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Kassal P.,University of California at San Diego | Kassal P.,University of Zagreb | Kim J.,University of California at San Diego | Kumar R.,University of California at San Diego | And 5 more authors.
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2014

Advanced wound care technologies need to evolve in response to the growing burden of chronic wounds on national healthcare budgets and the debilitating impact chronic wounds have on patient quality of life. We describe here a new type of smart bandage for determination of uric acid (UA) status, a key wound biomarker, formed by screen printing an amperometric biosensor directly on a wound dressing. Immobilized uricase, paired with a printed catalytic Prussian blue transducer, facilitates chronoamperometric detection of uric acid at a low working potential. The smart bandage biosensor interfaces with a custom designed wearable potentiostat that provides on-demand wireless data transfer of UA status to a computer, tablet, or Smartphone by radio frequency identification (RFID) or near-field communication (NFC). The analytical performance of the smart bandage - sensitivity, selectivity, operational stability, and mechanical robustness - is described. Application of these bandages will provide insight into wound status and may reduce the frequency at which dressings are changed, allowing for healthcare cost savings and a reduction in patient stress and pain. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Novell M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Guinovart T.,Rovira i Virgili University | Steinberg I.M.,University of Zagreb | Steinberg M.,GoSense Wireless Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2013

Instrumental approaches to remotely and wirelessly monitoring chemical species are increasingly needed. Together with the electronic developments, efforts to optimize and validate the performance of these new devices are required. In this work, the analytical performance of a recently developed potentiometer-radiofrequency tag connected to ion-selective electrodes is evaluated. This credit card sized and extremely low power consumption device yield results that are comparable to those obtained with more sophisticated, lab-based tools. Advantages such as portability and autonomy, together with unique features, such as the ability to be read through the walls in a closed vessel are demonstrated. Future perspectives opened by this new generation of devices, such as their use in wearable devices and in decentralized settings are discussed. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Steinberg M.D.,GoSense Wireless Ltd. | Kassal P.,University of Zagreb | Tkalcec B.,University of Zagreb | Murkovic Steinberg I.,University of Zagreb
Talanta | Year: 2014

A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Steinberg M.D.,GoSense Wireless Ltd | Kassal P.,University of Zagreb | Steinberg I.M.,University of Zagreb
Electroanalysis | Year: 2016

This review is an analysis of system architectures in wearable electrochemical sensors. It presents the academic research output from journal articles, conference proceedings and books from 2006 up to early 2016. The review is structured into three sections that investigate architectures for (i) electrochemical sensors as wearable accessories, (ii) electrochemical sensors integrated into clothing and textiles, and (iii) electrochemical sensors that are applied to the body. The results indicate that novel architectures and materials are in research for sampling, measurement and fabrication of wearable sensors but that novel energy sources and readout techniques are under-utilised. A trend is evident in greater compatibility with mobile products such as Smartphones. The “user-centric” approach to wearable electrochemical sensor research is producing highly-integrated system architectures. A selection of exemplary wearables from the literature are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


Kassal P.,University of Zagreb | Steinberg I.M.,University of Zagreb | Steinberg I.M.,GoSense Wireless Ltd. | Steinberg M.D.,GoSense Wireless Ltd.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2013

The Internet of Things (IoT) envisions a future based on billions of smart connected devices. Devices that sense their surroundings and which when combined with cloud computing services will provide information on scales ranging from the microscopic to global. We demonstrate here for the first time the development and characterisation of an ultra low-power radio-frequency identification (RFID) wireless sensor tag with potentiometric input for use with pH and ion-selective electrodes. Tags such as this will be critical to the practical realisation of the Internet of Things. The tag is able to autonomously measure and store electrode potential in its internal memory, and then transfer logged data wirelessly by RFID to a nearby reader or by near field communication (NFC) to a smart phone. The unique features of the sensor tag include its ultra low-power consumption, potentiometric sensing ability, autonomous data logging, and RFID/NFC compatible air interface. These features make the tag suitable for use where pH or ion-selective electrodes are deployed as stand-alone chemical sensors or as part of larger chemical sensor networks that will underpin the IoT. pH determination in solution is used as an experimental example for illustrating measurement capability of the tag, and its analytical performance is compared to a standard laboratory pH meter. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Steinberg M.D.,GoSense Wireless Ltd | Tkalcec B.,University of Zagreb | Steinberg I.M.,University of Zagreb
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2016

A passive contactless sensor is presented for monitoring resistivity in porous materials. Electrical resistivity (ER) is an important indicator of water and ion content in porous materials, especially man-made and natural composites such as concrete and soil. The ER sensor is small, battery-free and is energised and queried wirelessly for data by a radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader or a near-field communication (NFC) enabled mobile device (a tablet or Smartphone). By applying Topsøe coefficients and a calibration function to the sensor output, the ER of the material is reliably estimated. Experimental results in the laboratory with a model aggregate material (sand) wetted with sodium chloride solutions demonstrate excellent agreement between the new sensor and a standard laboratory conductivity meter. Embedded ER sensors can provide long-term and repeatable data from soil, concrete and similar porous materials where ER is an accepted proxy for water and ion content. We think that passive contactless resistivity sensors will become commonplace as the Internet of Things (IoT) develops in the construction and precision agriculture sectors, and as the demand for long-lived, battery-free sensors increases. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Steinberg M.D.,GoSense Wireless Ltd. | Kassal P.,University of Zagreb | Kerekovic I.,University of Zagreb | Steinberg I.M.,University of Zagreb
Talanta | Year: 2015

