Gongju National University of Education

Kongju, South Korea

Gongju National University of Education is a national university located in Gongju, South Korea. The university is for individuals who want to teach at elementary schools in Daejeon city and South Chungcheongnam province. The university was founded April 1938 under the name Gongju Women Instructor's school. In 1962, The University began specializing in elementary school teacher training that offered two years’ program and was renamed to Gongju University of Education. As of 1982, the system changed to four years’ course from two years’ course. In 1993, the university modified the name to Gongju National University of Education. Since the established year, 1938, over 25,000 graduates became elementary teachers. International RelationshipsIn 1980, Gongju National University Education establishes a sisterhood relationship with Lansing College in the United States. The university expands the international relationships starting their initial point. In 1990, University of Alberta also makes a sisterhood relationship with GNUE. In 2003, New Zealand’s’ Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology and GNUE agreed on Arts and Science program exchange. In 2006, Hunan Normal University from China agreed on Arts and Science program exchange with GNUE. In 2007, School in Kobe University , University of Oregon and University of Philippines all agreed to have Arts and Science exchange program with GNUE. Undergraduate Programs Gongju National University Education consists of 12 undergraduate programs. 1) Department of Ethics Education- Through lessons Ethics and theories, students develop their honest and learn to follow moral codes that will be used as an elementary teacher. Students are expected to expand their creative thinking and sense of logic. 2) Department of Korean Language Education- Students learn about teaching skills and learning strategies of Korean language. The program focuses not only on four basic skills , but expands the curriculum further to linguistics and literature parts of Korean language education. 3) Department of Social Studies Education- Students expand their knowledge and teaching methods on geography, history and general social studies. The program offers field trips to establish better understanding of Korea. 4) Department of Mathematics Education- The program focuses on developing knowledge of pure mathematics as well as mathematics education, which includes subjects such as psychology of mathematics education and history of mathematics education. 5) Department of Science Education- The contents are taught on a wide range of physics, chemistry, biology and earth science. The program values hands-on experience and the relation with the latest scientific theory.6) Department of Practical Arts Education- The program aims to teach the understanding of work/environment and strengthening students’ life skills and ultimately, the meaning of work through art. The students of this program are exposed to learn about the relationships between family and surrounding environments7) Department of Physical Education- The program aims to helps students to become ideal teachers through having solid basic theories of physical education, nature physical science and also through practical skills. 8) Department of Music Education- The program focuses on two parts. First part is basic skills such as singing, Korean traditional music and composing. Second part is musical theory knowledge and teaching methods. 9) Department of Fine Art Education- Teaching methods and materials in elementary fine arts education are introduced. Understanding the art theory and developing art abilities will guide students to be ideal teachers. 10) English Language Education- The program views developing communication skills and various teaching methods as the most important aspects. It also focuses on the theoretical background to help understanding in English culture. 11) Department of Elementary Education- It focuses on problems that are arising in elementary education. The program helps in solving problems through theories and practices to establish close relationships with classroom.12) Department of Computer Education- Through various courses such as Computer Education, Research Methods in Computer Education, Computer Programming, and Data Structure etc. students will be able to develop the understanding of computer education theories and computer skills. Wikipedia.

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Reddy M.N.,North Carolina State University | Zhang S.,North Carolina State University | Kim H.-J.,Gongju National University of Education | Mass O.,North Carolina State University | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2017

