Gorgān, Iran
Gorgān, Iran

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Naderi M.,Arak University | Moradlo Haji A.M.,Gorgan University | Ghorbani R.,Gorgan University
Acta Zoologica Bulgarica | Year: 2016

One hundred and thirty-five specimens of Acipenser stellatus were collected from the fishery stations of Babolsar, Farahabad and Bandar-e-Torkaman, south-eastern Caspian Sea between the winter of 2001 and spring 2003. The content of the alimentary canal was studied fresh, prey items were separated and then fixed in 10% formalin for identification. The probability percentage and frequency of various prey items, the percentage of empty stomachs along with prey dominance were calculated. Nine of the registered food items were considered to be the principle and dominant food items and had very high importance as demonstrated by the dominance index. The percentage of alimentary canal emptiness in spring was lower than that in other seasons. Seasonal changes in food composition were observed. ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference of prey preference among sampling sites while we found significant differences among seasons. © 2016 Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research - BAS.

Akbarpour I.,Gorgan University | Ghaffari M.,Gorgan University | Ghasemian A.,Gorgan University
BioResources | Year: 2013

Sodium silicate causes problems in papermaking such as deposit formation, decreased retention, and lower sheet strength. Due to these problems, chemical deinking of different recycled papers furnishes including 100% ONP, 80% ONP, and 20% OMG, and a combination of 70% ONP/ 20% OMG/ 10% MOW was accomplished using an organic complexing agent which included poly-hydroxyl acrylic acid and sodium salt (PHAAS) in silicate-free conditions. PHAAS was utilized at four levels of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1% (based on oven-dry weight of recycled paper) rather than sodium silicate. The optical and physical properties of deinked pulp were compared to control pulp (conventional deinking containing 2% sodium silicate). The results showed that the paper brightness was improved and the yellowness, dirt count, and dirt area were decreased significantly by increasing PHAAS charge up to 0.9%. Also, in different recycled paper furnishes above mentioned, using different charges of PHAAS had different effects on paper opacity. Using different charges of PHAAS (especially 0.7 to 0.9%) decreased paper caliper, increased paper air resistance, increased freeness, and gave similar or slightly better paper tear indices. Differences of tear indices were not significant at confidence level of 99%. Based on the present research, the use of 0.7 to 0.9% PHAAS in place of sodium silicate is advisable because of the better quality of final papers compared to conventional deinking process.

Fallah M.,Guilan University | Shabanpor M.,Guilan University | Ebrahimi S.,Gorgan University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

In recent years, petroleum products and by-products have been widely used chemicals in soil habitats, which change the soil properties and quality of groundwater due to solubility, volatility and biodegradability of these pollutants. The aim of this research was to investigate the impacts of kerosene and gas oil pollutants on the breakthrough curve (BTC), soil water retention curve (SWRC) and some physical and chemical properties of the laboratory-contaminated soils. For this purpose, some water-saturated soils were artificially contaminated in the pulse condition inside some glass cylinders by applying half and one pore volume of these pollutants. Furthermore, parametric investigations of the soil retention curves were performed using RETC software by Van Genukhten, and Brooks–Corey equations in the various suctions and the soil properties were determined before and after pollution during a 3-month period. The BTC revealed that kerosene flowed out of the soil with a sharper gradient and greater velocity than gas oil, especially on introduction of one volume of kerosene (triple times more than the 0.5 volume). The RETC results regarding the Van Genukhten model demonstrated slightly lower water-holding capacity in the contaminated samples than the unpolluted one. Contamination not only diminished the saturation moisture (Θs), but also reduced the residual moisture (Θr) and the SWRC gradient (n), while Brooks–Corey equation represented only one set of data for all conditions. It can be concluded that all apparent physical and chemical properties of soil have been changed by spill of petroleum hydrocarbon on the soil surface. Evaluation of both equations demonstrated more accurate prediction of the SWRC’s parameter by Van Genukhten compared to Brooks–Corey. The results of this research can be generalizable for the assessment of petroleum pollution impacts on the quality and changes of soil properties in terms of pulse contamination for approximately the same condition on a wider scale. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

In order to examine the efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic on Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, we conducted an experiment. We also investigate if clove oil anesthesia suppressed the normal plasma cortisol and glucose level increase in this species or not. The Effects of clove oil on Hematological factors (Hb, Hct, and WBC) was examined as well. Three different concentrations of clove oil (200, 300, 400 mg/L) combined the two water temperature (20 and 24°C) were assessed. The combination of 400 mg/L and 24°C was the best treatment for anesthetizing as well as recovery. From one trial (concentration: 300 mg/L and temperature: 24°C), blood samples were taken on 0 (immediately upon placement in recovery tank), 1, 6, 24 and 72 hours post recovery in order to evaluate physiological responses. After 72 h both blood glucose and cortisol reach the level similar to the control group which was before applying clove oil. Hematological parameters after some fluctuation reached its level the same as control group of the experiments. © Published by Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon.

