Montréal, Canada
Montréal, Canada

Time filter

Source Type

Ahn R.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Ahn R.,McGill University | Sabourin V.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Bolt A.M.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | And 23 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2017

Tyrosine kinase signalling within cancer cells is central to the establishment of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors act, in part, to augment adaptive immunity, the increased heterogeneity and functional redundancy of the tyrosine kinome is a hurdle to achieving durable responses to immunotherapies. We previously identified the Shc1 (ShcA) scaffold, a central regulator of tyrosine kinase signalling, as essential for promoting breast cancer immune suppression. Herein we show that the ShcA pathway simultaneously activates STAT3 immunosuppressive signals and impairs STAT1-driven immune surveillance in breast cancer cells. Impaired Y239/Y240-ShcA phosphorylation selectively reduces STAT3 activation in breast tumours, profoundly sensitizing them to immune checkpoint inhibitors and tumour vaccines. Finally, the ability of diminished tyrosine kinase signalling to initiate STAT1-driven immune surveillance can be overcome by compensatory STAT3 hyperactivation in breast tumours. Our data indicate that inhibition of pY239/240-ShcA-dependent STAT3 signalling may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy to sensitize breast tumours to multiple immunotherapies. © The Author(s) 2017.


Ahn R.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Sabourin V.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Ha J.R.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Cory S.,McGill University | And 11 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

ShcA (SHC1) is an adapter protein that possesses an SH2 and a PTB phosphotyrosine-binding motif. ShcA generally uses its PTB domain to engage activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), but there has not been a definitive determination of the role of this domain in tumorigenesis. To address this question, we employed a ShcA mutant (R175Q) that no longer binds phosphotyrosine residues via its PTB domain. Here, we report that transgenic expression of this mutant delays onset of mammary tumors in the MMTV-PyMT mouse model of breast cancer. Paradoxically, we observed a robust increase in the growth and angiogenesis of mammary tumors expressing ShcR175Q, which displayed increased secretion of fibronectin and expression of integrin a5/b1, the principal fibronectin receptor. Sustained integrin engagement activated Src, which in turn phosphorylated proangiogenic RTKs, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor, and Met, leading to increased VEGF secretion from ShcR175Q-expressing breast cancer cells. We defined a ShcR175Qdependent gene signature that could stratify breast cancer patients with a high microvessel density. This study offers the first in vivo evidence of a critical role for intracellular signaling pathways downstream of the ShcA PTB domain, which both positively and negatively regulate tumorigenesis during various stages of breast cancer progression. © 2013 AACR.


Hudson J.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Ha J.R.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Sabourin V.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Ahn R.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | And 14 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2014

Breast cancers are stratified into distinct subtypes, which influence therapeutic responsiveness and patient outcome. Patients with luminal breast cancers are often associated with a better prognosis relative to that with other subtypes. However, subsets of patients with luminal disease remain at increased risk of cancer-related death. A critical process that increases the malignant potential of breast cancers is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The p66ShcA adaptor protein stimulates the formation of reactive oxygen species in response to stress stimuli. In this paper, we report a novel role for p66ShcA in inducing an EMT in HER2+ luminal breast cancers. p66ShcA increases the migratory properties of breast cancer cells and enhances signaling downstream of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase in these tumors. Moreover, Met activation is required for a p66ShcA-induced EMT in luminal breast cancer cells. Finally, elevated p66ShcA levels are associated with the acquisition of an EMT in primary breast cancers spanning all molecular subtypes, including luminal tumors. This is of high clinical relevance, as the luminal and HER2 subtypes together comprise 80% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers. This study identifies p66ShcA as one of the first prognostic biomarkers for the identification of more aggressive tumors with mesenchymal properties, regardless of molecular subtype. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


Im Y.K.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | La Selva R.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Gandin V.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Ha J.R.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2014

The ShcA adaptor protein is engaged by numerous receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in breast cancer cells. Once activated, RTKs phosphorylate three key tyrosine phosphorylation sites (Y239, Y240 and Y317) within ShcA that creates a docking site for Grb2/SOS and Grb2/Gab-containing complexes to activate the MAPK and AKT signaling pathways, respectively. We previously demonstrated that a tyrosine to phenylalanine substitution of the ShcA tyrosine phosphorylation sites (Shc3F-Y239/240/313F) significantly impairs breast tumor growth and angiogenesis in transgenic mouse models, in part, through the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Despite this fact, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ShcA transduces pro-tumorigenic signals in breast cancer cells remain poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that ShcA-dependent activation of AKT, but not the RAS/MAPK pathway, induces VEGF production by bolstering VEGF mRNA translation. Accordingly, ShcA drives breast tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo in a 4E-BP-dependent manner. These findings establish ShcA as a biological bridge that links AKT activation downstream of RTKs to cap-dependent VEGF mRNA translation in order to promote mammary tumorigenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 19 May 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.110.


