43-0.57) for ischemic stroke and, despite an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage, an odds ratio of 0.57 (confidence interval, 0.50-0.64) for the overall risk for stroke. Conclusions: AF is more common than present guidelines suggest. The attributable risk of AF for ischemic stroke increases with age and is close to that of hypertension in individuals aged ≥80 years. Because a majority of patients with AF with increased risk for stroke had not received anticoagulation therapy, there is a large potential for improvement. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

McMahon J.,University of Tasmania | Barker-Ruchti N.,Gothenburg University
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2015

This paper explores three female swimmers’ relationships with their male coaches and the body practices they were exposed to within Australian swimming. Particular attention is given to how the relationships and practices might relate to gender. Additionally, the article examines how (if at all) the conduct contributed to the social construction of an accepted female swimmer body. Through narrative accounts, the three adolescent female athletes articulate hierarchical male coach–female athlete relationships and specific body encounters they were exposed to and/or engaged with. Their experiences reveal how a sexually maturing body (growing breasts, female body shape and menstruating) was deemed unsuitable for performance and the swimmers were thus encouraged to transform their bodies and behaviours towards that of the boys. Using a feminist Foucauldian perspective, these accounts points to how the three swimmers came to regulate their diet, training and appearance in order to fulfil expectations. This self-regulation is problematic in two ways: first, no scientific evidence shows that a boy like physique is essential for best performance. Second, the stress from being pressured to achieve a particular body, as well as the shame that resulted from being unable to achieve the idealised physique, eventually caused the swimmers to develop an unhealthy relationship with their developing bodies. We highlight how those immersed in sporting contexts should recognise the serious implications of gender practices and power relations underpinning the male coach–female athlete dynamic in competitive sport. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

The enormous bacterial load and mechanical forces in colon create a special requirement for protection of the epithelium. In the distal colon, this problem is largely solved by separation of the bacteria from the epithelium by a firmly attached inner mucus layer. In addition, an outer mucus layer entraps bacteria to be cleared by distal transport. The mucus layers contain a network of Muc2 mucins as the main structural component. Here, the renewal rate of the inner protective mucus layer was studied as well as the production and secretion of Muc2 mucin in the distal colon. This was performed by intraperitoneal injection of N-azidoacetyl-galactosamine (GalNAz) that was in vivo incorporated during biosynthesis of O-glycosylated glycoproteins. The only gel-forming mucin produced in the colon is the Muc2 mucin and as it carries numerous O-glycans, the granulae of the goblet cells producing Muc2 mucin were intensely stained. The GalNAz-labeled glycoproteins were first observed in the Golgi apparatus of most cells. Goblet cells in the luminal surface epithelium had the fastest biosynthesis of Muc2 and secreted material already three hours after labeling. This secreted GalNAz-labeled Muc2 mucin formed the inner mucus layer. The goblet cells along the crypt epithelium accumulated labeled mucin vesicles for a longer period and secretion of labeled Muc2 mucin was first observed after 6 to 8 h. This study reveals a fast turnover (1 h) of the inner mucus layer in the distal colon mediated by goblet cells of the luminal surface epithelium. © 2012 Malin E. V. Johansson.

Achurra A.,University of the Basque Country | Erseus C.,Gothenburg University
Invertebrate Systematics | Year: 2013

Individuals of the aquatic oligochaete species Stylodrilus heringianus Clapar̀de, 1862 were collected across a part of this species' distribution range in Sweden, Estonia, Great Britain and Spain to test whether they represent a single metapopulation or several separately evolving lineages. Using sequences of the barcoding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and two nuclear genes (internal transcribed spacer region and histone 3), three different approaches were conducted: pairwise distance-method, Bayesian inference and network analysis. Both the COI phylogeny and network analyses were concordant in recovering six haplotype clusters, which showed a maximum genetic distance of 7.7% (K2P) among each other. Nevertheless, nuclear genes failed to confirm any lineage separation, and we conclude that the sampled specimens all belong to the same species. A phylogeographic history with allopatric divergence and secondary contact is suggested to explain this intraspecific pattern of mitochondrial divergence and nuclear non-divergence. The study shows that a mitochondrial single-locus approach can be problematic for the accurate delimitation of species, and we emphasise the need for nuclear genes as supplementary markers, when taxonomic resolution is assessed with COI barcodes. © CSIRO 2011.

Johansson E.,Uppsala University Hospital | Steineck G.,Karolinska Institutet | Steineck G.,Gothenburg University | Holmberg L.,Kings College London | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: For men with localised prostate cancer, surgery provides a survival benefit compared with watchful waiting. Treatments are associated with morbidity. Results for functional outcome and quality of life are rarely reported beyond 10 years and are lacking from randomised settings. We report results for quality of life for men in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) after a median follow-up of more than 12 years. Methods: All living Swedish and Finnish men (400 of 695) randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting in SPCG-4 from 1989 to 1999 were included in our analysis. An additional 281 men were included in a population-based control group matched for region and age. Physical symptoms, symptom-induced stress, and self-assessed quality of life were evaluated with a study-specific questionnaire. Longitudinal data were available for 166 Swedish men who had answered quality-of-life questionnaires at an earlier timepoint. Findings: 182 (88%) of 208 men in the radical prostatectomy group, 167 (87%) of 192 men in the watchful-waiting group, and 214 (76%) of 281 men in the population-based control group answered the questionnaire. Men in SPCG-4 had a median follow-up of 12·2 years (range 7-17) and a median age of 77·0 years (range 61-88). High self-assessed quality of life was reported by 62 (35%) of 179 men allocated radical prostatectomy, 55 (34%) of 160 men assigned to watchful waiting, and 93 (45%) of 208 men in the control group. Anxiety was higher in the SPCG-4 groups (77 [43%] of 178 and 69 [43%] of 161 men) than in the control group (68 [33%] of 208 men; relative risk 1·42, 95% CI 1·07-1·88). Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 84% (146 of 173 men) in the radical prostatectomy group, 80% (122 of 153) in the watchful-waiting group, and 46% (95 of 208) in the control group and prevalence of urinary leakage was 41% (71 of 173), 11% (18 of 164), and 3% (six of 209), respectively. Distress caused by these symptoms was reported significantly more often by men allocated radical prostatectomy than by men assigned to watchful waiting. In a longitudinal analysis of men in SPCG-4 who provided information at two follow-up points 9 years apart, 38 (45%) of 85 men allocated radical prostatectomy and 48 (60%) of 80 men allocated watchful waiting reported an increase in number of physical symptoms; 50 (61%) of 82 and 47 (64%) of 74 men, respectively, reported a reduction in quality of life. Interpretation: For men in SPCG-4, negative side-effects were common and added more stress than was reported in the control population. In the radical prostatectomy group, erectile dysfunction and urinary leakage were often consequences of surgery. In the watchful-waiting group, side-effects can be caused by tumour progression. The number and severity of side-effects changes over time at a higher rate than is caused by normal ageing and a loss of sexual ability is a persistent psychological problem for both interventions. An understanding of the patterns of side-effects and time dimension of their occurrence for each treatment is important for full patient information. Funding: US National Institutes of Health; Swedish Cancer Society; Foundation in Memory of Johanna Hagstrand and Sigfrid Linnér. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Nyman G.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry | Year: 2014

In this article, I review some of the best available quantum dynamical approaches for studying bimolecular chemical reactions. Calculating the thermal rate constant is central in theoretical chemistry and there is a focus on this. I begin by motivating the need for quantum dynamics before giving a general overview. Thereafter, I give expressions for calculating thermal rate constants. This is followed by a brief description of time-independent scattering calculations. Next comes a longer section on time-dependent approaches including the time-dependent wave packet approach, the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree approach and ring polymer molecular dynamics. Finally, I make some concluding remarks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Croy I.,Gothenburg University | Croy I.,University of Dresden Medical School | Nordin S.,Umea University | Hummel T.,University of Dresden Medical School
Chemical Senses | Year: 2014

Olfactory disorders are common and affect about one-fifth of the general population. The main causes of olfactory loss are post viral upper respiratory infection, nasal/sinus disease, and head trauma and are therefore very frequent among patients in ear, nose, and throat clinics. We have systematically reviewed the impact of quantitative, qualitative, and congenital olfactory disorders on daily life domains as well as on general quality of life and depression. From the extensive body of literature, it can be concluded that loss of the sense of smell leads to disturbances in important areas, mainly in food enjoyment, detecting harmful food and smoke, and to some extent in social situations and working life. Most patients seem to deal well and manage those restrictions. However, a smaller proportion has considerable problems and expresses a noticeable reduction in general quality of life and enhanced depression. The impact of coping strategies is discussed. © The Author 2014.

Thor P.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Dupont S.,Gothenburg University
Global Change Biology | Year: 2015

Ocean acidification (OA) caused by anthropogenic CO2 emission is projected for thousands of years to come, and significant effects are predicted for many marine organisms. While significant evolutionary responses are expected during such persistent environmental change, most studies consider only short-term effects. Little is known about the transgenerational effects of parental environments or natural selection on the capacity of populations to counter detrimental OA effects. In this study, six laboratory populations of the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes were established at three different CO2 partial pressures (pCO2 of 400, 900 and 1550 μatm) and grown for two generations at these conditions. Our results show evidence of alleviation of OA effects as a result of transgenerational effects in P. acuspes. Second generation adults showed a 29% decrease in fecundity at 900 μatm CO2 compared to 400 μatm CO2. This was accompanied by a 10% increase in metabolic rate indicative of metabolic stress. Reciprocal transplant tests demonstrated that this effect was reversible and the expression of phenotypic plasticity. Furthermore, these tests showed that at a pCO2 exceeding the natural range experienced by P. acuspes (1550 μatm), fecundity would have decreased by as much as 67% compared to at 400 μatm CO2 as a result of this plasticity. However, transgenerational effects partly reduced OA effects so that the loss of fecundity remained at a level comparable to that at 900 μatm CO2. This also relieved the copepods from metabolic stress, and respiration rates were lower than at 900 μatm CO2. These results highlight the importance of tests for transgenerational effects to avoid overestimation of the effects of OA. © 2014 The Authors.

Kvarnemo C.,Gothenburg University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

The Darwin-Bateman paradigm recognizes competition among males for access to multiple mates as the main driver of sexual selection. Increasingly, however, females are also being found to benefit from multiple mating so that polyandry can generate competition among females for access to multiple males, and impose sexual selection on female traits that influence their mating success. Polyandry can reduce a male's ability to monopolize females, and thus weaken male focused sexual selection. Perhaps the most important effect of polyandry on males arises because of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Polyandry favours increased male ejaculate expenditure that can affect sexual selection on males by reducing their potential reproductive rate. Moreover, sexual selection after mating can ameliorate or exaggerate sexual selection before mating. Currently, estimates of sexual selection intensity rely heavily on measures of male mating success, but polyandry now raises serious questions over the validity of such approaches. Future work must take into account both pre- and post-copulatory episodes of selection. A change in focus from the products of sexual selection expected in males, to less obvious traits in females, such as sensory perception, is likely to reveal a greater role of sexual selection in female evolution.

Genheden S.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2016

The solvation free energy is an essential quantity in force field development and in numerous applications. Here, we present the estimation of solvation free energies in polar (water, hexanol, octanol, and nonanol) and in apolar (hexane, octane, and nonane) media. The estimates are produced using molecular dynamics simulations employing a simple all-atom/coarse-grained hybrid model (AA/ELBA) and are therefore very efficient. More than 150 solutes were taken from the Minnesota solvation database and represent small, organic molecules. The mean absolute deviation for the different solvents ranges between 2.0 and 4.1 kJ/mol, and the correlation coefficient ranges between 0.78 and 0.99, indicating that the predictions are accurate. Outliers are identified, and potential avenues for improvements are discussed. Furthermore, partition coefficients between water and the organic solvents were estimated, and the percentage of the predictions that has the correct sign ranges between 74% (for octane) and 92% (for octanol and hexanol). Finally, membrane/water partition coefficients are replaced with hexane/water and octanol/water partition coefficients, and the latter is found to be as accurate as the expensive membrane calculations, indicating a wider application area. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Holmlid L.,Gothenburg University
AIP Advances | Year: 2015

Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0) give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u-1. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu) cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles HN(0) of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm) escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at <1 mbar pressure) is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods. © 2015 Author(s).

In recent years, the importance of glial cell activation in the generation and maintenance of long-term pain has been investigated. One novel mechanism underlying long-lasting pain is injury-induced inflammation in the periphery, followed by microglial activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which results in local neuroinflammation. An increase in neuronal excitability may follow, with intense signaling along the pain tracts to the thalamus and the parietal cortex along with other cortical regions for the identification and recognition of the injury. If the local neuroinflammation develops into a pathological state, then the astrocytes become activated. Previous studies in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce inflammation have shown that in a dysfunctional astrocyte network, the actin cytoskeleton is reorganized from the normally occurring F-actin stress fibers into the more diffusible, disorganized, ring-form globular G-actin. In addition, Ca2+ signaling systems are altered, Na+- and glutamate transporters are downregulated, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-1β, are released in dysfunctional astrocyte networks. In a series of experiments, we have demonstrated that these LPS-induced changes in astrocyte function can be restored by stimulation of Gi/o and inhibition of Gs with a combination of a μ-receptor agonist and ultralow concentrations of a μ-receptor antagonist and by inhibition of cytokine release, particularly IL-1β, by the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. These findings could be of clinical significance and indicate a novel treatment for long-term pain. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

The pair interaction between two charged colloidal particles, in the presence of a polyelectrolyte as well as simple salt, is analyzed theoretically. Of particular interest is the way in which such a combination of salts can be used to induce a strong, long-range attraction, with at most a minor free energy barrier. We show that the nature of the simple salt is highly relevant, i.e., 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 salts generate quite different particle interaction free energies at the same overall ionic strength. We adopt several different theoretical levels of description. Defining simulations at the primitive model level with explicit simple salt as our reference, we invoke stepwise coarse-graining with careful evaluations of each approximation. Representing monovalent simple ions by the ionic screening they generate is one such simplification. In order to proceed further, with additional computational savings, we also develop a correlation-corrected classical density functional theory. We analyze the performance of this theory with explicit spherical particles as well as in a flat surface geometry, utilizing Derjaguin's approximation. The calculations are particularly fast in the latter case, facilitating computational savings of many (typically 5-7) orders of magnitude, compared to corresponding simulations with explicit salt. Yet, the predictions are remarkably accurate, and considering the crudeness of the model itself, the density functional theory is a very attractive alternative to simulations. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Gartner S.,Gothenburg University
Regional Studies | Year: 2016

Gärtner S. New macroeconomic evidence on internal migration in Sweden, 1967–2003. Regional Studies. This paper gives new empirical evidence on internal migration's macroeconomic impact factors in Sweden from 1967 to 2003. Variables from the labour market, demography and geography serve as explanatory factors. The dynamic panel model's estimation contradicts recent results arguing that wage differences play no role in migration in Sweden. The paper's results suggest that wages and unemployment rates work as push and pull factors. These results are constant over time, not a development following the solidarity wage policy's break-up. While younger people are more likely to move, the increasing female labour force participation has hampered migration, especially in recent years. © 2014 Regional Studies Association.

This paper aims at contributing to a comprehensive perspective on occupational safety by integrating research on different specific organisational psychological concepts found to contribute to different types of organisational performance, and apply these to an occupational safety context. A second aim was to present perspectives on how occupational safety may be promoted within an organization. The following mechanisms are suggested. A leadership style promoting co-operation, inspiring, fostering group goals, as well as providing individualized support and empowering workers may intrinsically be expected to comprise rich and open communication and thus support the development of high-quality interactions between managers and employees. Such interaction and communication may promote the development of mutual trust, and the development of a good workgroup climate. Trust, in turn, may further promote communication and interaction. Mutual trust, high-quality relations, and a strong group climate may promote workers' motivation and intentions to contribute to the organisational goals. Managers successful in demonstrating true and consistent priority of workers' safety may promote the development of workers' trust but also convince that safety is a prime organisational goal. This may promote workers' motivation to behave safely. Trustful relations characterized by empowerment and participation are then likely also to support the realization of safety intentions into safe behavior. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Eneborg Y.M.,Gothenburg University
Mental Health, Religion and Culture | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to identify the primary reasons for the popularity of a new form of faith healing amongst young Muslims in east London. Examining the actual practice of this new healing tradition as it is found in east London and the social landscape within which it is enmeshed have been distinguished as the two central objectives of the study. In achieving the former, participant observation and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a local healer and his clients, whilst the latter was largely achieved by employing a general format of research that involved gathering data from a number of scattered sources, like pamphlets, transcripts, forums, audio and video recordings, etc. The findings suggest that the popularity of this tradition is in large part due to a "hybridisation" of key themes drawn from "Islam" and "science" that are seen to be attractive for a younger generation of Muslims. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Zhang H.,China Agricultural University | Liu K.,Gothenburg University
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: The first small follicles to appear in the mammalian ovaries are primordial follicles. The initial pool of primordial follicles serves as the source of developing follicles and oocytes for the entire reproductive lifespan of the animal. Although the selective activation of primordial follicles is critical for female fertility, its underlying mechanisms have remained poorly understood. METHODS: A search of PubMed was conducted to identify peer-reviewed literature pertinent to the study of mammalian primordial follicle activation, especially recent reports of the role of primordial follicle granulosa cells (pfGCs) in regulating this process. RESULTS: In recent years, molecular mechanisms that regulate the activation of primordial follicles have been elucidated, mostly through the use of genetically modified mouse models. Several molecules and pathways operating in both the somatic pfGCs and oocytes, such as the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways, have been shown to be important for primordial follicle activation. More importantly, recent studies have provided an updated view of how exactly signaling pathways in pfGCs and in oocytes, such as the KIT ligand (KL) and KIT, coordinate in adult ovaries so that the activation of primordial follicles is achieved. CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we have provided an updated picture of how mammalian primordial follicles are activated. The functional roles of pfGCs in governing the activation of primordial follicles in adulthood are highlighted. The in-depth understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of primordial follicle activation will hopefully lead to more treatments of female infertility, and the current progress indicates that the use of existing primordial follicles as a source for obtaining fertilizable oocytes as a new treatment for female infertility is just around the corner. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.

Czerkinsky C.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Holmgren J.,Gothenburg University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: — limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life; — lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines; — lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and — limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries. There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world’s poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Josefsson T.,Social Science and Health | Broberg A.,Gothenburg University
Mental Health, Religion and Culture | Year: 2011

In order to gain a deeper understanding of the mindfulness construct and the mental health benefits associated with mindfulness-based programmes, the relation between mindfulness and its proposed core component attention was studied. Buddhist and Western mindfulness meditators were compared with non-meditators on tasks of sustained (SART) and executive (The Stroop Task) attention. Relations between self-reported mindfulness (FFMQ) and sustained and executive attention were also analysed. No significant differences were found between meditators and non-meditators either in sustained or executive attention. High scores on the FFMQ total scale and on Describe were related to fewer SART errors. High scores on Describe were also related to low Stroop interference. Mindfulness meditators may have an increased awareness of internal processes and the ability to quickly attend to them but this type of refined attentional ability does not seem to be related to performance on attention tests requiring responses to external targets. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Jaraj D.,Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology | Rabiei K.,Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology | Marlow T.,Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology | Jensen C.,Gothenburg University | And 2 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2014

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in elderly persons in a large population-based sample using radiologic and clinical examinations. Methods: We examined representative elderly populations aged 70 years and older that had undergone neuropsychiatric evaluations and CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000 (n = 1,238). Gait was evaluated by clinical examination and history of walking difficulty. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination and urinary incontinence by self-report. iNPH was diagnosed in concordance with the American-European iNPH guidelines. Exclusion criteria were history of meningitis, severe head trauma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results: The prevalence of probable iNPH was 0.2% in those aged 70-79 years (n = 2) and 5.9% (n = 24) in those aged 80 years and older, with no difference between men and women. Only 2 of these persons had been treated for iNPH. Hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., a CT image consistent with NPH, was found in 56 persons (4.5%). An Evans Index >0.3 was found in 256 (20.7%) and occluded sulci at the high convexity in 67 persons (5.4%). All of these findings were more common in the older age groups. Conclusions: Many elderly possess clinical and imaging features of iNPH, especially those older than 80 years. The number of persons with iNPH is probably much higher than the number of persons currently treated. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

Enerback S.,Gothenburg University
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2015

In adipose tissue, there is a delicate balance between storing and expending energy. In this issue, Shinoda et al. (2015) use phosphoproteomics to identify casein kinase 2 (CK2) as a suppressor of brown adipocyte formation, providing insights into how adipose tissue regulates its composition of white versus brown adipocytes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Larsson S.,Boston Consulting Groups Stockholm | Lawyer P.,Boston Consulting Groups Minneapolis office | Garellick G.,Gothenburg University | Lindahl B.,Uppsala University | Lundstrom M.,Lund University
Health Affairs | Year: 2012

As health care systems worldwide struggle with rising costs, a consensus is emerging to refocus reform efforts on value, as determined by the evaluation of patient outcomes relative to costs. One method of using outcome data to improve health care value is the disease registry. An international study of thirteen registries in five countries (Australia, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States) suggests that by making outcome data transparent to both practitioners and the public, well-managed registries enable medical professionals to engage in continuous learning and to identify and share best clinical practices. The apparent result: improved health outcomes, often at lower cost. For example, we calculate that if the United States had a registry for hip replacement surgery comparable to one in Sweden that enabled reductions in the rates at which these surgeries are performed a second time to replace or repair hip prostheses, the United States would avoid $2 billion of an expected $24 billion in total costs for these surgeries in 2015.