Wireless chemical sensors are used as analytical devices in homeland defence, home-based healthcare, food logistics and more generally for the Sensor Internet of Things (SIoT). Presented here is a battery-powered and highly portable credit-card size potentiostat that is suitable for performing mobile and wearable amperometric electrochemical measurements with seamless wireless data transfer to mobile computing devices. The mobile electrochemical analytical system has been evaluated in the laboratory with a model redox system - the reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) - and also with commercially available enzymatic blood-glucose test-strips. The potentiostat communicates wirelessly with mobile devices such as tablets or Smartphones by near-field communication (NFC) or with personal computers by radio-frequency identification (RFID), and thus provides a solution to the 'missing link' in connectivity that often exists between low-cost mobile and wearable chemical sensors and ubiquitous mobile computing products. The mobile potentiostat has been evaluated in the laboratory with a set of proof-of-concept experiments, and its analytical performance compared with a commercial laboratory potentiostat (R2=0.9999). These first experimental results demonstrate the functionality of the wireless potentiostat and suggest that the device could be suitable for wearable and point-of-sample analytical measurements. We conclude that the wireless potentiostat could contribute significantly to the advancement of mobile chemical sensor research and adoption, in particular for wearable sensors in healthcare and sport physiology, for wound monitoring and in mobile point-of-sample diagnostics as well as more generally as a part of the Sensor Internet of Things. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Steinberg M.D.,GoSense Wireless Ltd. | Zura I.,University of Zagreb | Murkovic Steinberg I.,GoSense Wireless Ltd. | Murkovic Steinberg I.,University of Zagreb
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

A contactless smart card with integral wireless power and data link and on-board chemical sensor is described. The chemical sensor part of the smart card comprises a planar conductometric interface onto which a chemically or biologically sensitive thin film may be cast using microfabrication techniques. The thin film sensor and conductometric interface form an integral part of a radio-frequency smart card that has been designed for use in distributed chemical and biological detection systems, and which is based upon the International Standards Organisation high-frequency (HF) ISO 15693 radio-frequency identification (RFID) protocol. Conductometric measurements are controlled, sampled and stored by the smart card electronics. Measurement results achieved with an organic semiconductor, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT-PSS, as a model thin film conductometric sensor material cast on planar gold electrodes are reported. The standardisation of short-range wireless radio protocols such as Bluetooth, RuBee, ZigBee, WiFi and RFID is opening new markets for distributed sensors and sensor networks, and the fusion of chemical and biosensor technologies with short-range, low-cost, wireless technologies will create new opportunities for chemical and biological sensor systems in healthcare, environmental monitoring, process and quality control, and chemical and biological threat detection. The chemical sensor smart card described here could in future be suitable for use in various distributed short range wireless data applications and sensor networks as part of the emerging sensor Internet of Things. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zura I.,University of Zagreb | Babic D.,University of Zagreb | Steinberg M.D.,GoSense Wireless Ltd. | Murkovic Steinberg I.,University of Zagreb
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

Low-cost conductometric transducers have been designed and characterised with a view to their potential use as chemiresistors in mobile sensor applications. Four different geometries of transducer have been evaluated by two different measurement techniques. Devices were fabricated by etching planar gold electrodes on low-cost glass-fibre substrates (FR-4) using a standard printed circuit board (PCB) photolithography, wet etching and electroless plating method. Thin films of the P-type semiconducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT-PSS, were cast onto the electrodes by spin-coating. The conducting polymer films were electrically characterised by measuring the film resistance from the underlying gold electrodes using a digital multimeter, and also by determination of the film's current-voltage transfer characteristic (I-V curve) measured with a precision laboratory 4-point probe instrument. This allowed the relative contribution of the contact resistance at the Au/PEDOT-PSS interface to be determined as a proportion of the overall measured resistance. Contact resistance is known to affect the analytical performance of chemiresistor type devices, so in this work the combined effects of electrode geometry, polymer film composition and ageing of the film on bulk film and contact resistances have been investigated. The applicability of the chemiresistor transducers for chemical sensing is demonstrated using a PEDOT-PSS thin film as an ethanol vapour sensitive coating in a simple vapour exposure test, where a reversible conductometric response was observed. Due to the simplicity, low-cost and ultra low-power requirements of these transducers, they may be particularly suited to battery powered mobile and wireless sensing applications, or to applications dependant upon energy harvesting. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | GoSense Wireless Ltd. and University of Zagreb
Type: | Journal: Talanta | Year: 2015

Wireless chemical sensors are used as analytical devices in homeland defence, home-based healthcare, food logistics and more generally for the Sensor Internet of Things (SIoT). Presented here is a battery-powered and highly portable credit-card size potentiostat that is suitable for performing mobile and wearable amperometric electrochemical measurements with seamless wireless data transfer to mobile computing devices. The mobile electrochemical analytical system has been evaluated in the laboratory with a model redox system - the reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) - and also with commercially available enzymatic blood-glucose test-strips. The potentiostat communicates wirelessly with mobile devices such as tablets or Smartphones by near-field communication (NFC) or with personal computers by radio-frequency identification (RFID), and thus provides a solution to the missing link in connectivity that often exists between low-cost mobile and wearable chemical sensors and ubiquitous mobile computing products. The mobile potentiostat has been evaluated in the laboratory with a set of proof-of-concept experiments, and its analytical performance compared with a commercial laboratory potentiostat (R(2)=0.9999). These first experimental results demonstrate the functionality of the wireless potentiostat and suggest that the device could be suitable for wearable and point-of-sample analytical measurements. We conclude that the wireless potentiostat could contribute significantly to the advancement of mobile chemical sensor research and adoption, in particular for wearable sensors in healthcare and sport physiology, for wound monitoring and in mobile point-of-sample diagnostics as well as more generally as a part of the Sensor Internet of Things.

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