Bhat M.,Goodman Cancer Research Center | Bhat M.,McGill University | Robichaud N.,Goodman Cancer Research Center | Robichaud N.,McGill University | And 8 more authors.
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery | Year: 2015

Dysregulation of mRNA translation is a frequent feature of neoplasia. Many oncogenes and tumour suppressors affect the translation machinery, making aberrant translation a widespread characteristic of tumour cells, independent of the genetic make-up of the cancer. Therefore, therapeutic agents that target components of the protein synthesis apparatus hold promise as novel anticancer drugs that can overcome intra-tumour heterogeneity. In this Review, we discuss the role of translation in cancer, with a particular focus on the eIF4F (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F) complex, and provide an overview of recent efforts aiming to 'translate' these results to the clinic. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Feldhammer M.,Goodman Cancer Research Center | Feldhammer M.,McGill University | Uetani N.,Goodman Cancer Research Center | Miranda-Saavedra D.,Osaka University | And 2 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Our understanding of the fundamental regulatory roles that tyrosine phosphatases play within cells has advanced significantly in the last two decades. Out-dated ideas that tyrosine phosphatases acts solely as the "off" switch counterbalancing the action of tyrosine kinases has proved to be flawed. PTP1B is the most characterized of all the tyrosine phosphatases and it acts as a critical negative and positive regulator of numerous signaling cascades. PTP1B's direct regulation of the insulin and the leptin receptors makes it an ideal therapeutic target for type II diabetes and obesity. Moreover, the last decade has also seen several reports establishing PTP1B as key player in cancer serving as both tumor suppressor and tumor promoter depending on the cellular context. Despite many key advances in these fields one largely ignored area is what role PTP1B may play in the modulation of immune signaling. The important recognition that PTP1B is a major negative regulator of Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling throughout evolution places it as a key link between metabolic diseases and inflammation, as well as a unique regulator between immune response and cancer. This review looks at the emergence of PTP1B through evolution, and then explore at the cell and systemic levels how it is controlled physiologically. The second half of the review will focus on the role(s) PTP1B can play in disease and in particular its involvement in metabolic syndromes and cancer. Finally we will briefly examine several novel directions in the development of PTP1B pharmacological inhibitors. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA.


Stewart K.,McGill University | Stewart K.,Goodman Cancer Research Center | Bouchard M.,McGill University | Bouchard M.,Goodman Cancer Research Center
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2011

Development of the mammalian urogenital system requires a balance between survival and programmed cell death. Pro-survival molecules are crucial in preserving metanephric mesenchyme viability, and thus allowing nephrogenesis to proceed. At the same time, localized areas of apoptosis mediated by effector caspases are required for the appropriate morphogenesis of the kidney and urinary tract. Activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis seems to be fundamental to the progression of cell death necessary to aid ureteric bud branching, nephrogenesis, and ureter-bladder connection. Here, we review what is currently known about survival and apoptosis in building functional kidneys and urinary tracts. © 2011 IPNA.


Dufour C.R.,Goodman Cancer Research Center | Levasseur M.-P.,Goodman Cancer Research Center | Levasseur M.-P.,McGill University | Pham N.H.H.,Goodman Cancer Research Center | And 13 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2011

Metabolic homeostasis and circadian rhythms are closely intertwined biological processes. Nuclear receptors, as sensors of hormonal and nutrient status, are actively implicated in maintaining this physiological relationship. Although the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, NR3B1) plays a central role in the control of energy metabolism and its expression is known to be cyclic in the liver, its role in temporal control of metabolic networks is unknown. Here we report that ERRα directly regulates all major components of the molecular clock. ERRα-null mice also display deregulated locomotor activity rhythms and circadian period lengths under free-running conditions, as well as altered circulating diurnal bile acid and lipid profiles. In addition, the ERRα-null mice exhibit time-dependent hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, suggesting a role for ERRα in modulating insulin sensitivity and glucose handling during the 24-hour light/dark cycle. We also provide evidence that the newly identified ERRα corepressor PROX1 is implicated in rhythmic control of metabolic outputs. To help uncover the molecular basis of these phenotypes, we performed genome-wide location analyses of binding events by ERRα, PROX1, and BMAL1, an integral component of the molecular clock. These studies revealed the existence of transcriptional regulatory loops among ERRα, PROX1, and BMAL1, as well as extensive overlaps in their target genes, implicating these three factors in the control of clock and metabolic gene networks in the liver. Genomic convergence of ERRα, PROX1, and BMAL1 transcriptional activity thus identified a novel node in the molecular circuitry controlling the daily timing of metabolic processes. © 2011 Dufour et al.