Woxenius J.,Gothenburg University
Transport | Year: 2012

The trade-off between flexibility and specialisation implies delicate tasks for transport system designers and marketing managers. The outcome of their efforts ranges from highly specialised solutions for a restricted number of users and types of cargoes to very open systems for common use adapted to accommodate a wide variety of transport demands. The purpose of this article is to adapt theories on openness and trade-offs, characterise a selection of flexible and specialised European short sea shipping concepts and analyse how substantial changes in the future character of the competition with road and rail can affect the development of ro-ro shipping in the South Baltic Sea. A matrix with commercial openness and technological openness on the axes is used for categorising sub-segments in the empirical context of the South Baltic Sea. Foreseeable changes in key cost and competition parameters until 2020 are taken into account in discussing potential scenarios. A plausible outcome for the ferry/ro-ro shipping segment is that a branch with slow services for unaccompanied freight will be diverted from the current homogenous market offerings. During the study, the Swedish Orient Line launched a service with these characteristics, which is analysed in a case study. © 2012 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika.

Background/Objectives:Obesity, pregnancy and lactation all affect body composition. Simple methods to estimate body composition are useful in clinical practice and to evaluate interventions. In overweight and obese lactating women, such methods are not fully validated. The objective of this study was to validate the accuracy and precision of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) by Xitron 4200 and 8-electrode multifrequency impedance (multifrequency bioimpedance analysis, MFBIA) by Tanita MC180MA with the reference methods dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and doubly labeled water (DLW) for the assessment of body composition in 70 overweight and obese women postpartum.Subjects/Methods:The LEVA-study (Lifestyle for Effective Weight loss during lactation) consisted of an intervention and follow-up with three assessments at 3, 6 and 15 months postpartum, which made possible the validation of both accuracy and precision. Mean differences between methods were tested by a paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots for systematic bias.Results:At baseline, BIS and MFBIA underestimated fat mass (FM) by 2.6±2.8 and 8.0±4.2 kg compared with DXA (P<0.001) but without systematic bias. BIS and MFBIA overestimated total body water (TBW) by 2.4±2.2 and 4.4±3.2 kg (P<0.001) compared with DLW, with slight systematic bias by BIS. BIS correctly estimated muscle mass without systematic bias (P>0.05). BIS overestimated changes in TBW (P=0.01) without systematic bias, whereas MFBIA varied greatly and with systematic bias.Conclusions:BIS underestimates mean FM compared with DXA but can detect mean changes in body composition, although with large limits of agreement. BIS both accurately and precisely estimates muscle mass in overweight and obese women postpartum. MFBIA underestimates FM and overestimates TBW by proprietary equations compared with DXA and DLW.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 30 March 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.50. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Asztely F.,Gothenburg University | Kumlien E.,Uppsala University
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica | Year: 2012

The term limbic encephalitis (LE) was first introduced in 1968. While this disease was initially considered rare and is often fatal with very few treatment options, several reports published in the last decade provide a better description of this condition as well as possible causes and some cases of successful treatment. The clinical manifestation of LE is primarily defined by the subacute onset of short-term memory loss, seizures, confusion and psychiatric symptoms suggesting the involvement of the limbic system. In addition, EEG often shows focal or generalized slow wave or epileptiform activity, and MRI findings reveal hyperintense signals of the medial temporal lobes in T2-weighted or FLAIR images. The current literature suggests that LE is not a single disorder but is comprised of a group of autoimmune disorders predominantly affecting the limbic system. Before the diagnosis of LE can be determined, other causes of subacute encephalopathy must be excluded, especially those resulting from infectious aetiologies. LE has previously been regarded as a paraneoplastic phenomenon associated with the classical onconeuronal antibodies that are primarily directed against intracellular antigens. However, recent literature suggests that LE is also associated with antibodies that are directed against cell surface antigens, and these cases of LE display a much weaker association to the neoplasm. The treatment options for LE largely depend on the aetiology of the disease and involve the removal of the primary neoplasm. Therefore, a search for the underlying tumour is mandatory. In addition, immunotherapy has been successful in a significant number of patients where LE is not associated with cancer. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Slonje R.,Goldsmiths, University of London | Smith P.K.,Goldsmiths, University of London | Frisen A.,Gothenburg University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2013

Cyberbullying has been identified as an important problem amongst youth in the last decade. This paper reviews some recent findings and discusses general concepts within the area. The review covers definitional issues such as repetition and power imbalance, types of cyberbullying, age and gender differences, overlap with traditional bullying and sequence of events, differences between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, motives for and impact of cyber victimization, coping strategies, and prevention/intervention possibilities. These issues will be illustrated by reference to recent and current literature, and also by in-depth interviews with nine Swedish students aged 13-15 years, who had some first-hand experience of one or more cyberbullying episodes. We conclude by discussing the evidence for different coping, intervention and prevention strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Background: Since the first patient was implanted with autologous cultured chondrocytes more than 20 years ago, new variations of cell therapies for cartilage repair have appeared. Autologous chondrocyte implantation, a first-generation cell therapy, uses suspended autologous cultured chondrocytes in combination with a periosteal patch. Collagen-covered autologous cultured chondrocyte implantation, a second-generation cell therapy, uses suspended cultured chondrocytes with a collagen type I/III membrane. Todays demand for transarthroscopic procedures has resulted in the development of third-generation cell therapies that deliver autologous cultured chondrocytes using cell carriers or cell-seeded scaffolds. Purpose: To review the current evidence of the matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure, the most widely used carrier system to date. Also discussed are the characteristics of type I/III collagen membranes, behavior of cells associated with the membrane, surgical technique, rehabilitation, clinical outcomes, and quality of repair tissue. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by searching Medline from its inception (1949) to December 2007; peer-reviewed publications of preclinical and clinical cell behavior, manufacturing process, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocols were identified. Preclinical and clinical studies were included if they contained primary data and used a type I/III collagen membrane. Results: Data from these studies demonstrate that patients treated with matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation have an overall improvement in clinical outcomes. Reduced visual analog scale pain levels (range, 1.7-5.32 points) and improvements in the modified Cincinnati (range, 3.8-34.2 points), Lysholm-Gillquist (range, 23.09-47.6 points), Tegner-Lysholm (range, 1.39-3.9 points), and International Knee Documentation Classification scale (P <.05) were observed. Patients had good-quality (hyaline-like) repair tissue as assessed by arthroscopic evaluation (including International Cartilage Repair Society score), magnetic resonance imaging, and histology, as well as a low incidence of postoperative complications. Conclusion: The findings suggest that matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising third-generation cell therapy for the repair of symptomatic, full-thickness articular cartilage defects. © 2010 The Author(s).

Branden G.,Gothenburg University | Sjogren T.,Astrazeneca | Schnecke V.,Astrazeneca | Xue Y.,Astrazeneca
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2014

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are key players in xenobiotic metabolism, and inhibition of CYPs can therefore result in unwanted drug-drug interactions. Within drug discovery, CYP inhibition can cause delays in the progression of candidate drugs, or even premature closure of projects. During the past decade, a massive effort in the pharmaceutical industry and academic research has produced a wealth of structural information in the CYP field. In this short review, we will describe how structure-based approaches can be used in the pharmaceutical industry to work away from CYP inhibition, with a focus on the opportunities and challenges. We will show two examples from our own work where structural information on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 inhibitor complexes have been successfully exploited in ongoing drug discovery projects. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Eriksson B.,Gothenburg University
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects. This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology. Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

Karlberg I.,Gothenburg University
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

In Anglo-Saxon countries the subject of health services research has long been an important academic theme. In the Nordic countries, however, this research and training area has been limited and partly hidden by integration into various other sections at universities and colleges. In this respect the Nordic School of Public Health was an exception, as the provision of managerial skills to healthcare professionals and persons working with public health was the backbone of the school during all 60 years. A variety of research in health services management, as well as publications of text books, accompanied the presented courses. Several of the scholars have earned important positions in international networks and editorial boards, as well as in boards for assessments of research grants. In the near future, this academic field will require alternative support. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

Dalsgaard T.,University of Aarhus | De Brabandere L.,University of Southern Denmark | Hall P.O.J.,Gothenburg University
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2013

Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic-anoxic interface. Anammox was never detected whereas denitrification was found in all incubations from anoxic depths and occurred immediately below the oxic-anoxic interface. Sulfide (H2S+HS-+S2-) was in most cases the only electron donor for denitrification but, in contrast to previous findings, denitrification was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated NO3- or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3- and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3- and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9nMN2h-1. Assuming that these rates were valid throughout the anoxic NO3- containing zone, depth integrated in situ denitrification rates of 0.06-2.11mmol Nm-2d-1 were estimated. The thickness of this zone was generally 3-6m, which is probably what can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic-anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55m thickness with low O2 water (<10μM) were observed which was probably the result of larger scale mixing. In such a layer nitrification may produce NO3- and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3-6m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132-547ktonNyr-1 and was thus at least as important as sediment denitrification which has recently been estimated to 191ktonNyr-1. With a total external N-input of 773ktonNyr-1 it is clear that denitrification plays a significant role in the N-budget of the BP. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Andersson A.K.,Gothenburg University | Chapman L.,University of Birmingham
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2011

Winter weather can be a significant cause of road traffic accidents. This paper uses UKCIP climate change scenarios and a temporal analogue to investigate the relationship between temperature and severe road accidents in the West Midlands, UK. This approach also allows quantification of the changes in the severity of the winter season over the next century in the region. It is demonstrated that the predicted reduction in the number of frost days should in turn reduce the number of road accidents caused due to slipperiness by approximately 50%. However, the paper concludes by warning against complacency in winter maintenance regimes. A warmer climate may result in budget cuts for highway maintenance which in turn may well reverse declining accident trends. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Rothwell P.M.,University of Oxford | Howard S.C.,University of Oxford | Dolan E.,Stroke and Hypertension Unit | O'Brien E.,University College Dublin | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2010

Background: Analyses of some randomised trials show that calcium-channel blockers reduce the risk of stroke more than expected on the basis of mean blood pressure alone and that β blockers are less effective than expected. We aimed to investigate whether the effects of these drugs on variability in blood pressure might explain these disparities in effect on stroke risk. Methods: The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA) compared amlodipine-based regimens with atenolol-based regimens in 19 257 patients with hypertension and other vascular risk factors and the Medical Research Council (MRC) trial compared atenolol-based and diuretic-based regimens versus placebo in 4396 hypertensive patients aged 65-74 years. We expressed visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure during follow-up in the two trials as standard deviation (SD) and as transformations uncorrelated with mean blood pressure. For ASCOT-BPLA, we also studied within-visit variability and variability on 24 h ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring (ABPM). Results: In ASCOT-BPLA, group systolic blood pressure (SBP) SD was lower in the amlodipine group than in the atenolol group at all follow-up visits (p<0·0001), mainly because of lower within-individual visit-to-visit variability. Within-visit and ABPM variability in SBP were also lower in the amlodipine group than in the atenolol group (all p<0·0001). Analysis of changes from baseline showed that variability decreased over time in the amlodipine group and increased in the atenolol group. The lower risk of stroke in the amlodipine group (hazard ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·67-0·90) was partly attenuated by adjusting for mean SBP during follow-up (0·84, 0·72-0·98), but was abolished by also adjusting for within-individual SD of clinic SBP (0·99, 0·85-1·16). Findings were similar for coronary events. In the ABPM substudy, reduced variability in daytime SBP in the amlodipine group (p<0·0001) partly accounted for the reduced risk of vascular events, but reduced visit-to-visit variability in clinic SBP had a greater effect. In the MRC trial, group SD SBP and all measures of within-individual visit-to-visit variability in SBP were increased in the atenolol group compared with both the placebo group and the diuretic group during initial follow-up (all p<0·0001). Subsequent temporal trends in variability in blood pressure during follow-up in the atenolol group correlated with trends in stroke risk. Interpretation: The opposite effects of calcium-channel blockers and β blockers on variability of blood pressure account for the disparity in observed effects on risk of stroke and expected effects based on mean blood pressure. To prevent stroke most effectively, blood-pressure-lowering drugs should reduce mean blood pressure without increasing variability; ideally they should reduce both. Funding: None. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gritli-Linde A.,Gothenburg University
Frontiers of Oral Biology | Year: 2012

Vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms are essential for deciphering biological processes. One of these, the mouse, proved to be a valuable model for understanding the etiopathogenesis of a vast array of human diseases, including congenital malformations such as orofacial clefting conditions. This small mammal's usefulness in cleft lip and palate research stems not only from the striking anatomical and molecular similarities of lip and palate development between human and mouse embryos, but also from its amenability to experimental and genetic manipulation. Using some recent studies as illustrative examples, this review describes different ways of generating and exploiting mouse models to study normal and abnormal development of the lip and palate. Despite a few surmountable disadvantages of using the mouse, numerous mutants have revealed a growing number of molecular key players and have pointed at a tight and complex molecular control during each step of lip and palate development. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Bejger M.,Copernicus Astronomical Center | Piran T.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Abramowicz M.,Copernicus Astronomical Center | Abramowicz M.,Gothenburg University | Hakanson F.,Chalmers University of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Collisions of particles in black hole ergospheres may result in an arbitrarily large center-of-mass energy. This led recently to the suggestion that black holes can act as ultimate particle accelerators. If the energy of an outgoing particle is larger than the total energy of the infalling particles, the energy excess must come from the rotational energy of the black hole and hence, a Penrose process is involved. However, while the center-of-mass energy diverges, the position of the collision makes it impossible for energetic particles to escape to infinity. Following an earlier work on collisional Penrose processes, we show that even under the most favorable idealized conditions the maximal energy of an escaping particle is only a modest factor above the total initial energy of the colliding particles. This implies that one should not expect collisions around a black hole to act as spectacular cosmic accelerators. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Larsson H.,Karolinska Institutet | Anckarsater H.,Gothenburg University | Rastam M.,Lund University | Chang Z.,Karolinska Institutet | Lichtenstein P.,Karolinska Institutet
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2012

Background: Although the clinical utility of categorically defined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established, there is also strong evidence supporting the notion of ADHD as an extreme of a continuous trait. Nevertheless, the question of whether the etiology is the same for different levels of DSM-IV ADHD symptoms remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to assess genetic links between the extreme and the subthreshold range of ADHD symptoms. Method: Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twins born between 1992 and 2000 were interviewed for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms and associated conditions. Two validated cutoff values were used for screening and assigning research diagnoses. Response rate was 80%. Twin methods were applied to investigate the extent to which ADHD is etiologically distinct from subthreshold variations in ADHD symptoms. Results: Extremes analyses indicated a strong genetic link between the extreme and the subthreshold variation, with almost identical group heritability estimates around.60 for the diagnostic (prevalence 1.78%) and screening (prevalence 9.75%) criteria of ADHD. Conclusion: A strong genetic link between the extreme and the subthreshold variation of DSM-IV based assessments of ADHD symptoms was found. The data suggest that ADHD is best viewed as the quantitative extreme of genetic and environmental factors operating dimensionally throughout the distribution of ADHD symptoms, indicating that the same etiologic factors are involved in the full range of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Ohayon M.M.,Stanford University | Bader G.,Gothenburg University
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess the prevalence of insomnia symptoms, their associated factors and daytime symptoms in the general population of Sweden. Methods: This is a cross-sectional postal survey performed in the general population of Sweden aged between 19 and 75. years (6 million inhabitants). A total of 1209 out of 1705 randomly selected participants from the National Register of the Total Population completed the questionnaire. The participation rate was 71.3%. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire composed of 157 items covering sociodemographic characteristics, sleeping habits and environment, sleep quality and sleep symptoms, and health status. Results: We found 32.1% (95% confidence interval: 29.5-34.8%) of the sample reported having difficulty initiating (DIS) or maintaining sleep (DMS) or non-restorative sleep accompanied with sufficient sleep (NRS) at least 4 nights per week: 6.3% of the sample had DIS, 14.5% had DMS and 18.0% had NRS. Results from logistic regressions showed that restless legs symptoms, breathing pauses during sleep and depressive or anxious mood were associated with DIS and DMS but not NRS. Living in an urban area (OR:2.0) and drinking alcohol daily (OR:4.6) were associated only with NRS. Daytime symptoms were reported by over 75% of subjects with insomnia symptoms. DIS, DMS and NRS were associated with daytime fatigue but not excessive sleepiness as measured by the Epworth scale. DIS was associated with the use of sleeping pills or natural sleeping aid compounds in multivariate models. Conclusions: Insomnia symptoms occurring at least 4 nights per week are frequent in Sweden, affecting about a third of the population. Subjects with NRS have a distinctly different profile than those with DIS or DMS, which suggests different etiological causes for this symptom. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Fagman H.,Istituto di Ricerche Genetiche Gaetano Salvatore | Nilsson M.,Gothenburg University
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Congenital hypothyroidism is mainly due to structural defects of the thyroid gland, collectively known as thyroid dysgenesis. The two most prevalent forms of this condition are abnormal localization of differentiated thyroid tissue (thyroid ectopia) and total absence of the gland (athyreosis). The clinical picture of thyroid dysgenesis suggests that impaired specification, proliferation and survival of thyroid precursor cells and loss of concerted movement of these cells in a distinct spatiotemporal pattern are major causes of malformation. In normal development the thyroid primordium is first distinguished as a thickening of the anterior foregut endoderm at the base of the prospective tongue. Subsequently, this group of progenitors detaches from the endoderm, moves caudally and ultimately differentiates into hormone-producing units, the thyroid follicles, at a distant location from the site of specification. In higher vertebrates later stages of thyroid morphogenesis are characterized by shape remodeling into a bilobed organ and the integration of a second type of progenitors derived from the caudal-most pharyngeal pouches that will differentiate into C-cells. The present knowledge of thyroid developmental dynamics has emerged from embryonic studies mainly in chicken, mouse and more recently also in zebrafish. This review will highlight the key morphogenetic steps of thyroid organogenesis and pinpoint which crucial regulatory mechanisms are yet to be uncovered. Considering the co-incidence of thyroid dysgenesis and congenital heart malformations the possible interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular development will also be discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Lasser C.,Gothenburg University
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2012

The field of exosome research is rapidly expanding, with a dramatic increase in publications in recent years. These small vesicles (30-100 nm) of endocytic origin were first proposed to function as a way for reticulocytes to eradicate the transferrin receptor while maturing into erythrocytes, and were later named exosomes. Exosomes are formed by inward budding of late endosomes, producing multivesicular bodies (MVBs), and are released into the environment by fusion of the MVBs with the plasma membrane. Since the first discovery of exosomes, a wide range of cells have been shown to release these vesicles. Exosomes have also been detected in several biological fluids, including plasma, nasal lavage fluid, saliva and breast milk. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the content and function of exosomes depends on the originating cell and the conditions under which they are produced. A variety of functions have been demonstrated for exosomes, such as induction of tolerance against allergen, eradication of established tumors in mice, inhibition and activation of natural killer cells, promotion of differentiation into T regulatory cells, stimulation of T cell proliferation and induction of T cell apoptosis. Year 2007 we demonstrated that exosomes released from mast cells contain messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), and that the RNA can be shuttled from one cell to another via exosomes. In the recipient cells, the mRNA shuttled by exosomes was shown to be translated into protein, suggesting a regulatory function of the transferred RNA. Further, we have also shown that exosomes derived from cells grown under oxidative stress can induce tolerance against further stress in recipient cells and thus suggest a biological function of the exosomal shuttle RNA. Cell culture media and biological fluids contain a mixture of vesicles and shed fragments. A high quality isolation method for exosomes, followed by characterization and identification of the exosomes and their content, is therefore crucial to distinguish exosomes from other vesicles and particles. Here, we present a method for the isolation of exosomes from both cell culture medium and body fluids. This isolation method is based on repeated centrifugation and filtration steps, followed by a final ultracentrifugation step in which the exosomes are pelleted. Important methods to identify the exosomes and characterize the exosomal morphology and protein content are highlighted, including electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blot. The purification of the total exosomal RNA is based on spin column chromatography and the exosomal RNA yield and size distribution is analyzed using a Bioanalyzer. Copyright © 2012 Creative Commons Attribution License

Background: Intensive treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes delays the onset of long-term complications. Objectives: On the basis of the information from two nation-wide quality registers, we investigated to which extent HbA1c values 3-15months after diagnosis in childhood are related to metabolic control, albuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood. Methods: In Sweden, physicians register all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Swedish Pediatric Quality Registry. After 18yr of age, people with diabetes are followed by the Swedish National Diabetes Register. We identified 1543 children and adolescents with a mean age of 13.9yr at diagnosis and a mean duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus of 7.1yr. Results: Children and adolescents with poor metabolic control (mean HbA1c ≥ 70mmol/mol (8.6 %)) adjacent to diagnosis had a significantly higher mean HbA1c value years later as adults than did patients with a good metabolic control [<50mmol/mol (6.7%) (p<0.001)]. The patients in the high group were also less physically active and smoked more as adults. The proportion of females was higher in the poor metabolic group. Patients with a high mean HbA1c 3-15months after diagnosis had significantly more often macroalbuminuria and retinopathy in early adulthood. Conclusions: Metabolic control adjacent to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in childhood or adolescence can predict metabolic control in early adulthood. It is therefore very important that pediatric diabetes teams identify key factors for successful early metabolic control. Actively using quality registries may be one such factor. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Smith U.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2015

In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability. © 2015, American Society for Clinical Investigation. All rights reserved.

