Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dhaka, Bangladesh

The Gono University or Gono Bishwabidyalay is a private university in Savar, Bangladesh which was established on 14 July 1998. It is now operating their academic and administrating activity on their permanent campus at Nalam, Savar, Dhaka. It was approved by University Grants Commission on 1998. It also introduced new academic courses UGC approval along with a number of other private universities. Wikipedia.

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Zhong X.,Johns Hopkins University | Isharwal S.,Johns Hopkins Hospital | Isharwal S.,University of Minnesota | Veltri R.W.,Johns Hopkins Hospital | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Purpose: Schistosoma haematobium is associated with chronic bladder damage and may subsequently induce bladder cancer in humans, thus posing a serious threat where the parasite is endemic. Here we evaluated aberrant promoter DNA methylation as a potential biomarker to detect severe bladder damage that is associated with schistosomiasis by analyzing urine specimens. Materials and Methods: A quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) assay was used to examine the methylation status of seven genes (RASSF1A, RARβ2, RUNX3, TIMP3, MGMT, P16, ARF) in 57 urine samples obtained from volunteers that include infected and uninfected by S. haematobium from an endemic region. The Fishers Exact Test and Logistic Regression analysis were used to evaluate the methylation status with bladder damage (as assessed by ultrasound examination) in subjects with S. haematobium infection. Results: RASSF1A and TIMP3 were significant to predict severe bladder damage both in univariate (p = 0.015 and 0.023 respectively) and in multivariate (p = 0.022 and 0.032 respectively) logistic regression analysis. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC-ROC) for RASSF1A and TIMP3 to predict severe bladder damage were 67.84% and 63.73% respectively. The combined model, which used both RASSF1A and TIMP3 promoter methylation, resulted in significant increase in AUC-ROC compared to that of TIMP3 (77.55% vs. 63.73%.29; p = 0.023). Conclusions: In this pilot study, we showed that aberrant promoter methylation of RASSF1A and TIMP3 are present in urine sediments of patients with severe bladder damage associated with S. haematobium infection and that may be used to develop non-invasive biomarker of S. haematobium exposure and early molecular risk assessmentof neoplastic transformation. © 2013 Zhong et al.

PubMed | Koo Foundation Sun Yat Sen Cancer Center Hospital, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Calmette Hospital, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute and 21 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Australasian physical & engineering sciences in medicine | Year: 2015

The history of medical physics in Asia-Oceania goes back to the late nineteenth century when X-ray imaging was introduced, although medical physicists were not appointed until much later. Medical physics developed very quickly in some countries, but in others the socio-economic situation as such prevented it being established for many years. In others, the political situation and war has impeded its development. In many countries their medical physics history has not been well recorded and there is a danger that it will be lost to future generations. In this paper, brief histories of the development of medical physics in most countries in Asia-Oceania are presented by a large number of authors to serve as a record. The histories are necessarily brief; otherwise the paper would quickly turn into a book of hundreds of pages. The emphasis in each history as recorded here varies as the focus and culture of the countries as well as the length of their histories varies considerably.

Azhari H.A.,Gono University | Hensley F.,University of Heidelberg | Schutte W.,University of Cologne | Zakaria G.A.,Gono University | Zakaria G.A.,University of Cologne
Journal of Medical Physics | Year: 2012

Before clinical use of a brachytherapy source, regulations or recommendations by medical physics societies require an independent measurement of its air kerma strength by a qualified medical physicist. Currently, in addition to Ir-192, also HDR-Co-60 sources are increasingly coming into operation. However, the existing dosimetry protocols do not provide any guidelines for Co-60 sources. The purpose of this work was therefore to compare air kerma rate measurements as recommended by different dosimetry protocols for Ir-192 HDR sources and to test their applicability to Co-60 sources. Dosimetric verification of HDR afterloading source specification was performed according to three protocols, DIN 6809-2 (1993) in combination with DGMP-Report 13 (2006), IAEA-TECDOC-1274 (2002) and AAPM Report 41 (1993) for the nuclides Ir-192 and Co-60. Measurements of the sources reference air kerma rate were performed with 3 different methods (with a cylindrical chamber both in a solid phantom and in free air, and with a well chamber) and evaluated using all three protocols for each type of source and method of measurement. The measurements with all protocols and methods show deviations from the certified specification smaller than about 1.2% for Ir-192 and 2.5% for Co-60-Sources. The measurements with the well chamber showed the lowest deviations from the certificate value. Air kerma rate measurements for Co-60 HDR sources using the existing protocols are possible with accuracy sufficient to verify source calibration as provided by the source certificate. However, extension of the protocols by correction factors for measurement with Co-60 sources would be helpful.

