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Pilkington L.J.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Messelink G.,Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture | van Lenteren J.C.,Wageningen University | Le Mottee K.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries
Biological Control | Year: 2010

This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management strategy within the industry, the authors describe the rapid growth of biological control in parts of Europe and what this may mean for the industry in other parts of the world. The reaction of the greenhouse industry to several consumer led campaigns aimed at reducing the incidence of pesticides in the marketplace may be replicated in many other parts of the world. The size and robustness of the biological control industry in greenhouses, which is a reflection of the inherent characteristics of this industry that lends itself to biological control, is strong and growing with indications that this trend will be followed in many areas of the world. Crown Copyright © 2009.

Vuong Q.V.,University of Newcastle | Stathopoulos C.E.,University of Newcastle | Nguyen M.H.,University of Newcastle | Nguyen M.H.,University of Western Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Food Reviews International | Year: 2011

Tea is a rich source of catechins, which are well-known antioxidants. Tea consumption has been found to promote human health; however, only drinking tea may not provide a sufficient level of catechins to achieve health benefits. Thus, the utilization of catechins in foods is an alternative way to supplement catechin consumption. Furthermore, catechins can prevent lipid oxidation and improve color and flavour of foods; hence, addition of catechins can also prolong the shelflife of foods. Therefore, catechins have recently been isolated from green tea for utilization in food products to enhance their shelflife and health benefits. This article outlines several methods for the isolation of catechins from green tea, discusses the challenges involved, and reviews the utilisation of catechins in the food industry. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Steiner M.Y.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Spohr L.J.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Goodwin S.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

Two formulations of the novel miticide bifenazate, Floramite SC (240g/L bifenazate) and Acramite SC (480g/L bifenazate) were separately evaluated at a rate of 310mg a.i./L (1.3mL/L Floramite or 0.65mL/L Acramite) for side effects on the phytoseiid predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Tests included a combination of contact and residual treatment by overhead spray, direct contact by immersion, residual contact with treated leaf discs and repellency of a treated surface. Spray application of Acramite to protonymphs and to adult females on leaf discs did not cause increased mortality over 5days to either stage. Oviposition by treated adults was not affected over 5days. Egg-laying by adult females sprayed as protonymphs was reduced, but fewer males and inadequate food supply may have been partly responsible. For adult females treated as nymphs by micro-immersion in Floramite or Acramite, there were no significant differences between treated and untreated P. persimilis in mortality or oviposition. For both formulations, there was a significant reduction in oviposition rate of the first generation reared from eggs deposited on treated foliage, but the reduction was <20%. Foliar applications of both formulations to leaf discs were repellent to adult females, resulting in reduced oviposition. The repellency from a treated surface and low direct and indirect toxicity suggests that application of both Acramite and Floramite against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae, at the currently recommended rate of 310mg a.i./L would be compatible with use of P. persimilis, particularly as a spot treatment. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Australian Entomological Society.

Steiner M.Y.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Spohr L.J.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Goodwin S.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

An investigation into relative humidity (RH) requirements for successful pupation of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, found that RH greater than 80% was necessary for late-stage second instars to survive to pupation, with at least 90% RH being optimal. RH also impacted on dropping behaviour of late-stage larvae to pupate below a leaf surface. The mean RH for the change point for larvae to drop rather than remain on the plant surface was 81.2% (95% confidence interval 77.0%, 86.9%), with lower RH inducing dropping. A change in water relationships within the larva is proposed as the most likely mechanism for determining whether it remains on the plant or drops to pupate. These findings have implications with respect to integrated pest management options, particularly the management of RH in greenhouse situations, whether to target the ground or crop canopy, or choice and placement of biocontrol agents. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Australian Entomological Society.

Vuong Q.V.,University of Newcastle | Nguyen V.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Golding J.B.,University of Newcastle | Golding J.B.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Roach P.D.,University of Newcastle
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2011

Although Vietnam is one of the largest tea producing countries in the world, there is only limited data on the quality of Vietnamese grown teas. To provide a general measure of quality for Vietnamese grown teas, the content of catechins and caffeine in Vietnamese green, black and oolong teas was determined and compared with teas from other countries. The results showed that the content of catechins and caffeine in Vietnamese grown green teas was 70 mg/g and 21 mg/g whereas the levels were 34 mg/g and 19 mg/g in Vietnamese oolong teas and 12 mg/g and 20 mg/g in Vietnamese black teas, respectively. The findings also indicated that, despite some minor differences, the three types of Vietnamese teas were found to be comparable to their Chinese, Japanese and Australian marketplace counterparts. © 2011.

