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Heidari M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Genetika | Year: 2012

Effect of polymorphic variants of growth hormone (GH), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and Pit-1 genes on milk yield was analyzed in a Holstein herd. Genotypes of the cows for these genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Allele frequencies were 0.884 and 0.116 for L and V variants of GH, 0.170 and 0.830 for A and B variants of Pit-1, and 0.529 and 0.471 for A and B variants of beta-LG, respectively. GLM procedure of SAS software was used to test the effects of these genes on milk yield. Results indicated significant effects of these genes on milk yield (P < 0.05). Cows with LL genotype of GH produced more milk than cows with LVgenotype (P < 0.05). Also, for Pit-1 gene, animals with AB genotype produced more milk than BB genotype (P < 0.05). In the case of beta-LG gene, milk yield of animals with AA genotype was more than BB genotype (P < 0.01). Therefore, it might be concluded that homozygote genotypes of GH (LL) and beta-LG (AA) were superior compared to heterozygote genotypes, whereas, the heterozygote genotype of Pit-1 gene (AB) was desirable. Source

Salehi F.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Food and Bioproducts Processing | Year: 2014

The increase in energy costs and the demands for products with greater nutritional value and of processing procedures less toxic to the environment are attractive factors for transferring membrane processing to food industries. Nanofiltration (NF) technology is still evolving, finding more and more applications in food processing and appears as an important alternative to conventional methods. The purpose of this review is to present the recent development and future potential of NF processes in the food industry. Recent research has highlighted the potential for NF use in wide ranging, including water softening, wastewater treatment, vegetable oil processing, beverage, dairy and sugar industry. NF has been established as greater separation efficiency, successfully reduces the wastewater, done under low temperatures, reduction in number of processing steps and presents a promising choice toward the achievement of cost effective process. NF carries quite distinctive properties such as pore radius and surface charge density which influences the separation of various solutes. © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Source

Hashemi S.R.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Davoodi H.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Veterinary Research Communications | Year: 2011

The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth, or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used in animal diets include immunostimulators, antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Herbal plants, are a new class of growth promoters and in recent years this feed additives have gained extensive attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. Although numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of herbal plants feed additives with antibiotics or organic acid have suggested similar effects on the animal gut microflora. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, the future of using herbs in animal feeding will in great measure depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, their value and characteristics of practical herbs or their extract physiological needs and well-being of animal, and, above all on consumer's preferences and expectations. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Bahremand A.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2016

Since its origins as an engineering discipline, with its widespread use of "black box" (empirical) modeling approaches, hydrology has evolved into a scientific discipline that seeks a more "white box" (physics-based) modeling approach to solving problems such as the description and simulation of the rainfall-runoff responses of a watershed. There has been much recent debate regarding the future of the hydrological sciences, and several publications have voiced opinions on this subject. This opinion paper seeks to comment and expand upon some recent publications that have advocated an increased focus on process-based modeling while de-emphasizing the focus on detailed attention to parameter estimation. In particular, it offers a perspective that emphasizes a more hydraulic (more physics-based and less empirical) approach to development and implementation of hydrological models. © 2016 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License. Source

Alishahi A.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Aider M.,Laval University
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2012

There has recently been an increasing interest in seafood products due to the growing awareness of their nutraceutical value. However, marine-based products are highly susceptible to deterioration, mainly because of their high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), their high water activity, abundant free amino acids, neutral pH, and the presence of autolytic enzymes. In recent decades, various alternative methods have been developed to address this issue. Among the proposed solutions, chitosan has been highlighted as one of the most promising solutions. Chitosan, a deacetylated derivative of chitin, has attracted high consideration for its nontoxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Moreover, it is a polymer with versatile functional properties. For this reason, chitosan, which is commercially produced mostly from marine sources (e. g., crustacean shells), has been used to stabilize seafood-based products. In this review, chitosan is highlighted with respect to the various potential applications exploiting its many features, such as antibacterial and antioxidant properties, edible film- and coating-forming ability, the treatment of seafood industry effluent, enhanced gelling properties, micro- and nanocarrier abilities for bioactive compounds, functional foods, and drug compounds from aquaculture and seafood. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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