Jonoobi M.,University Putra Malaysia | Harun J.,University Putra Malaysia | Tahir P.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Shakeri A.,Gorgan University | And 2 more authors.
Materials Letters | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to isolate cellulose nanofibers from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) stem using chemo-mechanical treatments. The fiber purification method included pulping and bleaching processes whereas the mechanical treatments employed to isolate kenaf nanofibers were grinding and high pressure homogenizing. Kenaf nanofibers were found to have diameters in the range of 15-80 nm while most nanofibers have diameters within the range 15-25 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the chemical treatments removed lignin and most of the hemicelluloses from the fibers. The thermal characteristics of the fibers were analyzed using the technique of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) which demonstrated that these characteristics were enhanced noticeably both for the bleached pulp and nanofibers. On the other hand, the X-ray analysis indicated that both chemical and mechanical treatments can improve the crystallinity of fibers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Khanjanzadeh H.,Gorgan University | Tabarsa T.,Gorgan University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

In this study the effect of nanoclay (0, 3 and 5 wt %) and grafted anhydride maleic with polypropylene (MAPP, 3 and 5 wt%) on physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene/wood flour nanocomposite was investigated. For manufacturing of these composites after melt compounding of the material they were converted to wood plastic granules in extruder and placed in hot press. The results showed that with increase of nanoclay physical (thickness swilling and water absorption) properties increases significantly but mechanical (bending and module of elasticity) properties increase up to 3 percent but after that gradually decreases. Also with incorporation of MAPP physical and mechanical properties of this nanocomposites improved and this positive effect was stronger for 5 percent MAPP than 3 one. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Similar to other Chondrostean fish, Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897) and Starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771) have got Gymnovarian ovaries, and structure form of their reproduction system is such that eggs cannot readily leave it. In minimally invasive surgical technique, a small incision is made in the wall of oviduct so that the eggs can easily leave it with the minimal manipulation and also the broodstock can survive. The aim of this work is to determine the distance between gonopore and incision area according to size and species which results in a more accurate and flawless incision. The results of this study showed that the distance between gonopore and conjuncture area of the two oviducts depends on species and size of fish; this distance in Persian sturgeon with 115-191 centimeters fork length and Starry sturgeon with 122-143 centimeters fork length were 4.2-6.3 and 3.8-4.5 centimeters, respectively. This distance is more than the incision depth that is generally made on the wall of one of the oviducts.

Fallah M.,Guilan University | Shabanpor M.,Guilan University | Zakerinia M.,Gorgan University | Ebrahimi S.,Gorgan University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

Soil and ground water resource pollution by petroleum compounds and chemical solvents has multiple negative environmental impacts. The aim of this research was to investigate the impacts of kerosene and gas oil pollutants on some physical and chemical properties, breakthrough curve (BTC), and water retention curve (SWRC) of silty clay soil during a 3-month period. Therefore, some water-saturated soils were artificially contaminated in the pulse condition inside some glassy cylinders by applying half and one pore volume of these pollutants, and then parametric investigations of the SWRC were performed using RETC software for Van Genukhten and Brooks-Corey equations in the various suctions and the soil properties were determined before and after pollution during 3 months. The results showed that gas oil and kerosene had a slight effect on soil pH and caused the cumulative enhancement in the soil respiration, increase in the bulk density and organic matter, and reduction in the soil porosity and electrical and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, gas oil retention was significantly more than kerosene (almost 40 %) in the soil. The survey of SWRC indicated that the contaminated soil samples had a little higher amount of moisture retention (just under 15 % in most cases) compared to the unpolluted ones during this 3-month period. The parametric analysis of SWRC demonstrated an increase in the saturated water content, Θs, from nearly 49 % in the control sample to just under 53 % in the polluted ones. Contaminants not only decreased the residual water content, Θr, but also reduced the SWRC gradient, n, and amount of α parameter. The evaluation of both equations revealed more accurate prediction of SWRC’s parameters by Van Genukhten compared to those of Brooks and Corey. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Owlia P.,Shahed University | Nosrati R.,Shahed University | Saderi H.,Shahed University | Olamaee M.,Gorgan University | And 2 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012

Background and Objectives: Azotobacter vinelandii, a gamma-proteobacterium, is an obligate aerobic free-living gramnegative soil bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. Oxygen transfer rate into the cell is reduced by the increase of alginate concentrations during the course of A. vinelandii cultivation. This phenomenon provides a low intracellular oxygen concentration needed for nitrogenase activity. The aim of this study was to design a simple strategy to explain the alginate production, cell growth and nitrogenase activity correlation in A. vinelandii under aerobic conditions. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five different soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of agricultural crops of Iran. Enrichment and isolation strategies were employed for microbial isolation. Physiological and biochemical characteristics were determined. Molecular identification was performed using selective nifH-g1 primers. Alginate production and nitrogenase activity assay by each isolate of Azotobacter were carried out. Bacterial growth, alginate production and Nitrogenase activity were conducted by time-coursed quantitative measurements. Results: Total of 26 isolates were selected after enrichment, isolation, and screening. The isolate was identified by molecular tests as A. vinelandii. The highest alginate productions of 1.02 g/l and 0.91g/l were noted after 4 days in 8 isolates, cell biomass of which were estimated 4.88-5.26 g/l. Six of 8 isolates were able to fix atmospheric N2 on nitrogen-free medium. Rates obtained in isolates were in the range of 12.1 to 326.4 nmol C2 H4 h-1 vial-1. Conclusions: Nitrogen fixation and alginate production yielded significant and positive Pearson's correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.760, p ~ 0.02. Finally association between bacterial growth, alginate production and nitrogenase activity almost noticeable yielded significant and positive Pearson's correlation coefficient R2 = 0.723, p ~ 0.04.

PubMed | Gorgan University, Canadian Museum of Nature and University of Tehran
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2014

The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944) is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is Vulnerable according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956) within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

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