Harandi A.M.,Gothenburg University | Medaglini D.,University of Siena
Current HIV Research | Year: 2010

The vast majority of pathogens invade the body through or establish infections in the mucosal tissues. Development of vaccines to combat mucosal infections represents a top priority. Mucosal immunization has recently attracted much interest as a means of generating protective immunity against mucosal pathogens. Conversely, only very few mucosal vaccines are presently approved for human use. The development of a broad range of mucosal vaccines will necessitate the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems. Over the past decade, a number of immunomodulatory agents, including toxin based adjuvants, Toll like receptor (TLR) mimetics and non TLR-targeting immunostimulators as well as delivery systems have shown promise for mucosal administration in experimental animals. However, their possible use in humans remains to be established. This paper attempts to provide a brief overview of the mucosal immunization and adjuvants with an emphasis on mucosal adjuvants in or close to clinic. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Brembeck H.,Gothenburg University
Critical Public Health | Year: 2011

Starting from theories of anxiety as social practice, this article explores the contested landscape of health, risks associated with fish consumption and pregnancy in Sweden, and the way risk communicators and pregnant women navigate this landscape. This article argues that the risk analysis by the Swedish National Food Administration is a good example of the practices of definition and annihilation of subjects and objects of anxiety. It shows that the creation of anxious subjects is counteracted by two means in the brochures and on the website of the National Food Administration (NFA): by placing information about pregnancy and fish within a risk discourse, and by liberal governance. This article concludes that, although pregnant women manage and control anxiety during pregnancy by several practices, this strategy by the NFA does not make them feel safe and secure, which is the basic duty of the NFA, but rather bolsters their feeling that you cannot ever feel safe, you always have to anticipate that something bad might happen. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Carbone G.,University of York | O'Brien P.,University of York | Hilmersson G.,Gothenburg University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

The solution structures of [6Li]-i-PrLi complexed to (-)-sparteine and the (+)-sparteine surrogate in Et2O-d10 and THF-d8 at -80 °C have been determined using 6Li and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In Et2O, i-PrLi/(-)-sparteine is a solvent-complexed heterodimer, whereas i-PrLi/(+)-sparteine surrogate is a head-to-tail homodimer. In THF, there was no complexation of (-)-sparteine to i-PrLi until ≥3.0 equiv (-)-sparteine and with 6.0 equiv (-)-sparteine, a monomer was characterized. In contrast, the (+)-sparteine surrogate readily complexed to i-PrLi in THF, and with 1.0 equiv (+)-sparteine surrogate, complete formation of a monomer was observed. The NMR spectroscopic study suggested that it should be possible to carry out highly enantioselective asymmetric deprotonation reactions using i-PrLi or s-BuLi/(+)-sparteine surrogate in THF. Hence, three different asymmetric deprotonation reactions (lithiation-trapping of N-Boc pyrrolidine, an O-alkyl carbamate, and a phosphine borane) were investigated; it was shown that reactions with (-)-sparteine in THF proceeded with low enantioselectivity, whereas the corresponding reactions with the (+)-sparteine surrogate occurred with high enantioselectivity. These are the first examples of highly enantioselective asymmetric deprotonation reactions using organolithium/diamine complexes in THF. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Ahlin A.,Karolinska Institutet | Fasth A.,Gothenburg University
Current Opinion in Hematology | Year: 2015

Purpose of review We update and summarize the recent findings in conventional treatment and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We also summarize the contemporary view on when hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be the preferred treatment of choice in CGD. Recent findings Azole antifungal treatment in CGD has improved survival. With prolonged survival, inflammatory complications are an emerging problem in CGD. Several studies now present excellent results with stem cell transplantation in severe CGD, also with reduced intensity conditioning. Summary Several lines of evidence now suggest that stem cell transplantation should be the preferred treatment of choice in severe CGD, if there is an available donor. This should be performed as soon as possible to avoid severe sequelae from infection and inflammation. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bergstrom A.,Gothenburg University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015

Abstract Questions regarding personal privacy are becoming increasingly relevant, and the discussion continuously arises regarding what digital tracks we leave. Intrusive use and manipulation of personal information not only affect people's behaviour, but also they could have important implications for political and civic society. Previous research has relied on convenience samples and has often focused on one or only a few areas of use. The presented study, based on a probability sample, gives an overall picture of how privacy concerns are perceived in different online contexts and how socio-demography, internet experience, trust, and political orientation contribute to the understanding of privacy concerns in different settings. The results clearly point to privacy concerns as being very diverse and dependent on the applications in question. All dimensions that are used to explain privacy concerns are partly supported in the study. But their explanatory powers differ and not all areas of concern are affected by the same explanatory factors. Trust in other people is the single most important factor explaining privacy concerns when using digital media and applications. The more people trust others, the less concern they have for misuse of personal information. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Stattin P.,Umea University | Holmberg E.,Gothenburg University | Johansson J.-E.,Orebro University | Holmberg L.,Kings College London | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2010

Background Treatment for localized prostate cancer remains controversial. To our knowledge, there are no outcome studies from contemporary population-based cohorts that include data on stage, Gleason score, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Methods In the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden Follow-up Study, a nationwide cohort, we identified 6849 patients aged 70 years or younger. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis with local clinical stage T1-2 prostate cancer from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2002, a Gleason score of 7 or less, a serum PSA level of less than 20 ng/mL, and treatment with surveillance (including active surveillance and watchful waiting, n = 2021) or curative intent (including radical prostatectomy, n = 3399, and radiation therapy, n = 1429). Among the 6849 patients, 2686 had low-risk prostate cancer (ie, clinical stage T1, Gleason score 2-6, and serum PSA level of <10 ng/mL). The study cohort was linked to the Cause of Death Register, and cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer and competing causes was calculated. Results For the combination of low-and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, calculated cumulative 10-year prostate cancer-specific mortality was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7% to 4.8%) in the surveillance group and 2.7% (95% CI = 2.1% to 3.45) in the curative intent group. For those with low-risk disease, the corresponding values were 2.4% (95% CI = 1.2% to 4.1%) among the 1085 patients in the surveillance group and 0.7% (95% CI = 0.3% to 1.4%) among the 1601 patients in the curative intent group. The 10-year risk of dying from competing causes was 19.2% (95% CI = 17.2% to 21.3%) in the surveillance group and 10.2% (95% CI = 9.0% to 11.4%) in the curative intent group. Conclusion A 10-year prostate cancer-specific mortality of 2.4% among patients with low-risk prostate cancer in the surveillance group indicates that surveillance may be a suitable treatment option for many patients with low-risk disease. © 2010 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press.

Holmlid L.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2015

The ejection of particles with energy up to 20 MeV u-1 was reported previously from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0). Studies of the kinetics of particle formation and decay, and of particle penetration through thick plates are now reported. Magnetic deflection is used to remove charged particles like electrons formed at the target. The signals at a collector in the beam at 0.9 m distance and a shadowed loop collector behind a 1.5-4.5 mm thick steel plate at 0.6 m are compared. The signal at the distant collector matches an intermediate particle B in a decay chain A → B → C with formation and decay time constants of 5-15 ns. The signal at the loop collector is delayed relative to the more distant collector, thus showing a delay of the particles penetrating through the steel plate. The signal at this collector is due to pair production with charge cancellation. Compton electrons from gamma radiation are observed at peak current densities of 1 mA cm-2 at the distant collector. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Simren M.,Gothenburg University | Barbara G.,University of Bologna | Flint H.J.,University of Aberdeen | Spiegel B.M.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 5 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2013

It is increasingly perceived that gut hostemicrobial interactions are important elements in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The most convincing evidence to date is the finding that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop in predisposed individuals following a bout of infectious gastroenteritis. There has been a great deal of interest in the potential clinical and therapeutic implications of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS. However, this theory has generated much debate because the evidence is largely based on breath tests which have not been validated. The introduction of culture-independent molecular techniques provides a major advancement in our understanding of the microbial community in FGID. Results from 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling approaches demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative changes of mucosal and faecal gut microbiota, particularly in IBS. Investigators are also starting to measure host-microbial interactions in IBS. The current working hypothesis is that abnormal microbiota activate mucosal innate immune responses which increase epithelial permeability, activate nociceptive sensory pathways and dysregulate the enteric nervous system. While we await important insights in this field, the microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Existing controlled trials of dietary manipulation, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and non-absorbable antibiotics are promising, although most are limited by suboptimal design and small sample size. In this article, the authors provide a critical review of current hypotheses regarding the pathogenetic involvement of microbiota in FGID and evaluate the results of microbiota-directed interventions. The authors also provide clinical guidance on modulation of gut microbiota in IBS.

Three bacterial strains, designated CCUG 51397 T, CCUG 53736 and CCUG 53920, isolated from water samples taken at different locations in southern Sweden were studied to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these bacteria had <93% sequence similarity to all described species of the genera Sediminibacterium, Lacibacter, Flavihumibacter, Flavisolibacter, Niabella, Niastella, Segetibacter, Parasegetibacter, Terrimonas, Ferruginibacter, Filimonas and Chitinophaga. The three organisms grouped most closely with Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 T but showed only 92.5% sequence similarity to this strain, the only recognized species of this genus. The fatty acid profiles showed large amounts of iso-C 15 : 0, iso-C 17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C 15 : 1 G with smaller amounts of iso-C 15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C 16 : 0 3-OH and other fatty acids, which differentiated the novel strains from related genera. Biochemical tests performed on strains CCUG 51397 T, CCUG 53736 and CCUG 53920 also gave different results from those of Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44 T and other related genera. Based on this evidence, strains CCUG 51397 T, CCUG 53736 and CCUG 53920 represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Hydrotalea flava gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Hydrotalea flava is CCUG 51397 T (=CCM 7760 T). A formal allocation of the genera Sediminibacterium, Lacibacter, Flavihumibacter, Flavisolibacter, Niabella, Niastella, Segetibacter, Parasegetibacter, Terrimonas, Ferruginibacter, Filimonas and Chitinophaga to the family Chitinophagaceae fam. nov. is also proposed. © 2011 IUMS.

Katcher M.H.,Princeton University | Norrby P.-O.,Gothenburg University | Norrby P.-O.,Astrazeneca | Doyle A.G.,Princeton University
Organometallics | Year: 2014

A computational and experimental approach was employed to study the mechanism of the palladium(0)-catalyzed fluorination of allylic chlorides with AgF as fluoride source. Our findings indicate that an allylpalladium fluoride is a key intermediate necessary for the generation of both the nucleophile and electrophile. Evidence was also obtained to support a homobimetallic mechanism in which C-F bond formation occurs by nucleophilic attack of a neutral allylpalladium fluoride on a cationic allylpalladium electrophile (with fluoride as counterion). The high branched selectivity and unusual ligand effects observed in the regioselective fluorination are assessed in light of this mechanism and calculated transition states. These results may have important implications for the mechanism of other transition-metal-catalyzed fluorinations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Ekebergh A.,Chalmers University of Technology | Borje A.,Gothenburg University | Martensson J.,Chalmers University of Technology
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

The first total synthesis of the mitotic spindle poison nostodione A is described. The inherent oxidative sensitivity of indoles is utilized for a late introduction of a second carbonyl to the cyclopent[b]indole-2-one system. The tricyclic system is prepared from indole-3-acetic acid and O-silylated 4-ethynylphenol, using a stereoselective intramolecular reductive Heck cyclization as the key transformation. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Bath M.,Gothenburg University | Bath M.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2010

There are many ways in which imaging systems can be evaluated. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of a number of selected approaches to evaluating imaging systems, often encountered by the medical physicist, and discuss their validity and reliability. Specifically, it will cover (i) characterisation of an imaging system in terms of its detective quantum efficiency using linear-systems analysis; (ii) attempts to calculate relevant measures directly in images using the Rose model and the pixel signal-to-noise ratio; (iii) task-based methods incorporating human observers such as receiver-operating characteristics and (iv) visual grading-based methods using experienced radiologists as observers. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

Ben-Menachem E.,Gothenburg University
Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum | Year: 2011

Complex partial seizures (CPS) are a form of localization-related seizures associated with serious comorbidities and risks. CPS can be difficult to treat and may remain refractory to treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Refractory CPS (rCPS) can be hazardous because of the potential for severe dysfunction and bodily harm, sometimes with fatal consequences. Control of seizure activity is critical to the clinical management of CPS. Vigabatrin is a unique AED approved in both Europe and the United States as adjunctive therapy for adult patients with rCPS who have responded inadequately to several alternative treatments. This review focuses on appropriately controlled studies of vigabatrin conducted in Europe. Several double-blind studies randomized those with rCPS to treatment with vigabatrin vs placebo, and two evaluated durability of response to long-term, open-label vigabatrin. Endpoints included seizure frequency, treatment satisfaction, and adverse events (AEs). Efficacy outcomes demonstrated that vigabatrin add-on therapy significantly reduced the frequency of seizures. Long-term studies indicated durability of response and tolerability of vigabatrin therapy for up to several years. Treatment satisfaction data indicated a preference for vigabatrin vs placebo for both physicians and study participants. Vigabatrin was well-tolerated with generally mild AEs considered common to AEDs. Vision effects were not formally monitored in these studies. In European trials, vigabatrin was efficacious as adjunctive therapy for rCPS. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Persson R.A.X.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

With computational efficacy in mind, a one-center model for linear molecules is heuristically sketched. When parametrized for CO2, all parameters save for two are supplied from literature quantum chemistry calculation or, in one case, heuristic argument. Using the remaining two adjustable parameters, the mean unsigned relative errors (predicted/observed) over the temperature range 220 - 290 K are 4.7% for the energy of vaporization, 0.6% for the liquid, and 8.0% for the vapor coexistence densities, respectively. The critical temperature is estimated at Tc = 308 K, the critical density at ρc = 0.460 g/cm3, and the critical pressure at pc = 8.26 ± 0.11 MPa. This order of accuracy is comparable to that of many all-atom potential descriptions of CO2 but is obtained at roughly nine times the speed. When supplied with the experimental bond length, somewhat worse agreement with experiment is exhibited for the neutron-weighted atomic pair distribution function of the liquid. This disparity is tentatively attributed to an overestimated electrostatic quadrupole - quadrupole interaction relative to the other forces present. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Karlsson G.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning | Year: 2010

This case study reports on how students, working collaboratively, interpret and construct a written report of the events described in animated educational software. The analysis is based on video recordings of two upper-secondary-school students while they are endeavouring to construe an animated sequence of the mouldering process. How the students grammatically construct their written account by means of available semiotic resources (i. e., animation and educational text) provided by the software is investigated. The results show that attentionally detected features of the animation take the role of active subjects in the students' description of the animated phenomena. When framing their sentences, the students derive noun phrases from animated active subjects and from the educational text. In the students' efforts to express themselves in their own words, they use verbs that differ from the educational text. These two actions together contribute to giving the students' description of the process a character of a non-scientific explanation. Lacking relevant subject matter knowledge, the students cannot judge whether they have given an adequate account or not. The only way that the students have to appraise their written report is to check if it is grammatically correct. It is concluded that it is essential to consider both cultural and semiotic processes when designing technology-supported educational approaches to the teaching of scientific concepts. © 2010 International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc.; Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Styhre A.,Gothenburg University
Information and Organization | Year: 2010

Sociomaterial practices produce, in many cases, opportunities for different modes of vision that further structure social practices. The very organization of the technologies of vision, or visual media, thus demands scholarly attention. Drawing on media theory, the article suggests that the materiality observed through the use of technology is not detached from these technologies but constitutes instances inextricably bound up with the particular technology. Following Barad (2003), matter is a practice, a set of doings accomplished through the mobilization of a heterogeneous body of resources. In the technosciences, species of nature (e.g. laboratory animals) are shaped to comply with operational hypotheses and underlying assumptions. Similarly, in financial trading, markets are constituted through the use of ensembles of technologies of vision. In this view, most vision is media-laden, intimately associated with the materialities organized to accomplish particular modes of seeing. Such mediated vision is a relevant object of study for organization theorists. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Guerreiro R.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Guerreiro R.J.,University of Coimbra | Gustafson D.R.,Gothenburg University | Gustafson D.R.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | Hardy J.,University College London
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2012

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disorder with a clear genetic component. Three genes have been identified as the cause of early onset familial AD (EOAD). The most common form of the disease, late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), is, however, a sporadic one presenting itself in later stages of life. The genetic component of this late onset form of AD has been the target of a large number of studies, because only one genetic risk factor (APOE4) has been consistently associated with the disease. However, technological advances allow new approaches in the study of complex disorders. In this review, we discuss the new results produced by genome wide association studies, in light of the current knowledge of the complexity of AD genetics. © 2012.

To evaluate the outcome of dental implants placed in patients with a history of periodontitis. Patients with no or mild history of periodontitis served as controls. A total of 1727 patients were consecutively treated in four private practices. Patients were divided into three groups according to their initial periodontal conditions assessed with a modified periodontal screening and recording (PSR) index: 630 patients were in the severe periodontitis (SP) group, 839 in the moderate periodontitis (MP) group, and 258 had no periodontitis (NP). Patients requiring periodontal treatment were treated prior to implantation. Various implant systems and procedures were used. In total, 3260 implants and 1707 implant-supported prostheses were placed in the SP group, 2813 implants and 1744 implant-supported prostheses in the MP group, and 647 implants and 424 implant-supported prostheses in the NP group. Mixed implant-tooth supported prostheses (98 prostheses in 89 patients) were not considered. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant survival. Two-hundred and fifty patients were lost to follow-up 5 years after loading. Regarding prosthesis failures, 13 prostheses could not be placed or failed in 13 patients of the SP group (0.8%), 11 prostheses could not be placed or failed in 9 patients of the MP group (0.7%), and 3 prostheses failed in 3 patients of the NP group (0.9%). For implant failures, 130 (4.5%) implants failed in the SP group, 74 (3.1%) implants failed in the MP group, and 15 (3.0%) implants failed in the NP group. Most of the implant failures (90%) occurred before implant loading. Fitting a logistic regression for early implant failures and total implant failures, taking into account the clustering of implants in patients, there were no statistically significant differences between the three PSR groups (P > 0.05). Owing to the retrospective nature of this study, conclusions need to be interpreted with caution. A previous history of periodontal disease may not have a significant impact on implant failures up to 5 years after loading.

Clarke A.K.,Gothenburg University
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2012

The ATP-dependent Clp protease is by far the most intricate protease in chloroplasts of vascular plants. Structurally, it is particularly complex with a proteolytic core complex containing 11 distinct subunits along with three potential chaperone partners. The Clp protease is also essential for chloroplast development and overall plant viability. Over the past decade, many of the important characteristics of this crucial protease have been revealed in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite this, challenges still remain in fully resolving certain key features, in particular, how the assembly of this multisubunit protease is regulated, the full range of native protein substrates and how they are targeted for degradation and how this complicated enzyme might have developed from simpler bacterial forms. This article focuses upon the recent advances in revealing the details underlying these important features. It also take the opportunity to speculate upon many of these findings in the hope of stimulating further investigation. © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

Nilsson J.,Gothenburg University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We consider particles moving in rotating saddle-shaped potentials in two dimensions. It is known that such rotating potentials can generate bounded motion for particles with a parabolic dispersion law through the combination of potential, centrifugal, and Coriolis forces in the rotating frame. When applied to massless Dirac particles, for example, electrons in graphene, such a potential is shown to lead to eigenstates that are spatially localized near the center of the saddle at certain energies. Although other states also exist at these energies, they have nonoverlapping support in the oscillator basis, which also tends to give the localized states a substantial lifetime when imperfections are present. © 2013 American Physical Society.

OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are found in more than 85% of patients with pancreatic cancer and with 5-year survival of less than 10%. Effective treatment may be radical surgery, which is hampered by rapid relapse. Therefore, our aim was to compare DNA sequence alterations in patients with short and long survival to evaluate if confirmed DNA alterations predict short postoperative survival. METHODS: DNA was extracted from tumor tissue from 59 PDAC patients, analyzed for KRAS mutations, and hybridized to 180 K CGH + SNP microarrays and 450 K methylation arrays. Analyses were based on postoperative survival where less than 12 months was considered to be short survival and more than 18 months was considered long survival. RESULTS: Ninety-three percent of the patients had KRAS mutations in tumor DNA. Great heterogeneity of whole genome DNA sequence alterations were observed among chromosomes within the patient materials. Specific DNA sequence alterations did not directly predict postoperative survival, although short survivors had significantly more and larger DNA amplifications (P < 0.006). Amplifications on chromosome 11 and 21 and deletions on chromosome 2 predicted short postoperative survival (P < 0.03). DNA methylation was not related to survival. CONCLUSIONS: Highly variable genetic differences among DNA regions in PDAC tumors were demonstrated. Postoperative short survival was related to tumor sequence DNA alterations on chromosome 2, 11, and 21. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mohr M.,University of Exeter | Mohr M.,Gothenburg University | Krustrup P.,University of Exeter
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2014

The study examined Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YYIR2) and submaximal YYIR1 test performances in 172 male semi-professional football players (age; 25.8 ± 4.1 years) representing all teams in a top league at pre-season, start-season, mid-season and end-season. YYIR2 performance was 847 ± 227 m (±SD) at pre-season and rose (P < 0.05) by 128 ± 113 m to 975 ± 205 m at start of season and further (P < 0.05) by 59 ± 102 m to 1034 ± 211 m at mid-season. Submaximal YYIR1 HR was 90.9 ± 4.2% HRmax at pre-season, which was higher (P < 0.05) than at start, mid and end of season (87.0 ± 3.9, 85.9 ± 4.1 and 87.0 ± 3.7% HRmax, respectively). Peak YYIR2 performance and minimum YYIR1 HR were 1068 ± 193 m and 85.1 ± 3.8% HRmax, respectively, with ~50% of the players peaking at mid-season. Top-teams and middle-teams had higher (P < 0.05) peak YYIR2 scores (1094 ± 205 and 1121 ± 152 m, respectively) than bottom-teams (992 ± 185 m). YYIR2 performance was 16% higher (P < 0.05) and YYIR1 HR was 1.4% HRmax lower (P < 0.05) for regular players than non-regular players at pre-season and remained lower (P < 0.05) throughout the season. Central defenders had poorer (P < 0.05) YYIR performances compared to other positional roles. In conclusion, YYIR performances are highly variable within a football league over a season and are influenced by league ranking, regularity of competitive play and playing position. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Oberg S.,Gothenburg University
Economics and Human Biology | Year: 2014

The study explores the long-term trends in socioeconomic differences in height among young adult men. We linked information from conscript inspections to a longitudinal demographic database of five parishes in Southern Sweden. Detailed information on the occupation and landholding was used to investigate the differences in height. Even if there is indication of a reduction in the magnitude of the differences in height over time the reduction is neither dramatic nor uniform. The most systematic and consistent difference is that sons of fathers with white collar occupations were taller than others. They were 4 cm taller than the sons of low-skilled manual workers in the first half of the 19th century, and almost 2 cm taller in the mid-20th century. This difference is much smaller than those found between elite and destitute groups historically, in for example Britain, but comparable to that found in other studies on 19th century populations using information on family background. Most of the reduction in the socioeconomic differences in height was a result of reduced height penalty and premium for small disadvantaged and privileged groups. Changes in the distribution of income and the economic structure are plausible explanations for the changes in socioeconomic differences in height. ©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Background Transfer of young people (YP) with chronic conditions to adult-centred multi-professional care (AdCC) has been discussed for decades. Generic principles for transition have been proposed, but resulting outcomes have not, on the whole, been documented and the burden of ensuring suitable transition continues to lie in the field of paediatrics. The emerging knowledge of the brain maturing into the twenties together with the enforced transfer of patients at 18.0 years of age has made paediatric clinics in Sweden reconsider their transition protocols. Methods Paediatrics-centred multi-professional care (PedCC) teams and AdCC teams in one administrative area participated in joint small group discussions on principles for transition during 2 days. The suggested principles were then given to next group in another administrative area for evaluation and elaboration. Thirteen such seminars with small group discussions took place consecutively. Results After this process, six core principles emerged as acceptable and essential. 1 The age of 18.0 was accepted as a reasonable age for the transfer of all patients from PedCC to AdCC. 2 A draft was developed of the knowledge and skills that PedCC should teach patients and parents before age 18, to make transfer viable. 3 A draft was made of the psychosocial needs of YP for the latter part of transition, which would be the responsibility of AdCC. 4 A self-referral note was developed, where patients present their own needs. 5 YP dropping out of needed care after transfer was considered a violation of ethical codes that required finite action. 6 Joint small group discussions between PedCC and AdCC were found to be instrumental for cooperation. Follow-up seminars demonstrated sustainability and spontaneous spreading of the principles. Conclusion Small group discussions between PedCC and AdCC were pivotal in creating a sustainable process for transition. It was possible to agree on six core principles and share the responsibility between PedCC and AdCC. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rider J.R.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Sandin F.,Regional Cancer Center | Andren O.,Orebro University | Wiklund P.,Karolinska Institutet | And 3 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2013

Background: Limited data exist on long-term outcomes among men with prostate cancer (PCa) from population-based cohorts incorporating information on clinical risk category. Objective: To assess 15-yr mortality for men with PCa treated with noncurative intent according to clinical stage, Gleason score (GS), serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), comorbidity, and age. Design, setting, and participants: Register-based cohort study of 76 437 cases in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden diagnosed from 1991 through 2009 and treated with noncurative intent. Each case was placed in one of five risk categories: (1) low risk: T1-T2 tumor, PSA level <10 ng/ml, and GS ≤6; (2) intermediate risk: T1-T2 tumor and PSA level 10-<20 ng/ml or GS 7; (3) high risk: T3 tumor or PSA level 20-<50 ng/ml or GS ≥8; (4) regional metastases: N1 or T4 tumor or PSA level 50-100 ng/ml; and (5) distant metastases: M1 tumor or PSA ≥100 ng/ml. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Ten- and 15-yr cumulative risk of death after diagnosis from PCa, cardiovascular disease, and other causes. Results and limitations: Among men with a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score of 0, no differences were found in observed versus expected all-cause mortality in the low-risk group. Observed mortality was only slightly greater in the intermediate-risk group, but men with high-risk localized PCa or more advanced disease had substantially higher mortality than expected. CCI was strongly associated with cumulative 10-yr mortality from causes other than PCa, especially for men <65 yr. Limitations include potential misclassification in risk category due to GS assignment. Conclusions: PCa mortality rates vary 10-fold according to risk category. The risk of death from causes other than PCa is most strongly related to comorbidity status in younger men. © 2012 European Association of Urology.

Bernhardsson S.,Gothenburg University | Klintberg I.H.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Wendt G.K.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
Clinical Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the effect on pain intensity and function of an exercise concept focusing on specific eccentric strength training of the rotator cuff in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Design: Single-subject research design with baseline and treatment phases (AB design). Setting: Home-based training programme supervised and supported by visits to physiotherapy clinic. Subjects: Ten patients, mean (SD) age 54 (8.6) years, symptom duration 12 (9.1) months. Intervention: Daily eccentric strengthening exercises of the rotator cuff during 12 weeks. Main measures: Primary outcome measures: Pain intensity, assessed with a visual analogue scale, and function, using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale. Secondary outcome measures: Shoulder function evaluated with the Constant score, and shoulder-related quality of life evaluated with the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index. Results: Pain intensity decreased significantly in eight of the ten subjects. Function improved significantly in all ten subjects. Constant score increased in nine subjects and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index increased in seven subjects. Mean Constant score for the whole group increased significantly from 44 to 69 points (P = 0.008). Mean Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index increased from 51 to 71% (P = 0.021). Conclusion: A 12-week eccentric strengthening programme targeting the rotator cuff and incorporating scapular control and correct movement pattern can be effective in decreasing pain and increasing function in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. A randomized controlled trial is necessary to provide stronger evidence of the method. © 2011 The Author(s).

To evaluate whether 5 mm short dental implants could be an alternative to augmentation with anorganic bovine bone and placement of at least 10 mm long implants in posterior atrophic jaws. Fifteen patients with bilateral atrophic mandibles (5-7 mm bone height above the mandibular canal), and 15 patients with bilateral atrophic maxillae (4-6 mm bone height below the maxillary sinus) and bone thickness of at least 8 mm, were randomised according to a splitmouth design to receive one to three 5 mm short implants or at least 10 mm long implants in augmented bone. Mandibles were vertically augmented with interpositional bone blocks and maxillary sinuses with particulated bone via a lateral window. Implants were placed after 4 months, submerged and loaded, after 4 months, with provisional prostheses. Four months later, definitive provisionally cemented prostheses were delivered. Outcome measures were: prosthesis and implant failures, any complication and peri-implant marginal bone level changes. In 5 augmented mandibles, the planned 10 mm long implants could not be placed and shorter implants (7 and 8.5 mm) had to be used instead. One year after loading no patient dropped out. Two long (8.5 mm in the mandible and 13 mm in the maxilla) implants and one 5 mm short maxillary implant failed. There were no statistically significant differences in failures or complications. Patients with short implants lost on average 1 mm of peri-implant bone and patients with longer implants lost 1.2 mm. This difference was statistically significant. This pilot study suggests that 1 year after loading, 5 mm short implants achieve similar if not better results than longer implants placed in augmented bone. Short implants might be a preferable choice to bone augmentation since the treatment is faster, cheaper and associated with less morbidity, however their long-term prognosis is unknown.

Lasser C.,Gothenburg University
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Exosomes are 40-100 nm sized vesicles released from cells when multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. These vesicles take part in cell-to-cell communication by binding and signalling through membrane receptors on cells or by transferring proteins, RNA, and lipids into the cells. Exosomal RNA in body fluids, such as plasma and urine, has been associated with malignancies, making the exosomal RNA a potential biomarker for early detection of these diseases. This has increased the interest in the field of extracellular RNA and in particular, the interest in exosomal RNA. In this chapter, a well-established exosome isolation method is described, as well as how to characterize the isolated vesicles by electron microscopy. Furthermore, two types of RNA isolation methods are described with a focus on isolating RNA from body fluids, which can be more viscous than cell culture media. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

To evaluate whether 6.3 mm-long implants could be a suitable alternative to longer implants placed in vertically augmented atrophic posterior mandibles. Sixty partially edentulous patients having 7 to 8 mm of residual crestal height and at least 5.5 mm thickness measured on CT scans above the mandibular canal were randomised according to a parallel group design either to receive 1 to 3 submerged 6.3 mm-long implants or 9.3 mm or longer implants (30 patients per group) placed in vertically augmented bone. Bone was augmented with interpositional an organic bovine bone blocks covered by resorbable barriers. Grafts were left to heal for 5 months before implant placement. Four months later, provisional acrylic prostheses were delivered, and were then replaced after another 4 months by definitive metal-ceramic prostheses. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, complications, and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone level changes. All patients were followed up to 3 years after loading. Four patients dropped out, two from each group. The augmentation procedure failed in two patients and only 6.3 mm-long implants could be inserted. There were no statistically significant differences for prosthesis and implant failures. Three prostheses could not be placed or had to be remade in the short implant group versus 4 prostheses in the augmented group. Two short implants failed versus 3 long implants, all in different patients. There were statistically significantly more complications in augmented patients (22 complications in 20 augmented patients versus 5 complications in 5 patients of the short implant group). Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone in a statistically significant way at 4 months, and 1 and 3 years after loading. Three years after loading, patients of the short implant group lost an average of 1.24 mm of peri-implant bone compared with 1.76 mm in the long implant group. Short implants experienced statistically significantly less bone loss (0.52 mm; CI 95% 0.20 to 0.83, P = 0.002) than long implants. When residual bone height over the mandibular canal is between 7 and 8 mm, 6.3 mm short implants could be an interesting alternative to vertical augmentation since the treatment is faster, cheaper and associated with less morbidity. Longer follow-ups are needed to confirm these results.

Kettunen P.,Gothenburg University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2012

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a new model system during the last three decades. The fact that the zebrafish larva is transparent enables sophisticated in vivo imaging. While being the vertebrate, the reduced complexity of its nervous system and small size make it possible to follow large-scale activity in the whole brain. Its genome is sequenced and many genetic and molecular tools have been developed that simplify the study of gene function. Since the mid 1990s, the embryonic development and neuronal function of the larval, and later, adult zebrafish have been studied using calcium imaging methods. The choice of calcium indicator depends on the desired number of cells to study and cell accessibility. Dextran indicators have been used to label cells in the developing embryo from dye injection into the one-cell stage. Dextrans have also been useful for retrograde labeling of spinal cord neurons and cells in the olfactory system. Acetoxymethyl (AM) esters permit labeling of larger areas of tissue such as the tectum, a region responsible for visual processing. Genetically encoded calcium indicators have been expressed in various tissues by the use of cell-specific promoters. These studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of basic biological principles during development and adulthood, and of the function of disease-related genes in a vertebrate system. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Bjork Bramberg E.,Gothenburg University | Dahlberg K.,Linnaeus University
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2013

Our focus in this article is research interviews that involve two languages. We present an epistemological and methodological analysis of the meaning of qualitative interviewing with an interpreter. The results of the analysis show that such interviewing is not simply exchanging words between two languages, but means understanding, grasping the essential meanings of the spoken words, which requires an interpreter to bridge the different horizons of understanding. Consequently, a research interview including an interpreter means a three-way coconstruction of data. We suggest that interpreters be thoroughly introduced into the research process and research interview technique, that they take part in the preparations for the interview event, and evaluate the translation process with the researcher and informant after the interview. © The Author(s) 2013.

Sensitive methods to detect airways inflammation caused by exposures associated with adverse respiratory effects are crucial, as is the identification of individuals with early-stage disease. In this review, the use of induced sputum and sampling of the fraction of nitric oxide to identify airways inflammation associated with occupational exposures is discussed. In addition, a new method to assess airways inflammation in small airways (sampling and analyses of particles in exhaled air) is introduced. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Gustafson D.R.,Gothenburg University | Gustafson D.R.,New York University
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

Level of adiposity is linked to manifest dementia and Alzheimer's disease in epidemiological studies. Overweight and obesity in mid- and late-life may increase risk for dementia, whereas decline in body weight or body mass index and underweight in years preceding and at the time of a dementia diagnosis may also relate to dementia. The role of adiposity during the period of cognitive decline is, as yet, not understood; however, some hypotheses relating adipose tissue to brain can be drawn. This review focuses on potential, varied mechanisms whereby adipose tissue may influence or interact with the brain and/or dementia risk during the dynamic period of life characterized by both body weight and cognitive decline. These mechanisms relate to: a) adipose tissue location and cell types, b) body composition, c) endocrine adipose, and d) the interplay among adipose, brain structure and function, and genes. This review will illustrate that adipose tissue is a quintessential, multifunctional tissue of the human body. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Perello M.,CONICET | Dickson S.L.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2015

'Hunger is the best spice' is an old and wise saying that acknowledges the fact that almost any food tastes better when we are hungry. The neurobiological underpinnings of this lore include activation of the brain's reward system and the stimulation of this system by the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is produced largely from the stomach and levels are higher preprandially. The ghrelin receptor is expressed in many brain areas important for feeding control, including not only the hypothalamic nuclei involved in energy balance regulation, but also reward-linked areas such as the ventral tegmental area. By targeting the mesoaccumbal dopamine neurones of the ventral tegmental area, ghrelin recruits pathways important for food reward-related behaviours that show overlap with but are also distinct from those important for food intake. We review a variety of studies that support the notion that ghrelin signalling at the level of the mesolimbic system is one of the key molecular substrates that provides a physiological signal connecting gut and reward pathways. © 2014 The Authors.

Saljo R.,Gothenburg University | Saljo R.,University of Turku
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2010

The purpose of this article is to offer some reflections on the relationships between digital technologies and learning. It is argued that activities of learning, as they have been practised within institutionalized schooling, are coming under increasing pressure from the developments of digital technologies and the capacities to store, access and manipulate information that such resources offer. Thus, the technologies do not merely support learning; they transform how we learn and how we come to interpret learning. The metaphors of learning currently emerging as relevant in the new media ecology emphasize the transformational and performative nature of such activities, and of knowing in general. These developments make the hybrid nature of human knowing and learning obvious; what we know and master is, to an increasing extent, a function of the mediating tools we are familiar with. At a theoretical and practical level, this implies that the interdependences between human agency, minds, bodies and technologies have to serve as foundations when attempting to understand and improve learning. Attempts to account for what people know without integrating their mastery of increasingly sophisticated technologies into the picture will lack ecological validity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Wasen K.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of Social Robotics | Year: 2010

This article highlights the thus far unexplained social and professional effects raised by robotization in surgical applications, and further develops an understanding of social acceptance among professional users of robots in the healthcare sector. It presents findings from ethnographic workplace research on human-robot interactions (HRI) in a population of twenty-three professionals. When considering all the findings, the latest da Vinci system equipped with four robotic arms substitutes two table-side surgical assistants, in contrast to the single-arm AESOP robot that only substitutes one surgical assistant. The adoption of robots and the replacement of surgical assistants provide clear evidence that robots are well-accepted among operating surgeons. Because HRI decrease the operating surgeon's dependence on social assistance and since they replace the work tasks of surgical assistants, the robot is considered a surrogate artificial work partner and worker. This finding is consistent with prior HRI research indicating that users, through their cooperation with robots, often become less reliant on supportive social actions. This research relates to societal issues and provides the first indication that highly educated knowledge workers are beginning to be replaced by robot technology in working life and therefore points towards a paradigm shift in the service sector. © Springer Science & Business Media BV 2010.

Lindgren I.,Gothenburg University
Molecular Physics | Year: 2010

The development of standard MBPT for single-reference and multi-reference cases is reviewed, and its extension to the relativistic case in the form of the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit (DCB) approximation is described. The latter scheme is non-covariant, and the recent development of a fully covariant MBPT scheme is discussed. This is based upon a new scheme for quantum-electrodynamical (QED) calculations, the covariant-evolution-operator method, which is combined with standard MBPT. This scheme is fully compatible with the relativistically covariant Bethe-Salpeter equation. Some numerical results of the new scheme are given. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique cellular messenger linked to a number of important biological processes. Its free radical nature, small size and fast diffusivity make it highly reactive and membrane permeable. Unfortunately, its reactivity, coupled with the inherent complexity of in situ biological measurements, makes it a challenge to detect. For the past 20 years, electrochemical methods have been used to investigate the role of NO in a number of biological processes, including vascular physiology, immune response, neuronal mediation, tissue growth and oxidative stress. This review examines the biological applications of electrochemical NO sensors and the technologies used to elucidate different physiological phenomena associated with this unique biomolecule with a specific focus on the developments and innovations reported in the last 3 years.

Hawkins N.M.,Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital | Petrie M.C.,Golden Jubilee National Hospital | MacDonald M.R.,Golden Jubilee National Hospital | Jhund P.S.,University of Glasgow | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011

The combination of heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presents many therapeutic challenges. The cornerstones of therapy are beta-blockers and beta-agonists, respectively. Their pharmacological effects are diametrically opposed, and each is purported to adversely affect the alternative condition. The tolerability of beta-blockade in patients with mild and fixed airflow obstruction likely extends to those with more severe disease. However, the evidence is rudimentary. The long-term influence of beta-blockade on pulmonary function, symptoms, and quality of life is unclear. Low-dose initiation and gradual up-titration of cardioselective beta-blockers is currently recommended. Robust clinical trials are needed to provide the answers that may finally allay physicians' mistrust of beta-blockers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Beta-agonists are associated with incident heart failure in patients with pulmonary disease and with increased mortality and hospitalization in those with existing heart failure. These purported adverse effects require further investigation. In the meantime, clinicians should consider carefully the etiology of dyspnea and obtain objective evidence of airflow obstruction before prescribing beta-agonists to patients with heart failure. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Czerkinsky C.,Korean International Vaccine Institute | Holmgren J.,Gothenburg University
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2012

The mucosal immune system exhibits a high degree of anatomic compartmentalization related to the migratory patterns of lymphocytes activated at different mucosal sites. The selective localization of mucosal lymphocytes to specific tissues is governed by cellular "homing" and chemokine receptors in conjunction with tissue-specific addressins and epithelial cell-derived chemokines that are differentially expressed in "effector" tissues. The compartmentalization of mucosal immune responses imposes constraints on the selection of vaccine administration route. Traditional routes of mucosal immunization include oral and nasal routes. Other routes for inducing mucosal immunity include the rectal, vaginal, sublingual, and transcutaneous routes. Sublingual administration is a new approach that results in induction of mucosal and systemic T cell and antibody responses with an exceptionally broad dissemination to different mucosae, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and the genital mucosa. Here, we discuss how sublingual and different routes of immunization can be used to generate immune responses in the desired mucosal tissue(s). © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Styhre A.,Gothenburg University
Construction Management and Economics | Year: 2010

Anecdotal evidence and literature searches suggest that the construction industry is generally portrayed in negative terms; it is conservative, risk-reluctant, unable to produce innovation, and so forth. This 'culture of complaint' occasionally surfacing in talks and writing is examined as what is in essence ideological, that is, rather than being a marginal gesture of little social and cultural significance, complaining is serving as a functional mechanism enabling, inter alia, a sense of community, the warding off of criticism, and to cope with perceived uncertainties. The commonplace dismissal of the construction industry is thus worthy of more systematic scholarly attention. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Blanco-Pastor J.L.,Real Jardin Botanico RJB CSIC | Vargas P.,Real Jardin Botanico RJB CSIC | Pfeil B.E.,Gothenburg University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

We examined the phylogenetic history of Linaria with special emphasis on the Mediterranean sect. Supinae (44 species). We revealed extensive highly supported incongruence among two nuclear (ITS, AGT1) and two plastid regions (rpl32-trnLUAG, trnS-trnG). Coalescent simulations, a hybrid detection test and species tree inference in *BEAST revealed that incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization may both be responsible for the incongruent pattern observed. Additionally, we present a multilabelled *BEAST species tree as an alternative approach that allows the possibility of observing multiple placements in the species tree for the same taxa. That permitted the incorporation of processes such as hybridization within the tree while not violating the assumptions of the *BEAST model. This methodology is presented as a functional tool to disclose the evolutionary history of species complexes that have experienced both hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. The drastic climatic events that have occurred in the Mediterranean since the late Miocene, including the Quaternary-type climatic oscillations, may have made both processes highly recurrent in the Mediterranean flora. © 2012 Blanco-Pastor et al.