Bhat M.,McGill University | Skill N.,Indiana University | Marcus V.,McGill University | Deschenes M.,McGill University | And 14 more authors.
BMC Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Background: The management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited by the lack of adequate screening biomarkers and chemotherapy. In response, there has been much interest in tumor metabolism as a therapeutic target. PCSK9 stimulates internalization of the LDL-receptor, decreases cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes and affects liver regeneration. Thus, we investigated whether PCSK9 expression is altered in HCC, influencing its ability to harness cholesterol metabolism. Methods: Thirty-nine patients undergoing partial hepatectomy or liver transplantation for HCC were consented for use of HCC tissue to construct a tissue microarray (TMA). The TMA was immunostained for PCSK9. Imagescope software was used to objectively determine staining, and assess for pathological and clinical correlations. PCSK9 and LDL receptor mRNA levels in flash-frozen HCC and adjacent liver tissue were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Serum PCSK9 levels were determined by ELISA. Results: By immunohistochemistry, there was significantly lower expression of PCSK9 in HCC as compared to adjacent cirrhosis (p-value < 0.0001, wilcoxon signed-rank test). Significantly greater staining of PCSK9 was present in cirrhosis compared to HCC (p value <0.0001), and positivity (percentage of positive cells) was significantly greater in cirrhosis compared to HCC (p-value < 0.0001). Conversely, significantly higher expression of LDL-R was present in HCC as compared to the adjacent cirrhosis (p-value < 0.0001). There was no significant correlation of PCSK9 staining with grade of tumor, but there were significant correlations between PCSK9 staining and stage of fibrosis, according to spearman correlation test. PCSK9 mRNA levels were relatively less abundant within HCC compared to adjacent liver tissue (p-value =0.08) and normal control tissue (p-value =0.02). In contrast, serum PCSK9 levels were significantly increased among patients with HCC compared to those with chronic liver disease without HCC (p-value =0.029). LDL receptor mRNA was consistantly greater in HCC when compared to normal control tissue (p-value = 0.06) and, in general, was significantly greater in HCC when compared to adjacent liver (p-value = 0.04). Conclusions: The decreased expression of PCSK9 and conversely increased LDL-R expression in HCC suggests that HCC modulates its local microenvironment to enable a constant energy supply. Larger-scale studies should be conducted to determine whether PCSK9 could be a therapeutic target for HCC. © 2015 Bhat et al.


PubMed | Goodman Cancer Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS genetics | Year: 2011

Metabolic homeostasis and circadian rhythms are closely intertwined biological processes. Nuclear receptors, as sensors of hormonal and nutrient status, are actively implicated in maintaining this physiological relationship. Although the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor (ERR, NR3B1) plays a central role in the control of energy metabolism and its expression is known to be cyclic in the liver, its role in temporal control of metabolic networks is unknown. Here we report that ERR directly regulates all major components of the molecular clock. ERR-null mice also display deregulated locomotor activity rhythms and circadian period lengths under free-running conditions, as well as altered circulating diurnal bile acid and lipid profiles. In addition, the ERR-null mice exhibit time-dependent hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, suggesting a role for ERR in modulating insulin sensitivity and glucose handling during the 24-hour light/dark cycle. We also provide evidence that the newly identified ERR corepressor PROX1 is implicated in rhythmic control of metabolic outputs. To help uncover the molecular basis of these phenotypes, we performed genome-wide location analyses of binding events by ERR, PROX1, and BMAL1, an integral component of the molecular clock. These studies revealed the existence of transcriptional regulatory loops among ERR, PROX1, and BMAL1, as well as extensive overlaps in their target genes, implicating these three factors in the control of clock and metabolic gene networks in the liver. Genomic convergence of ERR, PROX1, and BMAL1 transcriptional activity thus identified a novel node in the molecular circuitry controlling the daily timing of metabolic processes.

Loading Goodman Cancer Research Center collaborators
Loading Goodman Cancer Research Center collaborators