Lazar E.E.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Jobling J.J.,University of Sydney | Benkeblia N.,Kingston University
Stewart Postharvest Review | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: This article provides a summary of the published research pertaining to the antifungal properties of some essential oils and their components that could be potentially used to control postharvest pathogens in fresh horticultural products. The mode of action, synergistic effects, phytotoxicity, legal and safety aspects are also discussed. Findings: In vitro studies have demonstrated the antifungal activity of essential oils against a range of postharvest pathogens including Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Monilinia spp., Geotrichum candidum, Colletotrichum spp. and Fusarium spp. Although the inhibitory effects of essential oils on these fungal pathogens have been mostly attributed to a synergistic effect between the active ingredients, some individual components of the oils have also been identified as effective antifungal substances in vitro. These refer to carvacrol, anethole, thymol, decanol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral, terpinen-4-ol, a-terpineol, cuminaldehyde, perillaldehyde, salicylaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Essential oils have been shown to be more effective on postharvest pathogens in in vitro bioassays compared to in vivo applications. The two main issues encountered during the in vivo evaluation of the essential oils are phytotoxic effect and tainting of the organoleptic properties of the produce. The inhibitory effects of essential oils appear to be dependent on a number of variables such as target microorganism, host, concentration and method of applying the essential oils. Limitations: To be suitable for postharvest disease management, essential oils should retain their antifungal activity over a long period of time, meet safety requirements in terms of human health and environment, not diminish the quality of the produce, and be cost- effective for growers and producers. None of the essential oils tested for their antifungal properties to date have met all of these requirements. However, as the research and in particular, the practice of using essential oils for postharvest disease management on horticultural crops is still in early development, it is currently difficult to provide an accurate statement on "limitations" when not all of the factors contributing to the in vitro and in vivo efficacy have been elucidated. Directions for future research: Essential oils appear to be a promising alternative that may subsequently lead to the development of novel postharvest biofungicides to be used on fresh horticultural produce. These could potentially reduce/replace the synthetic fungicides that the global horticultural industry is highly reliant on at the present time. Given consumer and legislative concerns over the use of synthetic fungicides, essential oils should be able to capture reasonable market share given comparable efficacy and cost. While this potential exists, the factors influencing the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of these plant volatiles need to be elucidated. Additionally, in order to meet industry and consumer's expectations, large-scale trials should take place under commercial and semi-commercial conditions for different horticultural commodities, which not only consider efficacy but also cost, legal, and safety issues. © 2010 Stewart Postharvest Solutions (UK) Ltd.

Crampton K.A.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute
Stewart Postharvest Review | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: The review focuses on the use of biocontrol products and essential oils for the control of postharvest losses in the Australian potato industry, with the objective of highlighting areas that require further research. Findings: The need to reduce both the use and the environmental impacts of pesticides has resulted in increasing development of alternative control methods on a global level. Despite this, commercially available alternative options for controlling the postharvest losses of potatoes due to soft rot, dry rot and sprouting remain limited in Australia. This deficiency will need to be addressed in the near future, and the use of biocontrol agents and essential oils may be suitable solutions. Directions for future research: Further research is required for both biocontrol products and essential oils before use in the control of postharvest losses will become adopted. Future work should concentrate on developing locally obtained antagonistic microbes to a commercial level, and should also investigate the potential of phage-based biopesticides. Increasing knowledge of the effects of Australian essential oils against postharvest pathogens would provide benefit to both potato production and processing, and also essential oil industries. With this knowledge, future research will then need to develop delivery systems suitable to the produce being targeted, while determining the synergistic effects of oil combinations, and compatibility with potential biocontrol agents would assist adoption of these emerging control strategies by the horticulture industry. © 2010 Stewart Postharvest Solutions (UK) Ltd.

Vuong Q.V.,University of Newcastle | Stathopoulos C.E.,University of Newcastle | Golding J.B.,University of Newcastle | Golding J.B.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2011

Theanine is a unique non-protein amino acid found in tea (Camellia sinensis). It contributes to the favourable umami taste of tea and is linked to various beneficial effects in humans. There is an increasing interest in theanine as an important component of tea, as an ingredient for novel functional foods and as a dietary supplement. Therefore, optimal conditions for extracting theanine from tea are required for the accurate quantification of theanine in tea and as an efficient first step for its purification. This study examined the effects of four different extraction conditions on the yield of theanine from green tea using water and applied response surface methodology to further optimise the extraction conditions. The results showed that temperature, extraction time, ratio of water-to-tea and tea particle sizes had significant impacts on the extraction yield of theanine. The optimal conditions for extracting theanine from green tea using water were found to be extraction at 80°C for 30 min with a water-to-tea ratio of 20:1 mL/g and a tea particle size of 0.5-1 mm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Hoang N.T.T.,University of Sydney | Golding J.B.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Wilkes M.A.,University of Sydney
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

This study investigated the effect of a postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, controlled atmosphere and storage time on the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh of 'Cripps Pink' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Preclimacteric apples were harvested and treated with 1-MCP then stored in normal atmosphere (NA) or controlled atmosphere (CA) at 0 °C for up to 160 days. In general, the level of phenolics decreased by 9% in the peel and significantly increased twofold in the flesh during cold storage, regardless of storage atmosphere or 1-MCP treatment. However, treatment with 1-MCP resulted in significantly lower concentrations of chlorogenic acid and procyanidin B2 in apple flesh, and catechin and epicatechin in the peel compared to the control fruits. There was no significant effect of CA on the phenolic compounds during long-term storage, except for quercetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-glucoside, which both significantly increased under CA storage. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) is an important nutritional attribute of apples in the human diet. The results showed that TAA in the peel tissue was about eight times higher than that of the flesh, with mean values of 4.75 g TE/kg FW and 0.56 TE/kg FW, respectively. The TAA in both the peel and flesh tissue increased significantly during storage by 40% and 70%, respectively. The storage atmosphere did not significantly affect TAA in either the peel or flesh, whilst the 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced the TAA in the peel tissue only. These results show the beneficial combined effects of pre-storage 1-MCP treatment and CA on 'Cripps Pink' apple phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity during long term storage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vuong Q.V.,University of Newcastle | Golding J.B.,University of Newcastle | Golding J.B.,Gosford Primary Industries Institute | Nguyen M.,University of Newcastle | Roach P.D.,University of Newcastle
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2010

Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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