Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg

Colmar Berg, Luxembourg

Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg

Colmar Berg, Luxembourg

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Schwartz G.A.,Donostia International Physics Center | Colmenero J.,University of the Basque Country | Colmenero J.,Donostia International Physics Center | Loichen J.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Westermann S.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

The effect of water content on silica nanoparticles was examined by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), broadband dielectric spectroscopy (from 10 -2 to 107 Hz), and differential scanning calorimetry for a wide temperature range (110-250 K). Silica nanoparticles were dried and rehydrated at different water levels to determine the critical factors affecting the dielectric response. The dynamics of both hydration water and hydrated silanol groups were addressed. Whereas hydration water dynamics depend on the water content, the dynamics corresponding to hydrated silanol groups are almost water independent once the maximum hydroxylation level is reached. In addition, we determined that during hydration water molecules prefer to form clusters instead of filling a complete layer around the particles. Finally, we observed that contrary to other water containing systems, the corresponding relaxation times of water molecules do not show any crossover (from high-T super-Arrhenius to low-T Arrhenius behavior). © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Schwartz G.A.,Donostia International Physics Center | Cerveny S.,Donostia International Physics Center | Colmenero J.,Donostia International Physics Center | Colmenero J.,University of the Basque Country | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecules | Year: 2013

We present in this work a systematic study to analyze the influence of water and filler content on the dielectric response of silica-filled rubber compounds. For nanoparticle-filled polymers an additional dielectric process is usually observed in the loss dielectric spectra at frequencies lower than the alpha (α) or segmental relaxation. This process has generated some controversy in the literature due to the different (sometimes contradictory) interpretations given to explain its physical origin. We demonstrate, by means of dielectric spectroscopy in combination with thermal analysis, that this low-frequency process is compatible with a MWS process enhanced by the presence of water molecules at the silica surface. We show that the frequency of the maximum for this process is strongly affected by the amount of water attached to the silica particles. The dielectric response of the MWS process is rationalized by means of a simple interlayer model (IL). In addition, we also study the influence of water and filler content on the segmental dynamics and discuss possible mechanisms for the filler-polymer interaction. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Rauchs G.,CRP Henri Tudor | Bardon J.,CRP Henri Tudor | Georges D.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg
Mechanics of Materials | Year: 2010

In this article, the material parameters of different rubber compounds are determined by an inverse method based on gradient-based numerical optimization, using experimental data from depth-sensing spherical indentation testing. The deformation behaviour of rubber is described by the Zener model. The indentation test is modeled by a finite strain finite element model, and the gradients necessary for the inverse method are determined by direct differentiation. Four different rubber compounds are analyzed, and the material parameters obtained from spherical indentation testing are used to model a uniaxial tensile test, for comparison with experimental data. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wirtz M.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Rommel R.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Lopez Valentin J.,CSIC - Institute of Polymer Science and Technology | Westermann S.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2016

Thermoporosimetry is known as an analytical method to investigate network structures in swollen elastomers. Despite this interesting potential capability, only few investigations are published in literature which apply different solvents on differently crosslinked natural rubber samples. The choice of the solvent is critical as it strongly influences the separation of confined and bulk solvent transition signal, the confined solvent signal intensity and the peak width representing the pore size resolution. No critical comparison has been done in these investigations regarding the solvent choice related to peak separation, pore size resolution or signal intensity. Furthermore, no critical assessment is available relating thermoporosimetry results to solvent parameters to identify an optimal solvent regarding the mentioned criteria. This argument motivated the present investigation to identify the most appropriate solvents for the analysis of natural rubber compounds by thermoporosimetry. Different types of solvents (aliphatic, aromatic, non-polar, and polar) were selected and benchmarked against each other. It was concluded that n-heptane was identified as the best solvent for these investigations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2016, 133, 43998. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Saphiannikova M.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research | Toshchevikov V.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research | Gazuz I.,Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research | Petry F.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecules | Year: 2014

A versatile multiscale theoretical approach for the viscoelasticity of the homogeneous rubber matrix has been established taking into account relaxation processes at different time and length scales as well as nonpolymeric relaxation processes at extremely high frequencies. It allows to fit and describe the dynamic moduli of unfilled S-SBR rubbers over 16 frequency decades with a limited set of parameters (relaxation times, scaling exponents) which have a clear physical meaning and obey the relations motivated by the statistical-physical theory of polymer melts and polymer networks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Hermann A.,University of Mainz | Mruk R.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Roskamp R.F.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Scherer M.,University of Mainz | And 2 more authors.
Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