PubMed | Accelerator Centre, Khulna University, Jahangirnagar University and Gono University
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

The concentrations of 18 different elements (K, Ca, Fe, Cl, P, Zn, S, Mn, Ti, Cr, Rb, Co, Br, Sr, Ru, Si, Ni, and Cu) were analyzed in five selected vegetables through Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The objective of this study was to provide updated information on concentrations of elements in vegetables available in the local markets at Savar subdistrict in Bangladesh. These elements were found in varying concentrations in the studied vegetables. The results also indicated that P, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were found in all vegetables. Overall, K and Ca exhibited the highest concentrations. Cu and Ni exhibited the lowest concentrations in vegetables. The necessity of these elements was also evaluated, based on the established limits of regulatory standards. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption of these vegetables is not completely free of health risks.

Ali N.,TU Dortmund | Ali N.,Gono University | Blaszkewicz M.,TU Dortmund | Manirujjaman M.,Gono University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2014

Scope: Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin known for its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic effects in animals, deserves attention due to its widespread occurrence as food and feed contaminant. Studies in many countries report the presence of OTA in human blood plasma or serum at variable levels. However, no biomonitoring study has been carried out in so far, and also food analysis data are insufficient to assess OTA exposure. Methods and results: Therefore, 64 blood samples were collected from healthy university students (32 female, 32 male) in Bangladesh for biomarker analysis. OTA and its metabolite ochratoxin alpha were determined in the plasma samples by a validated method using HPLC-fluorescence analysis. After liquid-liquid extraction, OTA was detected in all plasma samples (100%) at a range of 0.20-6.63 ng/mL and ochratoxin alpha was detected in 95% of the samples at 0.10-0.79 ng/mL. The OTA mean level in plasma of males (0.92 ± 1.09 ng/mL) and females (0.78 ± 1.02) were not significantly different. Statistical analysis of food consumption data for the participants, provided in a food frequency questionnaire, did not reveal a significant association between OTA level in plasma and their intake of typical staple foods (rice, wheat, maize, and lentil). Conclusion: The dietary intake of OTA (mean 11.7, max 91.7 ng/kg b.w./wk) calculated on the basis of plasma concentration in Bangladeshi students was lower than the tolerable weekly OTA intake (120 ng/kg b.w./wk) set by EFSA. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring is recommended in cohorts from other parts of the country that may have higher mycotoxin exposure than the present group. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

PubMed | TU Dortmund and Gono University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxins | Year: 2015

The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 g/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 g/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 g/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the population of Bangladesh.

PubMed | University of Tübingen, McGill University, Tufts University, Gono University and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physica medica : PM : an international journal devoted to the applications of physics to medicine and biology : official journal of the Italian Association of Biomedical Physics (AIFB) | Year: 2016

In photon brachytherapy (BT), experimental dosimetry is needed to verify treatment plans if planning algorithms neglect varying attenuation, absorption or scattering conditions. The detectors response is energy dependent, including the detector material to water dose ratio and the intrinsic mechanisms. The local mean photon energy E(r) must be known or another equivalent energy quality parameter used. We propose the brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT)(E), to characterize the photon radiation quality in view of measurements of distributions of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, around BT sources.While the external photon beam radiotherapy (EBRT) radiation quality index Q(EBRT)(E)=TPR10(20)(E) is not applicable to BT, the authors have applied a novel energy dependent parameter, called brachytherapy photon radiation quality index, defined as Q(BT)(E)=Dprim(r=2cm,0=90)/Dprim(r0=1cm,0=90), utilizing precise primary absorbed dose data, Dprim, from source reference databases, without additional MC-calculations.For BT photon sources used clinically, Q(BT)(E) enables to determine the effective mean linear attenuation coefficient (E) and thus the effective energy of the primary photons Eprim(eff)(r0,0) at the TG-43 reference position Pref(r0=1cm,0=90), being close to the mean total photon energy Etot(r0,0). If one has calibrated detectors, published Etot(r) and the BT radiation quality correction factor [Formula: see text] for different BT radiation qualities Q and Q0, the detectors response can be determined and Dw(r,) measured in the vicinity of BT photon sources.This novel brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT) characterizes sufficiently accurate and precise the primary photons penetration probability and scattering potential.