Low-density lipoprotein is recognized as a primary vascular risk factor. However, recent data favor apolipoprotein (apo)B and apoA-I as risk factors with higher predictive values than conventional lipids. We investigated how leisure-time physical activity relates to the serum apoB/apoA-I ratio in middle-aged men. The results showed that compared with a sedentary lifestyle, moderate physical activity was associated with a decreased apoB/apoA-I ratio (1.01 ± 0.28 vs 0.87 ± 0.24, P < .05) and increased apoA-I levels (1.30 ± 0.20 g/L vs 1.43 ± 0.22 g/L, P < .05), whereas vigorous activity was required to observe a reduction in apoB levels (1.27 ± 0.28 g/L vs 1.14 ± 0.24 g/L, P < .05). A covariate analysis showed that leisure time physical activity was also associated with reduced apoB/apoA-I ratios after adjustment for smoking, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference. Importantly, this association was seen at moderate levels of physical activity, supporting the notion that some activity is better than none.

Gerlee P.,Gothenburg University | Gerlee P.,Chalmers University of Technology
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

In this article, we will trace the historical development of tumor growth laws, which in a quantitative fashion describe the increase in tumor mass/volume over time. These models are usually formulated in terms of differential equations that relate the growth rate of the tumor to its current state and range from the simple one-parameter exponential growth model to more advanced models that contain a large number of parameters. Understanding the assumptions and consequences of such models is important, as they often underpin more complex models of tumor growth. The conclusion of this brief survey is that although much improvement has occurred over the last century, more effort and new models are required if we are to understand the intricacies of tumor growth. Cancer Res; 73(8); 2407-11. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

Ponti M.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of e-Collaboration | Year: 2010

A number of socio-technical aspects that infuence interorganizational research collaboration are embedded in local work contexts. Thus, they should be a main concern for the design of virtual research environments. A review of forty papers from different research felds provided an understanding of the infuence of eleven socio-technical aspects grouped according to the following categories: nature of work; common ground; collaboration readiness; management style and leadership; technology readiness. There are fve main implications for the design of virtual research environments. Emphasis is placed on the importance of consulting the stakeholders so that they suggest solutions and ideas, and imbue the collaborative environment with the values required for it to be sustainable.

Friberg L.,Karolinska Institutet | Bergfeldt L.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: The estimate of 0.4-1.0% prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the most recent American guidelines is based mainly on studies including patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF), although recent evidence shows that the stroke risk is similar with paroxysmal and persistent AF. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of AF in Sweden, irrespective of type and to what extent patients with AF receive adequate stroke prophylaxis. Method: Retrospective study of patients with a clinical diagnosis of atrial fibrillation between 2005 and 2010 in the national Swedish Patient Register matched with data from the National Prescribed Drugs Register. Results: We identified 307 476 individuals with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Of these, 209 141 were still alive on the last day of the inclusion period, signifying a prevalence of clinically diagnosed AF in Sweden of 2.9% of the total adult (≥20 years) population. Only 42% of them had purchased an oral anticoagulant within 6 months of the first presentation with AF during the study period. Those at the highest risk of stroke were those least likely to receive anticoagulant treatment. Undertreatment was common amongst women and individuals >80 years, whilst overtreatment was common amongst young men without risk factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is at least 2.9% of the Swedish adult population, not counting 'silent atrial fibrillation'. The official US figures probably underestimate the magnitude of the problem by a factor of 3-5. More than 80% had risk factors motivating anticoagulation therapy. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

Moller A.,Gothenburg University
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

At the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV), methods to alleviate problems with disability have been seen as an important part of actions to support public health. A programme for universal design was started in 2006. Some issues of public health perspectives on disability are presented in this paper, based on discussions from a PhD course held at the NHV. During the course, the students presented papers in which they reflected on the relationship between disability and public health. These essays were collected and published in 2012 at NHV. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

Hunsberger M.,Gothenburg University
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2014

The aim of this review is to examine two factors that may be associated with development of childhood overweight: early feeding, namely exclusive breastfeeding practices; family structure. Findings from the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study are presented in the context of the literature. IDEFICS is a multi-centre European study exploring the risks for overweight and obesity in children, which recruited 16224 children aged 2-9 years from September 2007 to June 2008 at survey centres in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Among the IDEFICS sample, after controlling for confounders, exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months was protective of overweight (including obesity) when compared with children never exclusively breastfed (OR 0·73, 95% CI 0·63, 0·85). Family structure and number of siblings may also be associated with overweight. IDEFICS children without siblings were more likely (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·34, 1·72) to be overweight than their peers with siblings when controlling for factors related to childhood overweight such as country, parental education, parental weight, maternal age, child's age, birth weight and gender. Both early feeding practices and family structure play a role in the future development of obesity. The impact of breastfeeding on future development of overweight is dependent upon the dose. Exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended 6 months appears to be protective of overweight. Family structure is also an important component and emerging research suggests only children are at increased risk for overweight in comparison with those with siblings. In European countries, approximately 22 million children are overweight. Early dietary exposures, genetic, environmental and social factors have all been proposed as potential causal factors. Two such factors include exclusive breastfeeding and the impact of being an only child. We have investigated these two factors for associations with overweight; our studies, in the context of previous findings, are the focus of this review. © The Author 2013.

Foller M.-L.,Gothenburg University
African Journal of AIDS Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The main questions the paper aims to answer are: Who is setting the agenda? What power mechanisms are in place to fulfil planned projects and programmes? Are there any forms of resistance from civil society AIDS-organisations in the face of the donor interventions? The actions will be analysed through the lens of governmentality theory. The study concluded that donors have the power to set the agenda through predetermined programmes and using various technologies. Their strongest weapons are audit mechanisms such as the result based management model used as a control mechanism, and there is still a long way to go to achieve a situation with multiple forms of local resistance to the conditions set by economically powerful donors. The standardisation imposed through clustering donors into like-minded groups and other constellations gives them power to govern the politics of AIDS. Copyright © NISC (Pty) Ltd.

KRAS and BRAF are among the most commonly mutated oncogenes in human cancer that contribute to tumorigenesis in both distinct and overlapping tissues. However, KRAS and BRAF mutations are mutually exclusive; they never occur in the same tumor cell. The reason for the mutual exclusivity is unknown, but there are several possibilities. The two mutations could be functionally redundant and not create a selective advantage to tumor cells. Alternatively, they could be deleterious for the tumor cell and induce apoptosis or senescence. To distinguish between these possibilities, we activated the expression of BRAFV600E and KRASG12D from their endogenous promoters in mouse lungs. Although the tumor-forming ability of BRAFV600E was higher than KRASG12D, KRASG12D tumors were larger and more advanced. Coactivation of BRAFV600E and KRASG12D markedly reduced lung tumor numbers and overall tumor burden compared with activation of BRAFV600E alone. Moreover, several tumors expressed only one oncogene, suggesting negative selection against expression of both. Similarly, expression of both oncogenes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts essentially stopped proliferation. The expression of both oncogenes hyperactivated the MEK-ERK-cyclin D pathway but reduced proliferation by increasing the production of p15, p16 and p19 proteins encoded by the Ink4/Arf locus and thereby increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase-positive cells. The data suggest that coexpression of BRAFV600E and KRASG12D in early tumorigenesis leads to negative selection due to oncogene-induced senescence.Oncogene advance online publication, 1 June 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.186. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Ronald A.,Birkbeck, University of London | Larsson H.,Karolinska Institutet | Anckarsater H.,Gothenburg University | Lichtenstein P.,Karolinska Institutet
Journal of Abnormal Psychology | Year: 2014

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show high comorbidity. The following questions were addressed regarding their specific symptoms: What is the factor structure of ASD and ADHD symptoms, to what degree do different symptom domains cluster together, to what extent are these domains caused by the same genetic and environmental influences, and what is the best model of their co-occurrence? A population-based twin cohort of over 17,000 9- and 12-year-olds were assessed using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities parental interview inventory. Principal component analyses were conducted, and symptom domain clustering was assessed. Four multivariate twin models were compared. Factors split into three ASD (social impairments, communication impairments, and restricted repetitive behaviors and interests), and three ADHD (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) symptom domains. Some ASD-ADHD symptom domain combinations clustered together often, although others not at all. A two-factor common pathway model fit the data, suggesting that ASD and ADHD symptom domains tap into separate "ASD" and "ADHD" latent factors that showed high genetic overlap. All subdomains also showed significant specific genetic and environmental influences, reflecting the etiological heterogeneity both within and between ASD and ADHD. These findings support the conceptual distinction of ASD and ADHD, and demonstrate the considerable natural co-occurrence of particular ASD/ADHD symptom domains. The results imply that more children with 1 condition show features of the other condition than show complete comorbidity. Emphasis on symptom co-occurrence, rather than complete comorbidity between disorders, may help focus clinical approaches and advance molecular genetic research. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Peters E.,Ohio State University | Bjalkebring P.,Ohio State University | Bjalkebring P.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | Year: 2015

A growing body of evidence demonstrates the practical and theoretical importance of numeracy in evaluations and choices involving numeric information, an importance that goes beyond simple accuracy in performing mathematical computations. Numeric competency, however, may be multiply determined, but little research has examined potentially separable influences in evaluations and choice. In the present article, we describe 3 numeric competencies and begin to disentangle their effects. Participants (N = 111) completed a series of tasks in 4 1-hr sessions. We first examined relations between objective numeracy, subjective numeracy, and symbolic-number mapping abilities (thought to tap into internal representations of numeric magnitude and the mapping of symbolic numbers onto those representations) using a structural equation model. We then explored their dissociations in numeric and nonnumeric tasks. Higher vs. lower scores in objective numeracy were associated with explicit number operations, including number comparisons and calculations. Those with more vs. less exact mapping had better numeric memory (but not nonnumeric) and produced valuations that were closer to (but did not equal) a risky gamble's expected value, indicating a link with superior number intuitions. Finally, individuals lower vs. higher in subjective numeracy had more negative emotional reactions to numbers and were lessmotivated and/or confident in numeric tasks. It was less clear whether subjective numeracy might also relate to more general motivations and metacognitions involving nonnumeric information. We conclude that numeric competencies should be used in a more targeted fashion to understand their multiple mechanisms in people's evaluations, choices, and life outcomes. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Rothwell P.M.,University of Oxford | Howard S.C.,University of Oxford | Dolan E.,Stroke and Hypertension Unit | O'Brien E.,University College Dublin | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Background: The mechanisms by which hypertension causes vascular events are unclear. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment focus only on underlying mean blood pressure. We aimed to reliably establish the prognostic significance of visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure, maximum blood pressure reached, untreated episodic hypertension, and residual variability in treated patients. Methods: We determined the risk of stroke in relation to visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure (expressed as standard deviation [SD] and parameters independent of mean blood pressure) and maximum blood pressure in patients with previous transient ischaemic attack (TIA; UK-TIA trial and three validation cohorts) and in patients with treated hypertension (Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial Blood Pressure Lowering Arm [ASCOT-BPLA]). In ASCOT-BPLA, 24-h ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring (ABPM) was also studied. Findings: In each TIA cohort, visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) was a strong predictor of subsequent stroke (eg, top-decile hazard ratio [HR] for SD SBP over seven visits in UK-TIA trial: 6·22, 95% CI 4·16-9·29, p<0·0001), independent of mean SBP, but dependent on precision of measurement (top-decile HR over ten visits: 12·08, 7·40-19·72, p<0·0001). Maximum SBP reached was also a strong predictor of stroke (HR for top-decile over seven visits: 15·01, 6·56-34·38, p<0·0001, after adjustment for mean SBP). In ASCOT-BPLA, residual visit-to-visit variability in SBP on treatment was also a strong predictor of stroke and coronary events (eg, top-decile HR for stroke: 3·25, 2·32-4·54, p<0·0001), independent of mean SBP in clinic or on ABPM. Variability on ABPM was a weaker predictor, but all measures of variability were most predictive in younger patients and at lower (

Ectopic pregnancy, a worldwide health problem, is potentially life-threatening and occurs in approximately 1.5-2 of all pregnancies in the western world; however, the precise mechanisms underlying the initiation and development of tubal ectopic pregnancy are unknown. Tubal abnormalities and dysfunction, such as altered contractility or abnormal ciliary activity, have been speculated to lead to tubal ectopic pregnancy. To elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the tubal transport process, several knockout (KO) mouse models have been developed. This review summarizes what has been learned from studies of the Fallopian tube in caspase-1, cannabinoid receptor and Dicer1 KO mice. Our understanding of the mechanisms which contribute to tubal ectopic pregnancy in humans may be enhanced through further study of these KO mouse models.

Weilenmann A.,Gothenburg University
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2010

This paper is based on an interaction analysis of video recordings of seniors being instructed in the use of texting. Learning to text is a complex ordeal for the elderly, which not only involves grasping such complex phenomena as hierarchically organized menus and text prediction technology, but also more mundane and seemingly simple skills as pressing the keys. The latter is the primary focus of the analysis, as this is a common and taken for granted skill upon which many HCI systems rely. We show how the seniors struggle with learning to press in a sequence, embodying the timing and rhythm of key pressing, and orchestrating their vision and pressing. The study contributes to the general field of mobile phone design for the elderly, to our knowledge on how people appropriate and learn to use new technologies, as well as adds to models explaining novice users' mastering of text input. © 2010 ACM.

Hallonsten O.,Gothenburg University | Heinze T.,University of Wuppertal
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the institutional persistence of systems of national laboratories (SNLs) thAT unlike other public and private research organizations appear to have experienced only minor institutional shifts in recent years. Although national laboratories started as time-limited mission-oriented projects, most of them have remained in operation as continuously renewed multi-purpose organizations. By comparing the SNLs in Germany and the USA, this paper discusses the relationship between the system and the organizational level and concludes thAT incremental organizational rearrangements have enabled the institutional persistence of SNLs despite considerable changes in their political and funding environments. The paper applies recent advances in institutional theory and thus contributes to a better understanding of institutional change in path-dependent public R&D systems. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Ostman-Smith I.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Electrocardiology | Year: 2014

The sensitivity and specificity of the electrocardiogram for the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy of different etiologies are described. The sensitivity of the electrocardiogram for detecting left ventricular pressure overload is substantially lower (< 35%) than the sensitivity for detecting evidence of a cardiomyopathy (55% to around 87%). Attention is drawn to the finding that in many differing etiologies of left ventricular hypertrophy ST-T-wave changes commonly referred to as "strain"-pattern are a harbinger of an increased risk of malignant cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. In the most common pediatric cause of sudden death, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a described ECG risk score, which scores both voltage and repolarization abnormalities, is the most powerful predictor hitherto described for predicting the risk of sudden death in this diagnosis. A point score over 5 points gives a relative risk for sudden death of 24.3 with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 78% in childhood. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Ben-Menachem E.,Gothenburg University
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica | Year: 2011

Discovered more than three decades ago, vigabatrin is approved in more than 50 countries as adjunctive therapy for adult patients with refractory complex partial seizures who have responded inadequately to several alternative treatments and as monotherapy for pediatric patients aged 1month to 2years with infantile spasms. Contrary to a fairly common misperception, the compound's mechanism of action is very well-characterized in animal models and cell cultures. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic synapses comprise approximately 30% of all synapses within the central nervous system, and therein underlies the primary mode of synaptic inhibition. Vigabatrin was rationally designed to have a specific effect on brain chemistry by inhibiting the GABA-degrading enzyme, GABA transaminase, resulting in a widespread increase in GABA concentrations in the brain. The increase in GABA functions as a brake on the excitatory processes that can initiate seizure activity. Despite the short half-life of vigabatrin in the body (5-7h) and its relatively low concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (10% of the concentration observed in plasma), it has the profound effect of increasing GABA concentration in the brain for more than a week after a single dose in humans. This effect persists steadily over years of vigabatrin administration and results in significant and persistent decreases in seizure activity. Vigabatrin can be effective with once-daily dosing. Because of its specificity, vigabatrin has helped researchers explore the specific mechanisms within the brain that underlie seizure activity. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Betzold C.,Gothenburg University
Climatic Change | Year: 2015

Small island developing states (SIDS) are among the first and worst affected by climate change. SIDS are thus also among the first to adapt, and as ‘early adaptors’ can provide key lessons for adaptation efforts elsewhere. This article reviews the growing literature on climate change, adaptation and small island states. It first discusses migration – which increasingly is seen as part of adaptation rather than a failure to adapt. Mobility has long been part of island life, and remittances can for example fund adaptation measures back home. Yet, adaptation in situ is not as forthcoming as would be necessary. The article identifies different barriers to effective adaptation, and discusses them under three distinct but interrelated categories: perceptions and awareness, institutions, and (lack of) resources. For effective, sustainable and successful adaptation, we need to overcome these barriers, and in particular provide information and resources to the local level. With appropriate information and resources, island communities can take and implement informed decisions and successfully adapt to a changing climate – as they have adjusted to social and environmental changes in the past. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Persson I.,Gothenburg University | Savulescu J.,University of Oxford
Bioethics | Year: 2013

We respond to a number of objections raised by John Harris in this journal to our argument that we should pursue genetic and other biological means of morally enhancing human beings (moral bioenhancement). We claim that human beings now have at their disposal means of wiping out life on Earth and that traditional methods of moral education are probably insufficient to achieve the moral enhancement required to ensure that this will not happen. Hence, we argue, moral bioenhancement should be sought and applied. We argue that cognitive enhancement and technological progress raise acute problems because it is easier to harm than to benefit. We address objections to this argument. We also respond to objections that moral bioenhancement: (1) interferes with freedom; (2) cannot be made to target immoral dispositions precisely; (3) is redundant, since cognitive enhancement by itself suffices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Danielsson A.J.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Children's Orthopaedics | Year: 2013

The purpose of this lecture was to give an overview of the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), in order to serve as guidance in the decision of performing surgery or not for the specific patient with AIS. A literature review was performed. Studies concerning long-term outcome in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis that had received no treatment were used. Outcome in terms of curve size, pulmonary function, back function and quality or life/social life was compared. The literature review showed that single thoracic curves of 50°-75° progress 0. 73°/year over a 40-year period. AIS do not result in increased mortality, but pulmonary symptoms may be associated with larger curves. Back pain is more frequent among patients with AIS. No study using modern quality of life questionnaires exists, but for social function, childbearing, and marriage no apparent disadvantageous effects were reported compared to the healthy population. The conclusion is that most individuals with AIS and moderate curve size around maturity function well and lead an acceptable life in terms of work and family. Some patients with larger curves have pulmonary problems, but not to the extent that this affects the life span. This needs to be taken into account when discussing surgery with the individual patient. © 2012 EPOS.

Skibicka K.P.,Gothenburg University
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its long acting analogs comprise a novel class of type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. What makes them unique among other T2D drugs is their concurrent ability to reduce food intake, a great benefit considering the frequent comorbidity of T2D and obesity. The precise neural site of action underlying this beneficial effect is vigorously researched. In accordance with the classical model of food intake control GLP-1 action on feeding has been primarily ascribed to receptor populations in the hypothalamus and the hindbrain. In contrast to this common view, relevant GLP-1 receptor populations are distributed more widely, with a prominent mesolimbic complement emerging. The physiological relevance of the mesolimbic GLP-1 is suggested by the demonstration that similar anorexic effects can be obtained by independent stimulation of the mesolimbic and hypothalamic GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Results reviewed here support the idea that mesolimbic GLP-1R are sufficient to reduce hunger-driven feeding, the hedonic value of food and food-motivation. In parallel, emerging evidence suggests that the range of action of GLP-1 on reward behavior is not limited to food-derived reward but extends to cocaine, amphetamine, and alcohol reward. The new discoveries concerning GLP-1 action on the mesolimbic reward system significantly extend the potential therapeutic range of this drug target. © 2013 Skibicka.