Synthetic bacteriochlorins - analogues of bacteriochlorophylls, Nature's near-infrared absorbers - are attractive for diverse photochemical studies. meso-Arylbacteriochlorins have been prepared by the self-condensation of a dihydrodipyrrin-carbinol or dihydrodipyrrin-acetal following an Eastern-Western (E-W) or Northern-Southern (N-S) joining process. The bacteriochlorins bear a gem-dimethyl group in each pyrroline ring to ensure stability toward oxidation. The two routes differ in the location of the gem-dimethyl group at the respective 3- or 2-position in the dihydrodipyrrin, and the method of synthesis of the dihydrodipyrrin. Treatment of a known 3,3-dimethyldihydrodipyrrin-1-carboxaldehyde with an aryl Grignard reagent afforded the dihydrodipyrrin-1-(aryl)carbinol, and upon subsequent acetylation, the corresponding dihydrodipyrrin-1-methyl acetate (dihydrodipyrrin-acetate). Self-condensation of the dihydrodipyrrin-acetate gave a meso-diarylbacteriochlorin (E-W route). A 2,2-dimethyl-5-aryldihydrodipyrrin-1-(aryl)carbinol underwent self-condensation to give a trans-A2B2-type meso-tetraarylbacteriochlorin (N-S route). In each case, the aromatization process entails a 2e-/2H+ (aerobic) dehydrogenative oxidation following the dihydrodipyrrin self-condensation. Comparison of a tetrahydrodipyrrin-acetal (0%) versus a dihydrodipyrrin-acetal (41%) in bacteriochlorin formation and results with various 1-substituted dihydrodipyrrins revealed the importance of resonance stabilization of the reactive hydrodipyrrin intermediate. Altogether 10 new dihydrodipyrrins and five new bacteriochlorins have been prepared. The bacteriochlorins exhibit characteristic bacteriochlorophyll-like absorption spectra, including a Qy band in the region 726-743 nm. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI.

Aravindu K.,North Carolina State University | Kim H.-J.,Gongju National University of Education | Taniguchi M.,North Carolina State University | Dilbeck P.L.,Washington University in St. Louis | And 4 more authors.
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2013

The presence of substituents at designated sites about the chlorin macrocycle can alter the spectral properties, a phenomenon that can be probed through synthesis. Prior syntheses have provided access to chlorins bearing distinct aryl substituents (individually or collectively) at the 5, 10, and 15-positions, but not the 20-position. A new Western half (5-phenyl-2,3,4,5- tetrahydro-1,3,3-trimethyldipyrrin) has been employed in condensation with an Eastern half (9-bromodipyrromethane-1-carboxaldehyde) followed by oxidative cyclization to give (5% yield) the zinc(ii) 20-phenylchlorin. Condensation of the same Western half and a diaryl-substituted Eastern half provided (11% yield) the zinc(ii) 5,10,20-triarylchlorin; demetalation with TFA followed by 15-bromination and Suzuki coupling gave the free base 5,10,15,20- tetraarylchlorin. Altogether, 10 new synthetic chlorins have been prepared. The near-UV (B) absorption band of the free base chlorins shifts bathochromically from 389 to 429 nm and that for the zinc chlorins from 398 to 420 nm as the number of meso-aryl rings is increased stepwise from 0-4. The long-wavelength (Qy) absorption band undergoes a bathochromic and hypochromic shift upon increase in number of meso-aryl groups. Regardless of the number and positions of the meso-aryl substituents (including "walking a phenyl group around the ring"), the respective fluorescence quantum yields (0.17 to 0.27) and singlet excited-state lifetimes (9.4 to 13.1 ns) are comparable among the free base chlorins and the same is true for the zinc chelates (0.057 to 0.080; 1.2 to 1.6 ns). Density functional theory calculations show that of the frontier molecular orbitals of the chlorin, the energy of the HOMO-1 is the most affected by meso-aryl substituents, undergoing progressive destabilization as the number of meso-aryl groups is increased. The availability of chlorins with 0-4 distinct meso-aryl substituents provides the individual stepping-stones to bridge the known unsubstituted chlorin and the meso-tetraarylchlorins. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies.

Zhang S.,North Carolina State University | Kim H.-J.,North Carolina State University | Kim H.-J.,Gongju National University of Education | Tang Q.,University of California at Riverside | And 4 more authors.
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