PubMed | TU Dortmund and Gono University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycotoxin research | Year: 2016

Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) are both nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, and the occurrence of these mycotoxins in food may cause adverse health effects in humans. Data on the combined exposure to these food contaminants are still scarce, especially in pregnancy. Therefore, a biomonitoring study was conducted to determine the presence of urinary biomarkers of exposure to OTA and CIT in pregnant women in Bangladesh. In total, 54 spot urine samples were collected from residents of a rural and a suburban area of the Savar region in Dhaka district for analysis of OTA and CIT urinary biomarkers by previously validated HPLC-FD and LC-MS/MS methods. Most urines were positive for OTA and CIT biomarkers, with OTA being detected in 93% (range 0.01-0.84ng/mL) and CIT biomarkers in 87% (range 0.02-6.93ng/mL) of all samples. The mean levels of OTA were different between the rural (0.060.07ng/mL) and suburban (0.150.19ng/mL) study participants. CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT) were more than twofold higher in the rural (0.421.20 and 0.551.04ng/mL, respectively) than the suburban (CIT 0.150.13ng/mL; HO-CIT 0.230.18ng/mL) participants. When a provisional daily intake for CIT was calculated, it exceeded the preliminary tolerable value set by European Food Safety Authority (0.2g/kg/day) in 9% of the rural participants but in none of the urban participants. Urinary biomarker levels for OTA and CIT did not show significant association with intake of certain types of food consumed by the pregnant women, although total CIT biomarker levels were considerably higher among participants who consumed more rice in a day. Overall, this study indicates a frequent co-exposure to OTA and CIT among pregnant women in Bangladesh, at levels similar to those determined recently in the general population of this country.

Binte Atique F.,North South University | Rahman Khalil M.M.,Gono University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Present study was carried out for the microbiological evaluation of allogeneic bone processed from femoral heads. A total 60 bacterial isolates comprising five different species including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were characterized based on their cultural and biochemical characteristics. Average bioburden was ranged from 5.7×101 to 3.9×104 cfu/gm. The majority (81.7%) of the microbial contaminants were detected as Gram positive with the predominant organism being skin commensal coagulase negative Staphylococci (43.3%). Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated by the activities of 14 broad and narrow spectrum antibiotic discs. Comparing the overall pattern, marked resistance was noted against Penicillin and Amoxicillin 100% (60/60). The most effective single antibiotics were Gentamicin, Tobramycin, and Ofloxacin which were bactericidal against 100% (60/60) isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was confirmed in 70% (42/60) of the samples. Among them, the most prevalent antibiotypes were Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Oxacillin, Polymyxin, and Cefpodoxime (80% of total MDR). The study results revealed higher contamination rate on bone allografts and recommend the implementation of good tissue banking practices during tissue procurement, processing, and storage in order to minimize the chances of contamination. © 2014 Fahmida Binte Atique and Md. Masudur Rahman Khalil.

Mahmud M.S.,Gono University
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2013

Bacground: Untreated disposal of chemical waste poses serious environmental hazard. An attempt was made towards presumptive identification of the major genera of microbial contaminants found in a natural pond that receives waste from a pharmaceutical industry of Gonoshasthaya Antibiotic Ltd. during the period of 2008 to 2009. Methodology: Water sample was collected and physical parameters were determined. Results: A total of 38 bacterial isolates were found from surface water, deep layer water and sediment soil but only five isolates were found to resist up to 0.1 mg/ml of phenol. Microscopic and biochemical test of five isolates presumptively identified them Staphylococcus sp, Sporosarcina sp, Bacillus sp and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. All five isolates were resistant to Amoxycillin (30?g), Erythromycin (15?g), and Penicillin-G (10units). Conclusion: Resistance against common therapeutic antibiotics indicates possible epidemiological risk.

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