In a previous experiment using TNF inhibition in the rat it was accidentally found that adhesion and scar formation was reduced compared to previous experience. Wound and bone healing also seemed enhanced. The present study was conducted to assess if this observation could be verified in a controlled setting using a standardized laminectomy in the rat. Five rats received doxycycline and five other rats received saline and served as control. Macroscopic blinded evaluation 1 week after the laminectomy revealed that adhesion and scar formation was less in doxycycline-treated animals than in control animals. Wound and bone healing was found to be better in doxycycline-treated animals. The mechanisms for the observed effects cannot be fully understood but the data indicate that further research may lead to opportunities to design pharmacological modalities to reduce adhesion and scar formation, maybe in combination with suitable barriers. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Nilsson Lill S.O.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling | Year: 2010

An evaluation of a dispersion-corrected density functional theory method (B3LYP-DCP) [I.D. Mackie, G.A. DiLabio, Interactions in large, polyaromatic hydrocarbon dimers: application of density functional theory with dispersion corrections, J. Phys. Chem. A 112 (2008) 10968-10976] for three systems of biochemical interest is presented. Firstly, structures and energies of isomers of the tripeptide Phe-Gly-Phe have been compared with CCSD(T)/CBS//RI-MP2/cc-pVTZ literature values. In the system aromatic interactions compete with XH-π (X=C, N) interactions and hydrogen bonds which makes it a reliable model for proteins. The resulting mean absolute deviation between B3LYP-DCP and CCSD(T)/CBS relative energies is found to be 0.50kcalmol-1. Secondly, a phenylalanine derivative featuring a CH-π interaction has been investigated. A comparison between the optimized geometry and X-ray crystal data shows that B3LYP-DCP accurately predicts the interaction between the two aromatic rings. Thirdly, the dipeptide Ac-Phe-Phe-NH2 which contains an edge-to-face interaction between two aromatic rings has been studied. The study demonstrates the general applicability of the B3LYP-DCP method on systems which features interactions typically present in biochemical compounds. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Liljegren A.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of Integrated Care | Year: 2013

Introduction: In recent years collaboration has become an important part of the delivery of welfare services. One response to these collaborative efforts has been the introduction of strategic collaboration between different welfare agencies. Strategic collaboration is arguably the most open-ended form of service integration, as both purpose and membership are open to negotiation. This article will examine the work in strategic collaboration councils in the mental health services. Method: The study is based on observations in eight strategic collaboration councils in Sweden. The councils were observed over 12 months, and every meeting that was held during that time was observed and tape-recorded. Results: Four basic activities were identified: the exchange of information, the identification of problems, organizing events and activities, and organizing the councils. Even though these activities were identified, the main focus was to exchange information. The councils' work also varied in terms of how they make decisions and agreements, and whether their focus is more on internal or external issues. Conclusion: From the identified activities, the councils can be classified into four ideal types: the information council, the problemidentification council, the decision-making council, and the self-organizing council.

Ott T.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning | Year: 2014

The use of mobile phones for teaching and learning in schools has been a controversial matter. In this paper the debate in two Swedish newspapers on the use of mobile phones in schools is analysed using a historical materialist framework. The results are discussed in relation to contemporary research on mobile learning. The analysis reveals that the debate has been a consequence of a conflict of control of the process of learning in schools. Statements from the stakeholders in the debate indicate that it primarily has been a conflict between those who rule school, the legislators, and those who are ruled, the school staff and the pupils. Knowledge of this could contribute to the understanding of difficulties occurring when implementing a mobile learning concept in the educational system. Copyright © 2014, IGI Global.

Simon L.,Uppsala University | Daneback K.,Gothenburg University
International Journal of Sexual Health | Year: 2013

A thematic and critical literature review was conducted to determine what is known about adolescents' experiences with online sex education. Four major themes could be discerned from the literature, revealing that: (a) adolescents report engaging with sex information online; (b) adolescents are interested in a number of topics, including sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy; (c) the quality of adolescent-targeted sex information online can be lacking, but adolescents can evaluate these sources; and (d) Internet-based interventions can increase adolescents' sexual health knowledge. Inconsistencies in the literature are discussed and suggestions are made for future research. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Hallerod B.,Gothenburg University
Ageing and Society | Year: 2013

The present article integrates research on spousal loss among older people and research on intra-household income distribution and relates pre-loss intra-household distribution of incomes to post-loss wellbeing. Data are drawn from the Swedish Panel Survey of Ageing and the Elderly (PSAE) and consist of couples that were married in the mid-1990s (N=1,503) and that were either still married (N=1,262) or who had experienced spousal loss (N=241) in 2002-03. The results showed that large intra-household pre-loss income differences increased the occurrence of psycho-social problems among both widows and widowers. Hence, unequal intra-household distribution of resources makes the coping process harder for both men and women. It was also shown that unequal pre-loss distribution of incomes affected a measure of global wellbeing among widowers. Widows suffered to a greater degree from economic difficulties, but these difficulties were not related to pre-loss distribution of incomes. Thus, the overall results showed that a gendered labour market that generates an unequal intra-household distribution of incomes has repercussions not only for gender equality among intact households, but also for the coping process of both widows and widowers. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Bagenholm A.,Gothenburg University
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2013

Corrupt politicians have to a surprisingly great extent been found to go unpunished by the electorate. These findings are, however, drawn from case studies on a limited number of countries. This study, on the contrary, is based on a unique dataset from 215 parliamentary election campaigns in 32 European countries between 1981 and 2011, from which the electoral effects of corruption allegations and corruption scandals are analyzed. Information about the extent to which corruption allegations and scandals have occurred is gathered from election reports in several political science journals, and the electoral effects are measured in terms of the electoral performances-the difference in the share of votes between two elections-of all parties in government, as well as the main incumbent party, and the extent to which the governments survive the election. The control variables are GDP growth and unemployment rate the year preceding the election, the effective number of parliamentary and electoral parties, and the level of corruption. The results show that both corruption allegation and corruption scandals are significantly correlated with governmental performances on a bivariate basis; however, not with governmental change. When controlling for other factors, only corruption allegation has an independent effect on government performances. The study thus concludes-in line with previous research-that voters actually punish corrupt politicians, but to a quite limited extent. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Oldfors A.,Gothenburg University | Dimauro S.,Columbia University
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent contributions regarding clinical heterogeneity, pathogenic mechanisms, therapeutic trials, and animal models of the muscle glycogenoses. RECENT FINDINGS: Most recent publications have dealt with the clinical effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in glycogenosis type II (Pompe disease), including the cognitive development of children with the infantile form who have reached school age. Standardized exercise testing has shown the similarity between McArdle disease and one of the most recently described muscle glycogenoses, phosphoglucomutase deficiency. Cycle ergometry in patients with glycogenosis type III (debrancher deficiency) without overt weakness has documented exercise intolerance relieved by glucose infusion, consistent with the glycogenolytic block. A mouse model of McArdle disease faithfully recapitulates most features of the human disease and will prove valuable for a better understanding of pathogenesis and therapeutic modalities. Polyglucosan body myopathy with cardiomyopathy has been associated with mutations in RBCK1, a ubiquitin ligase, which have also been reported in children with early-onset immune disorder. The role of polyglucosan storage in muscle and in both central and peripheral nervous systems has been confirmed in the infantile and late-onset forms of glycogenosis type IV (brancher enzyme deficiency). Additional novel findings include the involvement of the heart in one patient with phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency and the presence of tubular aggregates in a manifesting heterozygote with phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency. SUMMARY: Important recent developments in the field of muscle glycogenoses include a new disease entity, a new animal model of McArdle disease, and better knowledge of the pathogenesis in some glycogenoses and of the long-term effects of enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Johansson D.J.A.,Chalmers University of Technology | Johansson D.J.A.,Gothenburg University
Climatic Change | Year: 2011

Political leaders in numerous nations argue for an upper limit of the global average surface temperature of 2 K above the pre-industrial level, in order to attempt to avoid the most serious impacts of climate change. This paper analyzes what this limit implies in terms of radiative forcing, emissions pathways and abatement costs, for a range of assumptions on rate of ocean heat uptake and climate sensitivity. The primary aim is to analyze the importance of ocean heat uptake for radiative forcing pathways that temporarily overshoot the long-run stabilization forcing, yet keep the temperature increase at or below the 2 K limit. In order to generate such pathways, an integrated climate-economy model, MiMiC, is used, in which the emissions pathways generated represent the least-cost solution of stabilizing the global average surface temperature at 2 K above the pre-industrial level. We find that the level of overshoot can be substantial. For example, the level of overshoot in radiative forcing in 2100 ranges from about 0.2 to 1 W/m2, where the value depends strongly and positively on the effective diffusivity of heat in the oceans. Measured in relative terms, the level of radiative forcing overshoot above its longrun equilibrium level in 2100 is 20% to 60% for high values of climate sensitivity (i. e., about 4.5 K) and 8% to 30% for low values of climate sensitivity (i. e., about 2 K). In addition, for cases in which the radiative forcing level can be directly stabilized at the equilibrium level associated with a specific climate sensitivity and the 2 K limit, the net present value abatement cost is roughly cut by half if overshoot pathways are considered instead of stabilization of radiative forcing at the equilibrium level without an overshoot. © 2010 The Author(s).

Archer T.,Gothenburg University
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2010

The neurodegenerative aspect of schizophrenia presupposes gene-environmental interactions involving chromosomal abnormalities and obstetric/perinatal complications that culminate in predispositions that impart a particular vulnerability for drastic and unpredictable precipitating factors, such as stress or chemical agents. The notion of a neurodevelopmental progression to the disease state implies that early developmental insults, with neurodegenerative proclivities, evolve into structural brain abnormalities involving specific regional circuits and neurohumoral agents. This neurophysiological orchestration is expressed in the dysfunctionality observed in premorbid signs and symptoms arising in the eventual diagnosis, as well as the neurobehavioral deficits reported from animal models of the disorder. The relative contributions of perinatal insults, neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion, prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate and early traumatic experience, as well as epigenetic contributions, are discussed from a neurodegenerative view of the essential neuropathology. It is implied that these considerations of factors that exert disruptive influences upon brain development, or normal aging, operationalize the central hub of developmental neuropathology around which the disease process may gain momentum. Nonetheless, the status of neurodegeneration in schizophrenia is somewhat tenuous and it is possible that brain imaging studies on animal models of the disorder, which may describe progressive alterations to cortical, limbic and ventricular structures similar to those of schizophrenic patients, are necessary to resolve the issue. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Kjellander R.,Gothenburg University
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2016

Screened electrostatic surface forces, also called double layer forces, between surfaces in ionic liquids can, depending on the circumstances, decay in an exponentially damped, oscillatory manner or in a plain exponential way (the latter as in dilute electrolyte solutions where ion-ion correlations are very weak). The occurrence of both of these behaviors in dense ionic liquids, where ion-ion correlations are very strong, is analyzed in the current work using exact statistical mechanics formulated in a manner that is physically transparent. A vital ingredient in understanding the decay behaviors is the fact that electrostatics in dense electrolytes have a non-local nature caused by the strong correlations. It is shown that the effects of non-locality can be elucidated by a remarkably simple, general expression for the decay parameter κ that replaces the classical expression for the inverse Debye length κDH of the Debye-Hückel (DH) and non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann approximations. This exact expression is valid for both the plain exponential and the oscillatory cases. It shows how strong correlations can give rise to plain exponential decay with a long decay length. Such a decay can arise from anion-cation associations of various kinds, for instance transient ion pairing or association caused by many-body correlations; ion pairing is a possibility but not a necessity for this to occur. Theoretical analysis is done for systems consisting of ions with an arbitrary shape and internal charge density and immersed planar walls with arbitrary internal charge distribution and any short-range ion-surface interaction. The screened electrostatic surface force between two walls is at large separations proportional to the product of effective surface charge densities of each wall. For the oscillatory case, each wall contributes with a phase shift to the oscillations of the interaction. © the Owner Societies 2016.

Sunnerhagen K.S.,Gothenburg University | Olver J.,Monash University | Francisco G.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Neurology | Year: 2013

Poststroke spasticity (PSS) is associated with significant consequences for a patient's functional status and quality of life. Nonetheless, no uniform definition of spasticity exists that can be utilized across clinical research settings, and difficulties in validating proper assessment tools-both clinical and nonclinical-complicate the ability to evaluate and appropriately treat spasticity. Consequently, the current state of defining, assessing, and treating spasticity requires improved consistency and ongoing validation as clinical research efforts advance. When selecting clinical measures for PSS assessment (e.g., the Modified Ashworth, Tone Assessment, Tardieu, Modified Rankin, and Disability Assessment scales, and the Barthel Index), it is critical to understand the levels of impairment or functional limitation each tool assesses as well as their benefits and limitations. The use of quantitative methods-such as electrophysiologic, biomechanical, and imaging techniques-adjunctive to traditional clinical measures also allows for sensitivity in quantifying the abnormal muscle activity associated with spasticity. In addition to accurate evaluation and assessment of PSS, realistic treatment goal setting for patients as well as family members and caregivers is critical, because it promotes motivation and cooperation as well as proper management of expectations and can favorably affect recovery. Goal attainment scaling has been shown to help organize, focus, and clarify the aims of treatment, thereby enhancing the PSS rehabilitative process. Furthermore, integration of therapeutic modalities and treatment strategies, including both nonpharmacologic intervention and pharmacotherapy, is also important for improved outcomes. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

The objectives were to identify work-related stress, and to analyse whether or not work-related stress served to predict sick-leave in a population of employed women who saw a doctor due to musculoskeletal or mental disorder at primary health care centres. This prospective study was based on data collected with the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ) at baseline 2008 and at follow-up 2009 in the primary health care centres in western Sweden. A total of 198 women participated. High perceived stress owing to indistinct organization and conflicts at baseline increased the risk for sick-leave 8 days or longer at follow-up. The adjusted relative risk (RR) was 2.50 (1.14-5.49). The combination of high stress perception owing to indistinct organization and high stress perception owing to individual demands and commitment increased the risk for sickness absence of 8 days or longer with an adjusted RR of 4.34 (1.72-10.99). Work-related stress predicted sick-leave during the follow-up at 12 months. The WSQ seemed to be useful in identifying women at risk of future sick-leave. Thus, it can be recommended to introduce questions and questionnaires on work-related stress in primary health care settings to early identify women with the need for preventive measures in order to decrease risk for sick-leave due to work-related stress.

Gustafsson M.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

A formula for the cross section of radiative association where no electronic transitions take place is derived and tested for diatomic molecules. The approach is based on classical mechanics and therefore it is valid for direct, i.e., non-resonant, radiative association. For the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and the cyano radical (CN), in the X1Σ + and A1Π states, respectively, the treatment reproduces the baselines of the cross sections obtained using quantum mechanical perturbation theory. The method overestimates the formation cross section of potassium sodide (NaK) by about 8%. For the lower mass diatoms hydrogen fluoride (HF) and deuterium hydride (HD), the formula overestimates the cross sections by 12% and 60%, respectively. The formula can be used alone for estimates of radiative association rate constants, or in combination with Breit-Wigner theory to include resonance contributions. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

Frisen L.,Gothenburg University
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2012

PURPOSE.: Rarebit vision tests probe for gaps in the neuro-retinal receptive field matrix, using bright micro dots on a dark background. Previous reports have found central-vision rarebit tests useful for macular lesions. Their performance with lesions of the anterior visual pathways has not been explored. METHODS.: Twenty-two subjects with optic nerve lesions of light to moderate severities were examined with a novel, self-contained rarebit test. Outcomes were contrasted with results of high-pass resolution perimetry and a threshold letter acuity test. RESULTS.: The results of the three tests differed significantly from those of normal control subjects. There were no meaningful inter-test correlations. Analysis of receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed closely similar powers of discrimination. Mean test time for the rarebit test was 1:42 min, and for the other tests, it was approximately 5 min each. CONCLUSIONS.: The rarebit test appeared highly capable of detecting optic neuropathies and chiasmal lesions. Its simplicity and short test duration indicate a useful role in screening settings. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.

Stanton G.R.,University of Pennsylvania | Norrby P.-O.,Gothenburg University | Carroll P.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Walsh P.J.,University of Pennsylvania
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Nucleophilic additions to α-chiral α-halo carbonyl derivatives are well-known to generate Cornforth-Evans products via a nonchelation pathway. What was unprecedented before this report is C-X bonds reversing the diastereoselectivity through coordination to metals during C-C bond-forming reactions (chelation control). Herein we describe chelation control involving C-X bonds in highly diastereoselective additions of organozinc reagents to a variety of α-chloro aldimines. The unique ability of alkylzinc halide Lewis acids to coordinate to the Cl, N, and O of α-chloro sulfonyl imine substrates is supported by computational studies. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Edvinsson L.,Lund University | Linde M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Linde M.,Gothenburg University
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Although the triptan drugs provide effective relief from migraine for many patients, a substantial number of affected individuals are unresponsive to these compounds, and such therapy can also lead to a range of adverse effects. Telcagepant represents a new class of antimigraine drug - the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor blockers. This compound exerts its effects by blocking receptors for the calcitonin-gene-related peptide at several sites in the trigeminal and central nervous systems, resulting in pain relief. Telcagepant does not cause vasoconstriction, a major limitation in the use of triptans. Comparisons with triptans in clinical trials for acute treatment of migraine attacks revealed clinical effects similar to those of triptans but better than those of placebo. Telcagepant might provide hope for those who have a poor response to, or are unable to use, older drugs. In patients who need prophylaxis because of frequent attacks of migraine, topiramate is a first-line drug for migraine prevention in many countries; it is generally safe and reasonably well tolerated. Data suggest that topiramate could aid reversion of chronic migraine to episodic migraine. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Dahlgren J.,Gothenburg University
Hormone Research in Paediatrics | Year: 2011

The US Food and Drug Administration approved use of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) for the treatment of idiopathic short stature (ISS) in children; however, few studies have evaluated metabolic outcomes. This article addresses whether children with ISS treated with GH experience the same metabolic benefits as children with GH deficiency (GHD) treated with GH. A systematic review of all published studies of GH treatment in children with ISS that included data on metabolic outcomes identified five studies. No meta-analysis has been performed.Studies show a metabolic response to GH treatment in children with ISS similar to that observed in children with GHD; effects include a transient decrease in insulin sensitivity and a dose-dependent increase in insulin-like growth factor I. However, no increase in the risk of diabetes was found. Children with ISS seem to benefit from GH treatment in terms of height gain without any severe negative metabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Bernin D.,Gothenburg University | Topgaard D.,Lund University
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2013

Heterogeneous materials, such as biological tissues, foodstuffs, and rocks, contain a range of microscopic environments where the molecular constituents often have different NMR relaxation time constants and self-diffusion coefficients. Multidimensional correlation methods have greatly improved the possibility for separating and assigning the NMR responses from distinct environments, thereby allowing for a more complete characterization of structure, dynamics, and molecular exchange in heterogeneous materials. Here, we review recent developments in experimental methodology and data analysis approaches. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Durrenfeld P.,Gothenburg University
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

The synchronization of multiple nanocontact spin-torque oscillators (NC-STOs) is mediated by propagating spin waves (SWs). Although it has been shown that the Oersted field generated in the vicinity of the NC can dramatically alter the emission pattern of SWs, its role in the synchronization behaviour of multiple NCs has not been considered so far. Here we investigate the synchronization behaviour in multiple NC-STOs oriented either vertically or horizontally, with respect to the in-plane component of the external field. Synchronization is promoted (impeded) by the Oersted field landscape when the NCs are oriented vertically (horizontally) due to the highly anisotropic SW propagation. Not only is robust synchronization between two oscillators observed for separations larger than 1,000 nm, but synchronization of up to five oscillators, a new record, has been observed in the vertical array geometry. Furthermore, the synchronization can no longer be considered mutual in nature. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group

Rabe M.,Chalmers University of Technology | Tabaei S.R.,Chalmers University of Technology | Zetterberg H.,Gothenburg University | Zhdanov V.P.,RAS Boreskov Institute of Catalysis | Hook F.,Chalmers University of Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

The accurate determination of the maximum turnover number and Michaelis constant for membrane enzymes remains challenging. Here, this problem has been solved by observing in parallel the hydrolysis of thousands of individual fluorescently labeled immobilized liposomes each processed by a single phospholipase A2 molecule. The release of the reaction product was tracked using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. A statistical analysis of the hydrolysis kinetics was shown to provide the Michaelis-Menten parameters with an accuracy better than 20% without variation of the initial substrate concentration. The combined single-liposome and single-enzyme mode of operation made it also possible to unravel a significant nanoscale dependence of these parameters on membrane curvature. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Nilsson M.,Gothenburg University | Fagman H.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
Current Topics in Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Thyroid dysgenesis is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism that affects 1 in 3000 newborns. Although a number of pathogenetic mutations in thyroid developmental genes have been identified, the molecular mechanism of disease is unknown in most cases. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of normal thyroid development and puts the different developmental stages in perspective, from the time of foregut endoderm patterning to the final shaping of pharyngeal anatomy, for understanding how specific malformations may arise. At the cellular level, we will also discuss fate determination of follicular and C-cell progenitors and their subsequent embryonic growth, migration, and differentiation as the different thyroid primordia evolve and merge to establish the final size and shape of the gland. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Gustafsson E.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2012

