Gonder, Ethiopia
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Berhanu W.,Gondar University | Negussie H.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Alemu S.,Gondar University | Mazengia H.,Bahir Dar University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

A study was conducted from November 2009 to March 2010 with the objective of identifying the major causes of skin rejection on fresh, pickled, and wet blue skins at Modjo Mesaco Global tannery. A total of 401 fresh and 1,873 pickled and wet blue skins from the routine production system of the tannery were used. Overall, high prevalence of sheep ked (100%) followed by biting louse (64.4%), tick (50%), and sucking louse (45.8%) were observed on fresh sheep pelts, while, on fresh goat pelts, a high prevalence of sucking louse (54.5%), followed by tick (50%), and biting louse (35.5%) were observed. From the total of 90 rejected pickled and wet blue skins of sheep and goats, 98.8% were "ekek" and scratch, 85.6% sheep and goat pox, 74% poor substance, 73.3% heat, 72.2% scar, and 52.2% knife cut-in skins. Large number of skins rejections was recorded in large-sized skins (29.8%), and the lowest observed was in medium-sized skins (11.1%). There were highly statistically significant association (p<0.05) between size and grades of shoat skins. Ekek and scratches together with sheep and goat pox were the common skin defects that hamper skin quality. However, there was no significant association (p>0.05) between sheep and goat skins. Ekek and scratch caused high rejection of skin and entailed serious economic loss in terms of foreign exchange earning to Ethiopia. Therefore, the main causes of skin rejection and factors that cause downgrading of skin should be controlled. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


News Article | December 12, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Ethiopian maternal health researcher Hagos Godefay at Umeå University in Sweden has created a locally feasible method to estimate maternal mortality rates with a bottom-up measurement approach. Providing insights into the effectiveness of local interventions to reduce maternal mortality, the approach will be important for health sector planning and decision-making on local-, regional- and state levels. Hagos Godefay at the Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health Unit has researched current efforts to reduce maternal mortality in the Tigray Region of northern Ethiopia. He has set out to quantify overall mortality levels, identify specific causes and evaluate local interventions. By using methods that can also be scaled at national level, Hagos Godefay's results provide a strong empirical basis for decision-making by the Tigray Regional Health Bureau. "We see encouraging results of improved reproductive health and reduced pregnancy-related deaths in the Tigray region. A key reason for this has been the creation of small local women's groups of volunteers who act as ambassadors for the benefits of utilizing the existing health services," says Hagos Godefay. In the Tigray region, the government have created the Health Development Army, an initiative that seeks to integrate and strengthen the linkages between the community, politicians and the health sector. The overall goals are improved sustainability of health programs and community empowerment. To achieve these goals, the initiative brings together community action, as represented by Women's Development Groups, and the commitment of the regional political leadership and the health sector itself, represented by the health workforce. A key aspect of the Health Development Army is the focus on community and social mobilization in Women's Development Groups. The initiative encourages women in neighboring households to volunteer and organize in so called "1-to-5 networks", which then form larger networks of 25-30 members. The groups set out to create demand for and increase utilization of existing maternal health services. This is in part accomplished by tackling behavioral barriers and potentially unhealthy traditional practices through community dialogue. The groups also encourage facility-based delivery by preparing cultural porridges and Ethiopian coffee for postnatal mothers at health facilities. "The goal is to reinforce positive behaviors and locally initiated good practices by celebrating women's achievements. Creating a conducive environment, where women living in the rural areas can meet and discuss together based on their own agenda, can make a big difference in reducing maternal mortality. This has been one of the more challenging goals, but achieving it demonstrates that women can work together to save the lives of other women," says Hagos Godefay. In research findings published earlier this year in the Journal of Global Health, Hagos Godefay and his colleagues showed that transport and communication innovations in Tigray and other rural areas of Ethiopia correlated with appreciably reduced maternal mortality. The study showed that a national program providing free-of-charge ambulances, which can be ordered on a 24/7 basis via mobile phones, coincided with a reduction of maternal mortality rates by about 50 percent. "Despite noticeable achievements in the Tigray region, major challenges remain in many settings in terms of both measuring and reducing maternal mortality effectively," concludes Hagos Godefay. Hagos Godefay is a Global Health Epidemologist who has been studying the epidemiology of maternal health in Tigray region of northern Ethiopia for several years. Hagos completed his Master's Degree in Public Health at Gondar University in Ethiopia, and his PhD Degree in Epidemology and Public Health at Umeå University in Sweden. His research interest focuses on the condition of maternal health in rural Ethiopia. He currently heads the Tigray Regional Health Bureau, where he is committed to using his findings to implement several immediate actions and to influence policy making to further reduce pregnancy-related deaths on a regional and national level. For more information, please contact: Hagos Godefay, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Telephone: +251914707866 (in Ethiopia); +46764071796 (in Sweden) E-mail: hgodefay@yahoo.com


Moges N.,Gondar University | Asfaw Y.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Belihu K.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Tadesse A.,Hawassa University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2011