Bacteriochlorins absorb strongly in the near-infrared spectral region and hence are of great interest across the field of photochemistry. The established de novo self-condensation of a dihydrodipyrrin-acetal has afforded stable bacteriochlorins bearing a variety of β-pyrrolic substituents, but the route was incompatible with the presence of two alkyl groups. The lacuna stemmed from the instability of the dialkyl-substituted dihydrodipyrrin-acetal. Here, two dihydrodipyrrin-carboxaldehydes, each bearing a tert-butoxycarbonyl group at the pyrrole α-position, were prepared and found to be stable to routine handling. Each ester-substituted dihydrodipyrrin-carboxaldehyde in acid underwent in situ ester cleavage and ensuing self-condensation to provide the corresponding 2,3,12,13-tetraalkylbacteriochlorin. The alkyl groups examined include methyl and methyl acetate. Such synthetic bacteriochlorins, while previously unknown, provide valuable models of the natural chromophores. The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of the tetraalkylbacteriochlorins are generally typical for this genre of macrocycle. The X-ray structure of the tetramethylbacteriochlorin reveals that the pyrrolinic (reduced) rings are modestly more twisted out-of-plane (torsional angle ∼11°) than those of the nearly planar (torsional angle ∼1°) parent bacteriochlorin that lacks pyrrolic tetraalkyl groups. The resonance Raman spectrum of the tetramethylbacteriochlorin is also far richer in the low- to mid-frequency region than that of the unsubstituted analogue, but like the unsubstituted counterpart, is far sparser in the high-frequency region than that of native bacteriochlorophyll. Access to tetraalkylbacteriochlorins constitutes one step on the path from the most simple, fully unsubstituted bacteriochlorin to the fully decorated, natural bacteriochlorophylls. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Lee J.M.,Chung - Ang University | Lee D.G.,Chung - Ang University | Lee K.H.,Chung - Ang University | Cho S.H.,Gongju National University of Education | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Sciences | Year: 2013

Analysis of flavonoid contents in the fruits of Acanthopanax species (A. chiisanensis, A. divaricatus, A. koreanum, A. senticosus, and A. sessiliflorus) was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography. A Discovery® C18 (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) column was used with a gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile (90: 10 to 60: 40 for 60 min) and UV detection was conducted at 350 nm. The contents of rutin, hyperin, quercetin, afzelin, and kaempferol were 0.063~0.540, 0.494~7.480, 0.584~0.704, 0.388~0.567, 0.190~0.471 mg/g, respectively, in the fruits of Acanthopanax species. Total content of flavonoids in the fruits of Acanthopanax species was highest in those of A. chiisanensis. Furthermore, hyperin was the most abundant compound in the fruits of Acanthopanax species. Consequently, our results demonstrate that the fruits of Acanthopanax species containing flavonoids have promising potential as a new income source of agriculture and industry in medicinal natural products, health supplements, and beverages.

Reddy K.R.,North Carolina State University | Lubian E.,North Carolina State University | Pavan M.P.,North Carolina State University | Kim H.-J.,Gongju National University of Education | And 3 more authors.
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