The development of nutrient pools and sediment areas covered by hypoxic water in the Baltic Proper was modelled for the 1900-2009 period. Reconstructed physical forcing and estimated past nutrient loads were used when direct observations were unavailable. The modelled pool of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) more than doubled in size over the last century - partly a direct effect of an increased external phosphorus load, and partly an indirect effect of less effective phosphorus retention in sediments associated with deteriorating oxygen conditions. As opposed to the DIP pool, the modelled pool of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) decreased over the last ~. 50. years due to more effective denitrification associated with spreading hypoxia. The results of a hindcast scenario with low external nutrient loads indicate that long-term climate change had no significant effects on hypoxic conditions or nutrient pools during the study period. The deteriorating oxygen conditions since the 1950s were mainly related to increased external nutrient loads in combination with internal nutrient feedback processes. Furthermore, simultaneously reducing both nitrogen and phosphorus loads would have a larger positive effect on the oxygen conditions than would phosphorus reduction alone. Reducing only nitrogen loads would eventually be compensated for by nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lindberg F.,Kings College London | Lindberg F.,Gothenburg University | Grimmond C.S.B.,Kings College London
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2011

The solar and longwave environmental irradiance geometry (SOLWEIG) model simulates spatial variations of 3-D radiation fluxes and mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) as well as shadow patterns in complex urban settings. In this paper, a new vegetation scheme is included in SOLWEIG and evaluated. The new shadow casting algorithm for complex vegetation structures makes it possible to obtain continuous images of shadow patterns and sky view factors taking both buildings and vegetation into account. For the calculation of 3-D radiation fluxes and Tmrt, SOLWEIG only requires a limited number of inputs, such as global shortwave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, geographical information (latitude, longitude and elevation) and urban geometry represented by high-resolution ground and building digital elevation models (DEM). Trees and bushes are represented by separate DEMs. The model is evaluated using 5 days of integral radiation measurements at two sites within a square surrounded by low-rise buildings and vegetation in Göteborg, Sweden (57°N). There is good agreement between modelled and observed values of Tmrt, with an overall correspondence of R2 = 0.91 (p > 0.01, RMSE = 3.1 K). A small overestimation of Tmrt is found at locations shadowed by vegetation. Given this good performance a number of suggestions for future development are identified for applications which include for human comfort, building design, planning and evaluation of instrument exposure. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Elzinga A.,Gothenburg University
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

This paper aims to throw into relief some of the general features in the development of the history of science policy by drawing attention to the continuation and deepening of old issues in new forms within the current science policy regime. The paper presents a typology which distinguishes different ways in which policy attempts to 'account' for public funding of science by showing how science contributes to wealth and prosperity. The paper concludes that the new forms of accounting place the focus of attention on what is 'produced' in science and that science policy itself has become dominated by the logic of globalism and new public management. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Jensen A.M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Gotmark F.,Gothenburg University | Lof M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

In many oak-rich temperate broadleaved forests of conservation value, high ungulate browsing pressure restricts oak regeneration. We examined the protection of oak (Quercus sp.) seedlings from browsing provided by naturally occurring shrubs in 10 forests across southern Sweden over 3 years. We planted oak seedlings in four plots in each forest; two with naturally regenerated shrubs and two with no shrubs. Ungulate browsers were excluded from two plots at each site, one with and one without shrubs. Fencing provided the best protection against ungulate browsers for the seedlings. The probability of a seedling being browsed (browsing frequency) was approximately 20% units lower for individuals growing among shrubs than for individuals growing in the absence of shrubs. When browsing did occur, the intensity (measured as a reduction in height growth) was significantly lower for seedlings in shrubs. Regression analyses showed that browsing frequency increased on seedlings in tall shrubs, and decreased on seedlings that had been browsed previously. Browsing intensity decreased if the seedling grew in tall and dense shrubs. Browsing frequency and intensity increased on oak seedlings that over topped the shrub canopy. Increased abundance of the prickled Rubus idaeus and Rubus fruticosus coll. in plots with shrubs did not affect browsing frequency and intensity. Two and a half years after planting, oak seedling mortality increased by the presence of shrubs. Although shrubs restricted oak seedling growth, we conclude that shrubs initially facilitated oak regeneration by concealment, and subsequently by numeric dilution. Shrubs may be used to reduce browsing damages if long-term evaluation indicates a net positive outcome for oak survival and growth. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Archer T.,Gothenburg University | Kostrzewa R.M.,East Tennessee State University
Neurotoxicity Research | Year: 2015

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are characterized by symptom profiles consisting of positive and negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and a plethora of genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic biomarkers. Assorted animal models of these disorders and clinical neurodevelopmental indicators have implicated neurodegeneration as an element in the underlying pathophysiology. Physical exercise or activity regimes—whether aerobic, resistance, or endurance—ameliorate regional brain and functional deficits not only in affected individuals but also in animal models of the disorder. Cognitive deficits, often linked to regional deficits, were alleviated by exercise, as were quality-of-life, independent of disorder staging and risk level. Apoptotic processes intricate to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia were likewise attenuated by physical exercise. There is also evidence of manifest benefits endowed by physical exercise in preserving telomere length and integrity. Not least, exercise improves overall health and quality-of-life. The notion of scaffolding as the outcome of physical exercise implies the “buttressing” of regional network circuits, neurocognitive domains, anti-inflammatory defenses, maintenance of telomeric integrity, and neuro-reparative and regenerative processes. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

We examined whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥2.0 mg/L was associated with increased intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque burden, and plaque echolucency in carotid arteries. Women (n = 635) from a population sample of 64-year-old females with varying degrees of glucose tolerance underwent risk factor assessment, measurement of hsCRP, and ultrasound examinations of the carotid arteries. Participants with hsCRP levels ≥2.0 mg/L had elevated carotid bulb IMT independently of other cardiovascular risk factors compared with those with hsCRP <2.0 mg/L. The participants with plaques in the highhsCRP group had larger total plaque area compared to those with plaque in the lower hsCRP group. Plaque echolucency did not differ between groups. High-sensitivity CRP levels ≥2.0 mg/L were accompanied by elevated IMT in the carotid bulbs independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. Total plaque area was larger among women with plaques in the high hsCRP group versus the lower hsCRP group.

Lindh I.,Gothenburg University
Human reproduction (Oxford, England) | Year: 2013

Does intrauterine contraception influence the prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea? In this longitudinal study, a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) did not influence the severity of dysmenorrhea, whereas the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) reduced dysmenorrhea severity. Dysmenorrhea is a common problem among young women. The LNG-IUS has been reported to be associated with less painful menstruation, although more long-term studies are necessary. In contrast Cu-IUDs have been reported to exacerbate dysmenorrhea. A longitudinal population study. The prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea was compared in a longitudinal analysis of variance performed in the same women when using either intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) or combined oral contraceptives (COCs) with other methods of contraception or no contraception. Random samples of 19-year-old women born in 1962 (n = 656), 1972 (n = 780) and 1982 (n = 666) assessed at 5-year intervals between 1981 and 2001. Current severity of dysmenorrhea was assessed on each occasion by a verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMS) and by a visual analog scale (VAS). Dysmenorrhea severity was unchanged in the same woman when using a Cu-IUD compared with using other methods (= condom use, barrier methods, natural family planning, coitus interruptus and sterilization)/no method of contraception in the longitudinal analysis of factors influencing dysmenorrhea severity (VMS score: +0.05 units/VAS: -0.3 mm, both NS). LNG-IUS and COC use were associated with reduced dysmenorrhea severity compared with other methods/no method (LNG-IUS use, VMS score: -0.4 units/VAS: -13 mm, both P < 0.01; COC use, VMS score: -0.4 units/VAS: -11 mm, both P < 0.0001). Childbirth reduced dysmenorrhea (VMS score: -0.3 units, P < 0.05/VAS: -16 mm, P < 0.001). Dysmenorrhea severity decreased between the ages of 19 and 44 years. There was a decline in the response rate over time during the 20 years of this longitudinal study which may be due to the fact that the distribution of questionnaires has become much more common and people are becoming increasingly tired of answering questionnaires. No information about the diagnosis or treatment of endometriosis or adenomyosis, which are important confounding factors, were included in the questionnaire. In this study we specifically studied dysmenorrhea and have clearly separated this from the assessment of possible pain caused by intrauterine contraception experienced between periods. RCTs should be initiated to further investigate the influence of intrauterine contraception on dysmenorrhea and the risk of developing abdominal pain between periods. In this study Cu-IUD use did not influence the severity of dysmenorrhea and the LNG-IUS was shown to reduce the severity of dysmenorrhea. This is valuable information for prescribers and users when considering intrauterine contraception.

Johansson D.J.A.,Chalmers University of Technology | Johansson D.J.A.,Gothenburg University
Climatic Change | Year: 2012

A range of alternatives to the Global Warming Potential (GWP) have been suggested in the scientific literature. One of the alternative metrics that has received attention is the cost-effective relative valuation of greenhouse gases, recently denoted Global Cost Potential (GCP). However, this metric is based on complex optimising integrated assessment models that are far from transparent to the general scientist or policymaker. Here we present a new analytic metric, the Cost-Effective Temperature Potential (CETP) which is based on an approximation of the GCP. This new metric is constructed in order to enhance general understanding of the GCP and elucidate the links between physical metrics and metrics that take economics into account. We show that this metric has got similarities with the purely physical metric, Global Temperature change Potential (GTP). However, in contrast with the GTP, the CETP takes the long-term temperature response into account. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Metronomic chemotherapy, which is continuously administered systemically at close to non-toxic doses, targets the endothelial cells (ECs) that are proliferating during tumor angiogenesis. This leads to harmful effects of an even greatly increased number contiguous tumor cells. Although pre-clinical studies of angiogenesis-related EC features in vitro and of the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects in vivo of metronomic chemotherapy have provided valuable insights, clinical trials with this type of therapy have been less successful in inhibiting tumor growth. One possible reason for the apparent disconnect between the pre-clinical and clinical outcomes is that most of the currently used experimental angiogenesis assays and tumor models are incapable of yielding data that can be translated readily into the clinical setting. Many of the assays used suffer from unintentional artifactual effects, e.g., oxidative stress in vitro, and inflammation in vivo, which reduces the sensitivity and discriminatory power of the assays. Co-treatment with an antioxidant or the inclusion of antioxidants in the vehicle often significantly affects the angiogenesis-modulating outcome of metronomic mono-chemotherapy in vivo. This 'metronomic chemotherapy vehicle factor' merits further study, as do the observations of antagonistic effects following metronomic treatment with a combination of standard chemotherapeutic drugs in vivo. © 2013 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ostman-Smith I.,Gothenburg University
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Clinically overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood and has significantly higher sudden death mortality in the 8- to 16-year age range than in the 17- to 30-year age range. A combination of electrocardiographic risk factors (a limb-lead ECG voltage sum >10 mV) and/or a septal wall thickness >190% of upper limit of normal for age (z-score > 3.72) defines a paediatric high-risk patient with great sensitivity. Syncope, blunted blood pressure response to exercise, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and a malignant family history are additional risk factors. Of the medical treatments used, only beta-blocker therapy with lipophilic beta-blockers (i.e. propranolol, metoprolol or bisoprolol) have been shown to significantly reduce risk of sudden death, with doses ≥6 mg/kg BW in propranolol equivalents giving around a tenfold reduction in risk. Disopyramide therapy is a very useful adjunct to beta-blockers to improve prognosis in those patients that have dynamic outflow obstruction in spite of large doses of beta-blocker, and its use in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not associated with significant pro-arrhythmia mortality. Calcium-channel blockers increase the risk of heart failure-associated death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with severe generalized hypertrophy and should be avoided in such patients. Amiodarone does not protect against sudden death, and long-term use in children usually has to be terminated because of side effects. Therapy with internal cardioverter defibrillator implantation has high paediatric morbidity, 27% incidence of inappropriate shocks, and does not absolutely protect against mortality but is indicated as secondary prevention or in very high-risk patients. © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

Ronald A.,Birkbeck, University of London | Larsson H.,Karolinska Institutet | Anckarsater H.,Gothenburg University | Lichtenstein P.,Karolinska Institutet
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2011

This study aimed to identify empirically the number of factors underlying autism symptomssocial impairments, communication impairments, and restricted repetitive behaviors and interestswhen assessed in a general population sample. It also investigated to what extent these autism symptoms are caused by the same or different genetic and environmental influences. Autistic symptoms were assessed in a population-based twin cohort of 12 000 (9-and 12-year-old) children by parental interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses, principal component analyses and multivariate structural equation model fitting were carried out. A multiple factor solution was suggested, with nearly all analyses pointing to a three-factor model for both boys and girls and at both ages. A common pathway twin model fit the data best, which showed that there were some underlying common genetic and environmental influences across the different autism dimensions, but also significant specific genetic effects on each symptom type. These results suggest that the autism triad consists of three partly independent dimensions when assessed in the general population, and that these different autism symptoms, to a considerable extent, have partly separate genetic influences. These findings may explain the large number of children who do not meet current criteria for autism but who show some autism symptoms. Molecular genetic research may benefit from taking a symptom-specific approach to finding genes associated with autism. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Holmlid L.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Cluster Science | Year: 2010

Alkali metals can form low-density metallic phases, in their most well-ordered form called Rydberg Matter (RM). RM consists mainly of planar metallic clusters, with the number of atoms in each cluster not exceeding 100 according to experiments. Six-fold symmetric RM clusters in the most stable series K19, K37, K61 and K91 were observed by rotational radio-frequency spectroscopy and shown to be planar in point group D6h (Holmlid, J Mol Struct 885:122, 2008). Here, the RM clusters formed by K and H atoms are studied by neutral time-of-flight after pulsed laser fragmentation of RM formed from K and H. The kinetic energy of the fragments is due to laser initiated Coulomb explosions. Novel RM clusters of the type KN with N = 6, 9, 10, 13 and 15 are ejected from the material. They are necessarily planar due to the RM bonding, with two- or three-fold symmetry axes perpendicular to the plane. Pure hydrogen atom RM clusters HN are observed, demonstrating once more that H indeed is an alkali metal. Mixed clusters KMHN similar to hydrogen clusters where each K replaces an H atom as in KH6 are now also positively identified. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ostman-Smith I.,Gothenburg University
Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials | Year: 2014

Congestive cardiac failure accounts for 36% of childhood deaths in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and in infants with heart failure symptoms before two years of age, the mortality is extremely high unless treatment with beta-receptor antagonists is instituted. The mechanism of heart failure is not systolic dysfunction, but rather extreme diastolic dysfunction leading to high filling pressures. Risk factors for development of heart failure are a generalized pattern of hypertrophy with a left ventricular posterior wall-to-cavity ratio >0.30, the presence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction at rest, and the co-existence of syndromes in the Noonan/Leopard/Costello spectrum. The 5-year survival of high-risk patients is improved from 54% to 93% by high-dose beta-blocker therapy (>4.5 mg/kg/day propranolol). The mechanism of the beneficial effect of beta-blockers is to improve diastolic function by lengthening of diastole, reducing outflow-obstruction, and inducing a beneficial remodelling resulting in a larger left ventricular cavity, and improved stroke volume. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is associated with increased activity of cardiac sympathetic nerves, and infants in heart failure with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy show signs of extreme sympathetic over-activity, and require exceptionally high doses of beta-blockers to achieve effective beta-blockade as judged by 24 h Holter recordings, often 8-24 mg/kg/day of propranolol or equivalent. Conclusion: Beta-blocker therapy is without doubt the treatment of choice for patients with heart failure caused by hyper-trophic cardiomyopathy, but the dose needs to carefully titrated on an individual basis for maximum benefit, and the dose required is surprisingly large in infants with heart failure due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Backhaus T.,Gothenburg University | Faust M.,Faust and Backhaus
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Environmental risks of chemicals are still often assessed substance-by-substance, neglecting mixture effects. This may result in risk underestimations, as the typical exposure is toward multicomponent chemical "cocktails". We use the two well established mixture toxicity concepts (Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA)) for providing a tiered outline for environmental hazard and risk assessments of mixtures, focusing on general industrial chemicals and assuming that the "base set" of data (EC50s for algae, crustaceans, fish) is available. As mixture toxicities higher than predicted by CA are rare findings, we suggest applying CA as a precautious first tier, irrespective of the modes/mechanisms of action of the mixture components. In particular, we prove that summing up PEC/PNEC ratios might serve as a justifiable CA-approximation, in order to estimate in a first tier assessment whether there is a potential risk for an exposed ecosystem if only base-set data are available. This makes optimum use of existing single substance assessments as more demanding mixture investigations are requested only if there are first indications of an environmental risk. Finally we suggest to call for mode-of-action driven analyses only if error estimations indicate the possibility for substantial differences between CA- and IA-based assessments. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Carlsson L.H.,Gothenburg University
TheScientificWorldJournal | Year: 2013

To analyze cooccurring disorders and problems in a representative group of 198 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who had had interventions at a specialized habilitation center. Parents and children were seen by a research team. Data were based on parental interviews, pediatric assessments, and tests of the child. Information on autistic symptoms, general cognitive function, speech and language, motor function, epilepsy, vision, hearing, activity level, behavior, and sleep was collected. Three ASD categories were used: (1) autistic disorder (AD), (2) autistic-like condition (ALC) or Asperger syndrome, and (3) one group with autistic symptoms/traits but not entirely all its criteria met for ASD. Children with autism had a mean of 3.2 coexisting disorders or problems, the ALC/Asperger group had a mean of 1.6, and children with autistic traits had a mean of 1.6. The most common disorder/problems in the total group pertained to language problems (78%), intellectual disability (ID) (49%), below average motor function (37%), and severe hyperactivity/ADHD (33%). The results accord with the concept of early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examination (ESSENCE), and highlight the need of considering ASD in a broad perspective taking also other cooccurring developmental disorders into account.

Dekosky S.T.,University of Virginia | Blennow K.,Gothenburg University | Ikonomovic M.D.,University of Pittsburgh | Gandy S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Nature Reviews Neurology | Year: 2013

Over the past decade, public awareness of the long-term pathological consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has increased. Such awareness has been stimulated mainly by reports of progressive neurological dysfunction in athletes exposed to repetitive concussions in high-impact sports such as boxing and American football, and by the rising number of TBIs in war veterans who are now more likely to survive explosive blasts owing to improved treatment. Moreover, the entity of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) - which is marked by prominent neuropsychiatric features including dementia, parkinsonism, depression, agitation, psychosis, and aggression - has become increasingly recognized as a potential late outcome of repetitive TBI. Annually, about 1% of the population in developed countries experiences a clinically relevant TBI. The goal of this Review is to provide an overview of the latest understanding of CTE pathophysiology, and to delineate the key issues that are challenging clinical and research communities, such as accurate quantification of the risk of CTE, and development of reliable biomarkers for single-incident TBI and CTE. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Rolfson O.,Gothenburg University
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume | Year: 2011

There is increasing interest in measuring patient-reported outcomes as part of routine medical practice, particularly in fields like total joint replacement surgery, where pain relief, satisfaction, function, and health-related quality of life, as perceived by the patient, are primary outcomes. We review some well-known outcome instruments, measurement issues, and early experiences with large-scale collection of patient-reported outcome measures in joint registries. The patient-reported outcome measures are reviewed in the context of multidimensional outcome assessment that includes the traditional clinical outcome parameters as well as disease-specific and general patient-reported outcome measures.