Narrowly distributed ( N -isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAM) polymers are prepared by reversible addition- fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. After successful cleavage of the trithiocarbonate end groups (thiol generation), they can be grafted to styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) by a radical thiol-ene reaction leading to various grafted SBR-copolymers. During the grafting reaction, no crosslinking or branching of the SBR can be observed. Measurements of the contact angle of water show that the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) properties of the PNIPAM fraction affect the SBR. Films of the graft-copolymer exhibit a distinct hydrophilicity below the LCST, while they show hydrophobic behavior above the LCST. Rheological measurements reveal a physical crosslinking of the functionalized SBR due to nanophase separation of the PNIPAM chains (hard phase) in the unpolar SBR. Compared with blends of SBR and PNIPAM, the PNIPAMgrafted SBR possesses a much finer distribution of the PNIPAM domains (10-30 nm) within the matrix. In addition, two novel difunctional chaintransfer agents are used, leading to difunctional PNIPAM, enabling a covalent crosslinking of SBR. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Vercammen S.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Bianciardi F.,Siemens AG | Kindt P.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Desmet W.,Catholic University of Leuven | Sas P.,Catholic University of Leuven
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

In the context of the reduction of traffic-related noise the research reported in this paper provides tools that could be used to develop low noise tyres. Two measurement techniques have been analyzed for exterior noise radiation characterization of a loaded rotating slick tyre on a rough road surface. On one hand sound pressure measurements at low spatial resolution with strategically placed microphones on a half-hemisphere around the tyre/road contact point have been performed. This technique provides a robust solution to compute the (overall) sound power level. On the other hand sound intensity measurements at high spatial resolution by means of a scanning intensity probe have been performed. This technique allows a more detailed spatial visualization of the noise radiation and helps in getting more insight and better understanding of the acoustical phenomena. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Vercammen S.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Kindt P.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Bianciardi F.,Siemens AG | Desmet W.,Catholic University of Leuven
22nd International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper analyses the noise radiation of a loaded and rotating slick tyre on a rough road surface. The setup focuses on the noise radiation generated by the structural tyre vibrations and less on the noise radiation generated by the tread profile since a slick tyre is used. The analysis of the noise radiation is done by means of measurements. The investigated measurement technique is based on sound intensity measurements. The sound intensity measurements have been performed with a scanning intensity probe. The scanning intensity probe allows to measure on a half hemisphere around the tyre at high spatial resolution. The results of the measurement technique are a detailed spatial visualization of the noise radiation as well as the overall sound power level. The measurement technique helps in getting more insight and better understanding of the acoustical phenomena. It shows how the noise radiation pattern changes over the frequency range in the leading and trailing edge region and also towards the side.


Mzabi S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Berghezan D.,Michelin | Roux S.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan | Hild F.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics | Year: 2011

Using Digital Image Correlation on high-resolution images, the full strain field near the tip of a crack propagating under cyclic loading in an elastomer was characterized. We show unambiguously, and for the first time, the existence of a strongly localized and highly oriented process zone close to the crack tip and propose a simple physical model introducing a local energy release rate glocal = WunloadingH0, where W unloading is the unloading strain energy density in uniaxial tension at the maximum strain measured at the crack tip, and H0 is the undeformed size of the highly stretched zone in the loading direction. Remarkably, the crack growth rate under cyclic loading is found to fall on a master curve as a function of glocal for three elastomers with different filler contents and crosslinking densities, while the same crack growth rate as a function of the applied macroscopic energy release rate G, differs by two orders of magnitude for the same three elastomers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Gonzalez Diaz C.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Kindt P.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Middelberg J.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | Vercammen S.,Goodyear Innovation Center Luxembourg | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2016

Based on the results of experimental and numerical analyses, the effect of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour is investigated. Better understanding of these effects will further improve the ability to control and optimize the noise and vibrations that result from the interaction between the road surface and the rolling tyre. Therefore, more understanding in the complex tyre dynamic properties will contribute to develop tyre design strategies to lower the tyre/road noise while less affecting other tyre performances. The presented work is performed in the framework of the European industry-academia project TIRE-DYN, with partners Goodyear, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and LMS International. The effect of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour is quantified for different operating conditions of the tyre, such as load, air pressure and rotation speed. By means of experimental and numerical analyses, the effects of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour are studied. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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