A new molecular design incorporates a spiro-piperidine unit in each pyrroline ring of synthetic bacteriochlorins, thereby (1) replacing the previous geminal dimethyl group with a functionally equivalent motif to suppress adventitious dehydrogenation, (2) enabling tailoring of the bacteriochlorin by nitrogen derivatization, and (3) leaving the β-pyrrolic positions available for introduction of auxochromes to tune the spectral properties. Conversion of an N-protected 4-piperidone to the N-protected α,β-unsaturated ketone, Michael reaction with 4-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-ethyl-2-(2-nitroethyl) pyrrole, and subsequent reductive cyclization provided the spiro-piperidine-1- methyldihydrodipyrrin. Treatment with SeO2 followed by trimethyl orthoformate under acid catalysis converted the 1-methyl group to a 1-(1,1-dimethoxymethyl) motif. Self-condensation of the resulting spiro-piperidine-dihydrodipyrrin-acetal afforded the 5-methoxy- or 5-unsubstituted bacteriochlorin, each bearing two spiro-piperidine units. The spiro-piperidine units were derivatized at the nitrogens by methylation, sulfonylation, acylation, or quaternization; the latter with methyl iodide afforded two dicationic, hydrophilic bacteriochlorins. Altogether, eight spiro-piperidine-bacteriochlorins were prepared. Spectroscopic characterization was carried out in DMF (and in water for the quaternized, 5- methoxybacteriochlorin). Compared to the 5-unsubstituted analogue, the quaternized, 5-methoxybacteriochlorin has in DMF a shorter wavelength of the intense near-infrared absorption band (733 vs. 752 nm) and fluorescence band (739 vs. 760 nm), modestly greater fluorescence yield (0.15 vs. 0.08) and modestly longer lifetime of the lowest singlet excited state (4.7 vs. 3.3 ns). In general, the spiro-piperidinyl moiety does not significantly alter the rate constants or yields of the decay pathways (fluorescence, intersystem crossing, internal conversion) of the lowest singlet excited state of the bacteriochlorin. Taken together, the results describe a new molecular design for tailoring the polarity of near-infrared absorbers. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Lee D.G.,Chung - Ang University | Cho S.,Chung - Ang University | Lee J.,Chung - Ang University | Cho S.H.,Gongju National University of Education | Lee S.,Chung - Ang University
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in fermented plant products and their main plant materials (aerial part of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus, fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida, and whole plant of Morus alba) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. GABA was quantified using a reversephase column with a gradient elution program (water:acetonitrile =90:10 to 0:100 for 40 min). UV detection was conducted at 280 nm. GABA content was measured in fermented plant products (15.07 mg/g), aerial part of A. sessiliflorus (4.49 mg/g), fruit of C. pinnatifida (10.59 mg/g), and whole plant of M. alba (2.31 mg/g). The presence of GABA in fermented plant products, including A. sessiliflorus, C. pinnatifida, and M. alba is important in industrial application for health supplements. © The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 2015.

Lee J.M.,Chung - Ang University | Kim H.M.,Chung - Ang University | Lee S.,Chung - Ang University | Han S.,Chung - Ang University | Cho S.H.,Gongju National University of Education
Natural Product Sciences | Year: 2010

The content of hyperin in Acanthopanax species was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Hyperin was quantified by a reverse-phase column with elution program [initially gradient solvent (acetonitrile: water = 85: 15 to 80: 20 for 20 min), then isocratic solvent (acetonitrile: water=80: 20 for 20 min), and finally gradient solvent (acetonitrile: water = 80: 20 to 65: 35 for 20 min)]. UV detection was conducted at 210 nm. The content of hyperin in the fruits of Acanthopanax was measured in the species A. chiisanensis (2.04 mg/g), A. sessiliflorus (1.13 mg/g), A. divaricatus (0.98 mg/g), A. koreanum (0.75 mg/g) and A. senticosus (0.05 mg/g). The content of hyperin in A. chiisanensis was higher than that of other Acanthopanax species.

Yoo J.,Kangwon National University | Kim H.-J.,Kangwon National University | Kim H.-J.,Gongju National University of Education | Lee C.-H.,Kangwon National University
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines | Year: 2011

meso-diethylmalonylidene-(1,4-naphthi)thiaporphyrin containing exocyclic CC double bonds at meso-positions has been synthesized and characterized. The compound undergoes initial protonation at the α-position of the diethylmalonyl group with large red shifted absorption maxima. The second protonation occurs at a meso-position to give a species with broken cross-conjugation. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Lee Y.H.,Gongju National University of Education | Jung S.-M.,Hongik University
Advances in Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2012

We will investigate a fuzzy version of stability for the functional equation 2 f (∑ 1=1 n x i) + ∑1≤i,j≤n,i ≠ J(x i - x j) = (n + 1) ∑ i=1 n (x i) + (n - 1) ∑ i=1 n f (- x i) in the sense of Mirmostafaee and Moslehian. Copyright © 2012 Yang Hi Lee and Soon-Mo Jung.

Jin S.S.,Gongju National University of Education | Lee Y.-H.,Gongju National University of Education
Advances in Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2011

We investigate a fuzzy version of stability for the functional equation f (x + y + z) + f (x - y) + f (x - z) - f (x - y - z) - f (x + y) - f (x + z) = 0 in the sense of M. Mirmostafaee and M. S. Moslehian. Copyright © 2011 Sun Sook Jin and Yang-Hi Lee.

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