Sterner T.,Gothenburg University | Damon M.,New York University
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Global climate change stands out from most environmental problems because it will span generations and force us to think in new ways about intergenerational fairness. It involves the delicate problem of complex coordination between countries on a truly global scale. As long as fossil fuels are too cheap, climate change policy will engage all major economies. The costs are high enough to make efficiency a priority, which means striving toward a single market for carbon-plus tackling the thorny issues of fairness. Hopes for a grand deal were mercilessly shattered at Copenhagen in December 2009 and in other recent UNFCCC meetings, with the result that "green growth" is promoted as an alternative path. Indeed, green growth is clearly the goal, but it is no magic bullet. The world economy will require clear and rather tough policy instruments for growth to be green-and it is naïve to think otherwise. Growth, green or not, will boost demand for energy and coal is normally the cheapest source. The magnitude of the challenge is greater if we also consider the problems related to nuclear (fission) energy and, in some instances, to bioenergy (such as its competition for land that may be essential for the poor). This paper discusses some necessary ingredients for a long-term global climate strategy. As we wait for the final (and maybe elusive) worldwide treaty, we must find a policy that makes sense and is not only compatible with, but facilitates the development of such a treaty. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Lygnerud K.,Gothenburg University | Peltola-Ojala P.,University of Eastern Finland
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

District heating companies' efficiency of providing district heating to small houses in Finland and Sweden is studied. The method used is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results indicate that Finnish companies, overall, are more efficient when offering district heat to small house customers. In Finland, price increases demand and impacts district heating company efficiency the most. The lower price level in Finland, compared to Sweden, might be a reflection of competition between different heating goods. In Sweden, network size and company size (large companies are more efficient in providing small houses with heat than small ones) drive the efficiency of small house district heating. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Big Science accelerator complexes are no longer mere tools for nuclear and particle physics, but modern-day experimental resources for a wide range of natural sciences and often named instrumental to scientific and technological development for innovation and economic growth. Facilities compete on a global market to attract the best users and facilitate the best science, and advertise the achievement of their users as markers of quality and productivity. Thus a need has risen for (quantitative) quality assessment of science on the level of facilities. In this article, we examine some quantitative performance measurements frequently used by facilities to display quality: technical reliability, competition for access, and publication records. We report data from the world's three largest synchrotron radiation facilities from the years 2004-2010, and discuss their meaning and significance by placing them in proper context. While we argue that quality is not possible to completely capture in these quantitative metrics, we acknowledge their apparent importance and, hence, we introduce and propose facilitymetrics as a new feature of the study of modern big science, and as a new empirical focus for scientometrical study, in the hope that future studies can contribute to a deeper, much-needed analysis of the topic. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Betzold C.,Gothenburg University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Pacific island countries have strong economic, political and environmental incentives to switch from imported fossil fuels to indigenous renewable energy technologies, and are well positioned to achieve such a switch, given their ample renewable energy potential as well as their ambitious renewable energy goals. For the Pacific island countries to reach these goals, however, they depend on donor funding. This paper therefore analyses energy-related aid to the South Pacific from 1990 through 2012, and specifically evaluates its development in three areas: energy technology, grid vs. off-grid solutions, and project components. Using data from the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, I find a recent shift in donor thinking: donors have, over the past years, put greater emphasis on renewable energy, especially hydro and increasingly solar power. Donors have also invested more in off-grid solutions - often solar-powered. Finally, donors have begun to focus more on 'software', that is, capacity-building, training and policy-making. If Pacific island countries, together with the donors, continue on this path, they are well-positioned to reach their ambitious renewable energy goals - and to serve as an example for other countries, both developing and developed, islands and non-islands. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Clemens J.,ICCDR | Clemens J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Holmgren J.,Gothenburg University
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2014

Cholera continues to be a major global health problem, at times causing major and prolonged outbreaks in both endemic and nonendemic settings in developing countries. While improved water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) will provide the ultimate solution to prevention of this disease burden, this is a far-off goal for most developing countries. Oral cholera vaccines cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been demonstrated to be effective in the control of cholera outbreaks, and constitute useful tools to be used in conjunction with efforts to improve WASH. Two killed OCVs are prequalified by WHO for purchase by UN agencies for international use. Recently, WHO has launched a global stockpile stockpile of killed OCVs for use to control outbreaks. Rational deployment of OCV from this stockpile will require consideration of costs, feasibility, disease epidemiology epidemiology, and the protective characteristics of the vaccine deployed, as well as effective and rapid coordination of processes and logistics logistics used to make decisions on deployment and delivery of the vaccine to the population in need. Despite not having data on all the questions of relevance as to how to use OCVs to control cholera outbreaks in different settings, there is clearly more than enough evidence to initiate their use, as answers to remaining questions and refinement of policies will mainly come with experience. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

McCloskey D.N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | McCloskey D.N.,Gothenburg University
Research Policy | Year: 2013

The article reviews theoretical approaches and methods of conventional economics and economic history to address the fundamental question of why the world's economy has experienced unprecedented growth rates only after 1800, following millennial relative stagnation. The intellectual challenge put forward by economic historians and historians of technical change is to explain the role of technology broadly interpreted in affecting economic change, offering a richer picture than the mere accumulation of production factors. This includes the analysis of the processes leading to the accumulation of 'inventive people'.© 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Egels-Zanden N.,Gothenburg University | Lindholm H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

The rise of private regulation of sustainability in global production networks has led to intensive debates about the impact of this regulation at the point of production. Yet, few empirical studies have systematically examined this impact in practice. Based on multiple factory audits of 43 garment factories conducted by the multi-stakeholder initiative Fair Wear Foundation, we show that codes of conduct improve (although marginally) worker rights on an overall level but that few significant results are found for specific worker rights. Our findings also lend support to the widespread argument that codes have uneven impact. Furthermore, we show that even rigorous multi-stakeholder factory audits seldom are able to identify process rights violations (such as those affecting freedom of association and discrimination), and that auditing is thus is more fundamentally flawed than assumed in previous research. Given companies' extensive investments in private regulation of worker rights, the findings have important implications for both scholars and managers. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Antonelli A.,Gothenburg Botanical Garden | Antonelli A.,Gothenburg University | Sanmartin I.,Real Jardyn Botanico
Systematic Biology | Year: 2011

Chloranthaceae is a small family of flowering plants (65 species) with an extensive fossil record extending back to the Early Cretaceous. Within Chloranthaceae, Hedyosmum is remarkable because of its disjunct distribution-1 species in the Paleotropics and 44 confined to the Neotropics-and a long "temporal gap" between its stem age (Early Cretaceous) and the beginning of the extant radiation (late Cenozoic). Is this gap real, reflecting low diversification and a recent radiation, or the signature of extinction? Here we use paleontological data, relaxed-clock molecular dating, diversification analyses, and parametric ancestral area reconstruction to investigate the timing, tempo, and mode of diversification in Hedyosmum. Our results, based on analyses of plastid and nuclear sequences for 40 species, suggest that the ancestor of Chloranthaceae and the Hedyosmum stem lineages were widespread in the Holarctic in the Late Cretaceous. High extinction rates, possibly associated with Cenozoic climatic fluctuations, may have been responsible for the low extant diversity of the family. Crown group Hedyosmum originated c. 36-43 Ma and colonized South America from the north during the Early-Middle Miocene (c. 20 Ma). This coincided with an increase in diversification rates, probably triggered by the uplift of the Northern Andes from the Mid-Miocene onward. This study illustrates the advantages of combining paleontological, phylogenetic, and biogeographic data to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of an ancient lineage, for which the extant diversity is only a remnant of past radiations. It also shows the difficulties of inferring patterns of lineage diversification when incomplete taxon sampling is combined with high extinction rates. © 2011 The Author(s).

Nilsson O.,Gothenburg University
Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2013

Identification of common molecular mechanisms is needed to facilitate the development of new treatment options for patients with ileal carcinoids. Purpose of Review: Recent profiling studies on ileal carcinoids were examined to obtain a comprehensive view of risk factors, genetic aberrations, and transcriptional alterations. Special attention was paid to mechanisms that could provide novel targets for therapy. Results: Genome-wide association studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at IL12A and DAD1 are associated with an increased risk of ileal carcinoids. Genomic profiling revealed distinct patterns of copy-number alterations in ileal carcinoids. Two groups of carcinoids could be identified by hierarchical clustering. A major group of tumors was characterized by loss on chromosome 18 followed by additional losses on chromosomes 3p, 11q, and 13. Three minimal common regions of deletions were identified at 18q21.1-q21.31, 18q22.1-q22.2, and 18q22.3-q23. A minor group of tumors was characterized by clustered gains on chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 14, and 20. Expression profiling identified three groups of ileal carcinoids by principal component analysis. Tumor progression was associated with changes in gene expression including downregulation of MIR133A. Candidate genes for targeted therapy included ERBB2/HER2, DAD1, PRKCA, RYBP, CASP1, CASP4, CASP5, VMAT1, RET, APLP1, OR51E1, GPR112, SPOCK1, RUNX1, and MIR133A.Conclusion: Profiling of ileal carcinoids has revealed recurrent genetic alterations and distinct patterns of gene expression. Frequent alterations in cellular pathways and genes were identified, suggesting novel targets for therapy. Translational studies are needed to validate suggested molecular targets. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Mellqvist U.-H.,Gothenburg University
Blood | Year: 2015

In this issue of Blood, Palumbo et al show, in a study performed with the cooperation of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG), that detailed systematic geriatric assessment of elderly myeloma patients might be a useful tool for identifying fit and frail individuals.1 Like most malignancies, multiple myeloma mainly affects elderly patients. Even so, in daily clinical practice, we usually only consider chronological age (ie, is the patient under or above 65 years of age?). However, it is quite obvious that there is a huge difference between a 70-year-old fit patient and a frail patient above the age of 80. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Rain-fed agriculture is the most common farming strategy in rural Ethiopia. A short rainy period called Belg (February-May) is caused by easterly winds from the Indian Ocean and a longer rainy season (Kiremt) which occurs between July and October is the result when the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is located over the horn of Africa. The staple food is Injera preferably made from Tef (Eragrostis tef) but it is common to mix it with other cereals like Sorghum or Barley. The aim of this study is to analyse regional differences in yearly precipitation, seasonal, variability, intensity and the start of the short and the long rainy in the central highlands during the period 1987-2007. The analysis is done by comparing the three decades between 1978 and 2007. Analyses of total rainfall, seasonal changes, rainfall variability and rainy days were conducted from daily rainfall data from seven stations. Daily temperature data from two stations were used to calculate potential evaporation. Rainfall results show an increase in the annual rainfall and also in Kiremt season. The Belg rainfall has, on the other hand, declined during the 30 year period that has been analysed. High rainfall variability, more extreme rainfall during the start of the Kiremt season and more rainy days during the Kiremt season were found. The Belg season shows an increase in temperature and potential evaporation as well. The possibility to grow cereal during Kiremt season is considered to be more or less the same during the past 30 years but in the last decade it has become impossible in the southern part of the study area due to a shortening of the Belg season. Cereal production is considered to be a bigger problem in the last decade around some rainfall stations especially in South Wollo where population numbers are high and land is under greater pressure than the southern areas of the study region. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Giblin J.D.,Gothenburg University | Fuller D.Q.,University College London
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2011

This article presents the results from a programme of bulk soil sampling and flotation of first and second millennium a. d. early farming, 'Iron Age', archaeological sites in Rwanda conducted in 2006-2007 alongside a new set of associated radiocarbon dates, which contribute toward the development of a chronology of plant use for the region. This research has identified the earliest examples of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in Great Lakes Africa and thus this article also discusses the significance of these finds within the later archaeology of the region and presents a brief synthesis of the direct archaeological evidence for finger millet in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Lowhagen O.,Gothenburg University
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Current definition of asthma involves four cornerstones: inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, bronchoconstriction, and symptoms. In research, the symptoms have had the slightest attention. According to international guidelines, the asthma symptoms are episodic breathlessness, wheeze, cough, tightness of the chest, and shortness of breath. As there are several symptoms, a primary question is how they are related to bronchoconstriction, the main clinical feature of asthma. Symptoms and lung function tests are regularly used for the evaluation of clinical health status and effect of treatment. However, there is no or poor correlation between these two variables, which means that they represent different mechanisms. Reduced lung function, such as a low FEV 1, represents bronchial constriction, what do the symptoms represent? Some symptoms such as breathlessness and shortness of breath seem not to be evidence-based asthma symptoms. Focusing on bronchial obstruction is important in view of the potential risk of asthma attacks, but nonobstructive symptoms occur frequently and may also cause severe discomfort and poor quality of life. Interpreting all symptoms as signs of bronchoconstriction (asthma) may lead to misinterpretation when assessing health status and effect of treatment. Although a 'soft' variable, the strength of symptoms is that they are representing various mechanisms. The physiological preconditions for control and defense of respiration must be considered in the diagnostic process, regardless of inflammation, allergy, psychology, or other etiological factors. Based on studies on dyspnea in cardiopulmonary diseases, including asthma and asthma-like disorders, there seems to be a continuous spectrum of symptoms and mechanisms integrated in a single asthma syndrome. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Eliasson U.,Gothenburg University
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2013

Species of myxomycetes are adapted to different ecological niches and occupy different microhabitats. The majority of species have a wide ecological amplitude and may be found on various kinds of substrata. Some species have narrower ecological niches and are restricted to or mainly found on one special kind of substratum. Coprophilous species grow on dung or on a substratum in close contact with dung. The vast majority of records stem from moist chamber cultures on dung from herbivorous mammals, but several species have also been recorded on droppings from birds. A limited number of species can be regarded as truly coprophilous in that they have predominantly or in some cases only been recorded on dung. Some of these species are known from very few collections and their dependence on dung may therefore be difficult to judge. No correlation is absolute and species regarded as coprophilous may sometimes, although rarely, turn up on other types of substrata. Dung is rich in bacteria and nutrients and is a favourable substratum for myxomycetes. Many species normally inhabiting other habitats are occasionally found on dung, and up to now about 114 species have been reported from this kind of substratum, a number that will continue to grow. At least three species, Licea alexopouli, Kelleromyxa fimicola and Trichia brunnea, have thick-walled spores, a possible adaptation to passing through the intestinal tract of a herbivore before germination can take place. © 2012 Mushroom Research Foundation.

Esposito M.,Gothenburg University
European journal of oral implantology | Year: 2012

To identify the most effective interventions for treating peri-implantitis around osseointe-grated oral implants. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to the 9th of June 2011 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing agents or interventions for treating peri-implantitis around oral implants. Primary outcome measures were implant failure, radiographic marginal bone level change, complications and side effects, and recurrence of peri-implantitis. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. The statistical unit was the patient and not the implant unless the clustering of the implants within the patients had been taken into account. Results were expressed as random-effects models using mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fifteen eligible trials were identified, but six were excluded. The following interventions were compared in the nine included studies: different non-surgical interventions (five trials), adjunctive treatments to non-surgical interventions (one trial), and different surgical interventions (two trials) and adjunctive treatments to surgical interventions (one trial). Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 4 years. No study was judged to be at low risk of bias. Statistically significant differences were observed in two small single trials judged to be at unclear or high risk of bias. After 4 months, adjunctive local antibiotics to manual debridement in patients who lost at least 50% of the bone around implants showed improved mean probing attachment levels (PAL) of 0.61 mm (95% CI 0.40 to 0.82) and reduced probing pockets depths (PPD) of 0.59 mm (95% CI 0.39 to 0.79). After 4 years, patients with periimplant infrabony defects >3 mm treated with Bio-Oss and resorbable barriers showed an improvement of 1.4 mm for PAL (95% CI 0.24 to 2.56) and PPD (95% CI 0.81 to 1.99) compared to patients treated with a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. There is no reliable evidence suggesting which could be the most effective interventions for treating peri-implantitis. This is not to say that currently used interventions are not effective. A single small trial at unclear risk of bias showed that the use of local antibiotics in addition to manual subgingival debridement was associated with a 0.6 mm additional improvement in PAL and PPD over a 4-month period in patients affected by severe forms of peri-implantitis. Another small single trial at high risk of bias showed that after 4 years, improved PAL and PPD of about 1.4 mm were obtained when using Bio-Oss with resorbable barriers compared to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in peri-implant infrabony defects. There is no evidence from four trials that the more complex and expensive therapies were more beneficial than the control therapies, which basically consisted of simple subgingival mechanical debridement. Follow-up longer than 1 year suggested recurrence of peri-implantitis in up to 100% of the treated cases for some of the tested interventions. As this can be a chronic disease, re-treatment may be necessary. Larger well-designed RCTs with follow-ups longer than 1 year are needed.

Horvath G.,Gothenburg University | Andersson H.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Nemes S.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: In recent decades it has been noted that trained dogs can detect specific odor molecules emitted by cancer cells. We have shown that the same odor can also be detected in the patient's blood with high sensitivity and specificity by trained dogs. In the present study, we examined how the ability of dogs to detect this smell was affected by treatment to reduce tumor burden, including surgery and five courses of chemotherapy.Methods: In Series I, one drop of plasma from each of 42 ovarian cancer patients (taken between the fifth and sixth courses of chemotherapy) and 210 samples from healthy controls were examined by two trained dogs. All 42 patients in Series I had clinical complete responses, all except two had normal CA-125 values and all were declared healthy after primary treatment. In Series II, the dogs examined blood taken from a new subset of 10 patients at 3 and 6 months after the last (sixth) course of chemotherapy.Results: In Series I, the dogs showed high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%), for detecting viable cancer cells or molecular cancer markers in the patients' plasma. Indeed, 29 of 42 patients died within 5 years. In Series II, the dogs indicated positive samples from three of the 10 patients at both the 3- and 6-month follow-up. All three patients had recurrences, and two died 3-4 years after the end of treatment. This was one of the most important findings of this study. Seven patients were still alive in January 2013.Conclusions: Although our study was based on a limited number of selected patients, it clearly suggests that canine detection gave us a very good assessment of the prognosis of the study patients. Being able to detect a marker based on the specific cancer odor in the blood would enhance primary diagnosis and enable earlier relapse diagnosis, consequently increasing survival. © 2013 Horvath et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

To evaluate possible benefits of the adjunctive use of light-activated disinfection (LAD) in the treatment of peri-implantitis. A total of 80 patients with at least one implant affected by peri-implantitis defined as at least 3 mm of bone loss on baseline radiographs in the presence of signs of infection (pus exudation and/or soft tissue swelling and/or soft tissue redness) were non-surgically or surgically treated for peri-implantitis and 50% of them were randomly allocated to receive an additional LAD treatment (FotoSan) according to a parallel group design at four different centres. Only one implant per patient was considered. Outcome measures were implant failures, recurrence of peri-implantitis, complications, peri-implant marginal bone level (RAD) changes, probing pocket depth (PPD) changes and number of re-treatment sessions recorded by blinded assessors. Patients were followed up for 1 year after treatment. Five treated patients did not fit the original inclusion criteria: 4 because they were not affected by the present definition of peri-implantitis and 1 due to being treated with antibiotics. However, they were included according to an intention-to-treat-analysis concept. Nine patients of the LAD group were treated surgically versus 10 control patients. After 1 year, 3 patients dropped out, all from the LAD group. One implant treated with the LAD therapy failed versus none of the control group. Four complications occurred: 3 in 3 patients of the LAD group and 1 in the control group. Recurrence of peri-implantitis defined as 2 mm of peri-implant bone loss or more recorded on standardised periapical radiographs was observed in 6 patients, 3 from each group. In total, 29 implants were re-treated 1 to 4 times in the LAD group versus 33 implants 1 to 4 times in the control group; the difference was not statistically significant. Peri-implant marginal bone levels remained stable up to 1 year with no statistically significant differences between groups (0.13 mm favouring LAD therapy; 95% CI of difference -0.47 to 0.72; P = 0.68). PPD significantly reduced in both groups, and at 1 year there were no significant differences between groups (difference 0.19 mm favouring LAD therapy; 95% CI of difference -0.70 to 1.07; P = 0.68). There were significant differences between centres for the number of re-treatment sessions delivered, PPD changes, plaque and marginal bleeding 1 year after treatment, but not for implant failures, complications, RAD changes and recurrence of peri-implantitis. The results did not change when removing the 5 patients who did not match the original inclusion criteria. Adjunctive use of LAD therapy (FotoSan) with mechanical cleaning of implants affected by peri-implantitis did not improve any clinical outcomes when compared to mechanical cleaning alone up to 1 year after treatment.

Eriksson E.,Gothenburg University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

The combined effect of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions on the physics of a helical Luttinger liquid coupled to a Kondo impurity is studied. A Rashba coupling can potentially destroy the Kondo singlet formation in certain parameter regimes. This effect is here shown to vanish for sufficiently strong Dresselhaus interaction. The transport properties of the system are investigated by calculating electrical conductance, current and current fluctuations, and thermal conductance. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Berlin D.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning | Year: 2011

This article addresses the role of institutional trust in motivating political consumers-i.e. people who use their consumer power to spur social change and buy goods on political, ethical and environmental grounds. In contrast to previous research, this article takes into consideration the domain-specific character of institutional trust and seeks to examine (a) the effects of trust in institutions working in the policy domain of sustainable development and (b) evaluations of state performance in issues of sustainable development. Data from a national survey conducted in Sweden in 2009 show that political consumers are characterized by a selective trust and selective discontent rather than indiscriminate feelings towards the state and its public authorities. More precisely, the level of general trust for national representative institutions had no effect at all on the level of political consumerism. However, dissatisfaction with governmental performance in the environmental human rights and combating of poverty areas mobilize people to shop politically at the same time as high trust in public agencies dealing with environment, and sustainable development also seems to promote political consumerism. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Wysocki R.,Wroclaw University | Tamas M.J.,Gothenburg University
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2010

Toxic metals and metalloids are widespread in nature and can locally reach fairly high concentrations. To ensure cellular protection and survival in such environments, all organisms possess systems to evade toxicity and acquire tolerance. This review provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to metal toxicity, detoxification and tolerance acquisition in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We mainly focus on the metals/metalloids arsenic, cadmium, antimony, mercury, chromium and selenium, and emphasize recent findings on sensing and signalling mechanisms and on the regulation of tolerance and detoxification systems that safeguard cellular and genetic integrity. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. All rights reserved.

Czerkinsky C.,Korean International Vaccine Institute | Holmgren J.,Gothenburg University
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2010

Research has yielded an abundance of vaccine candidates against mucosal infections, but only few mucosal vaccines have been registered for human use. Extensive research is being carried out to identify new and safe adjuvants for mucosal immunization, novel delivery systems, including live vectors and reporter molecules for tissue- and cell-specific targeting of vaccine antigens. If these candidates are to reach those in need, several lessons from clinical and field research carried out under resource-poor settings must be considered. These lessons include the need to develop new vaccines that can be administered topically onto the skin or to the mucosa, without needles or expensive delivery devices. Such topical vaccines must be able to protect all age groups at risk, be safe and effective in immunocompromised people, and be able to contain epidemics following complex emergencies. The anatomical compartmentalization of immune responses imposes constraints on the selection of topical route(s) of vaccine administration and on strategies for measuring these responses, especially in young infants. Thus, the selection of any particular route of immunization is critical when designing and formulating vaccines against organ-specific infections. © 2010 Society for Mucosal Immunology.