Among the animal diseases that require antibiotic treatment in dairy herds, mastitis is the commonest one. As a consequence antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens has received recent attention. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens isolated on 322 local and crossbred lactating hand milked small holder cows. The major bacteria isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 27), Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS) (n = 51), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 26), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 23), Streptococcus uteris (n = 11), Micrococcus sp. (n = 12), Corynebacterium bovis (n= 4), Actinomyces pyogenes (n = 2), Bacillus cereus (n = 1) Escherichia coli (n = 7). Staphylococcus aureus was found to be highly sensitive to five of the antimicrobials tested where the bacteria had shown 100% susceptibility to kanamycin and suffisoxazole. However, Coagulase negative staphylococci had revealed different levels susceptibility for only four of the nine antimicrobials tested. Streptococcus agalactiae was highly susceptible to sulfisoxazole (100%), clindamycin (100%) and susceptibility to streptomycin was 50%. Similarly, all other bacteria isolated demonstrated different level of susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials. In general it was found that sulfisoxazole was the most effective antibiotic where 91.07% of the total isolates were found susceptible followed by clindamycin and kanamycin with susceptibility of (89.28%) and (88.4%), respectively. The least effective antibiotics were streptomycin (45.5%), ampicillin(49.1%). Tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and oxacllin have susceptibility of 65.2, 59.8, 64.3 and 58.04%, respectively. © Medwell Journals, 2011.


Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are potential tools for competent planning and administration of essential groundwater resources. In this study, a typical methodology is proposed to delineate groundwater target zones using integrated RS, GIS and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The developed methodology is confirmed by a case study in Karur district of Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Seven thematic layers, viz., Lithology, Lineament Density, Geomorphology, Slope, Post– Monsoon Water Level, Drainage Density and Landuse/Land cover were considered in this study. Selected seven thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights on the Saaty’s scale according to their virtual significance in groundwater incidence. The assigned weights of the thematic layers and their features were then normalized by using AHP. Finally, the selected seven thematic maps were incorporated by weighted linear combination method in a GIS environment to produce a groundwater targeting map. Thus, five groundwater targeting zones were identified and demarcated in the study area, viz., ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘moderate’, ‘poor’ and ‘very poor’. The groundwater targeting map was finally verified using the well discharge data and the result was found acceptable. The ultimate result depicts the favorable groundwater targeting zones in the study area and can be helpful in better planning and managing of groundwater resources particularly in hard rock terrains. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Alemnesh W.,Gondar University | Hair-Bejo M.,University Putra Malaysia | Aini I.,University Putra Malaysia | Omar A.R.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2012

Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) associated with fowl adenovirus (FAdV) infection has a worldwide distribution. The aim of the present study was to determine the pathogenicity of Malaysian FAdV serotype 9 (UPM04217) in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken embryos. FAdV (titre 10 5.8/ml) was inoculated into SPF embryonated chicken eggs (0.1ml per egg) via the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). There was 100% embryo mortality within 4-11 days post infection (dpi). The gross and microscopical lesions of the embryo were confined to the liver and were noted at 5, 7, 9 and 11 dpi. The liver was pale with multifocal areas of necrosis, fibrosis and haemorrhage. Microscopically, there was moderate to severe congestion and haemorrhage and severe and diffuse hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, with intranuclear inclusion bodies (INIBs) and associated inflammation. Haemorrhage, congestion, degeneration, necrosis and hyperplasia of the CAM with INIBs were observed at 5, 7, 9 and 11 dpi. Varying degrees of congestion, haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis were also observed in the yolk sac, kidney, spleen, heart and bursa of Fabricius. Ultrastructurally, numerous viral particles in the nucleus of hepatocytes were recorded at 7, 9 and 11 dpi, whereas at 5 dpi, fine granular and filamentous INIBs were observed. The INIBs in the CAM were present either as fine granular filamentous structures or as large viral inclusions. FAdV (UPM04217) is therefore highly pathogenic to SPF chicken embryos and the embryonic liver should be used for isolation and propagation of the virus. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kebede H.,Gondar University | Lemma A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Negussie H.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

A serial ultrasonographic study was conducted on nine jennies aged 5-15 years from January to April 2008 with the objective of studying ovarian follicular dynamics and estrus manifestations under controlled management. Ovarian follicular activity was determined from the number and size distribution of follicles, length of interovulatory interval (IOI), growth rate of preovulatory follicles, diameter of follicles at the onset of estrus, and incidence of ovulation. Estrus manifestations were characterized using length of estrus and estrous cycle. The mean (±SD) number of follicle detected per ovary was 5.45 ± 2.3 (range, 1-16) with sizes ranging from 2.9 to 44 mm. The mean (±SD) size of follicle encountered at the onset of estrus was 25.9 ± 3.7 mm (range, 20.9-34.4) while that of the preovulatory follicles at -1 day before ovulation was 36.81 ± 3.78 mm. The mean (±SD) IOI, estrus, and estrous cycle length were 25.4 ± 3.6, 7.9 ± 2.9, and 24.2 ± 7.4 days, respectively. The mean (±SD) growth rate of the preovulatory follicle after the day of divergence was 1.9 ± 0.3 mm/day. Serum progesterone profile followed the same patterns of ovarian dynamics with maximum values being detected during midluteal phase. Serum progesterone assay revealed blood progesterone profiles of <1.0 ng/ml during estrus and up to 11 ng/ml during midluteal phase with a pattern following follicular dynamics. Body condition of the study jennies steadily increased and was positively correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.001) with the diameter of the preovulatory follicle. In conclusion, the ultrasonic evaluation has revealed that follicular dynamics of jennies were generally related with body condition which might have been influenced by the type of management. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Regassa F.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Araya M.,Gondar University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

Following the rapidly expanding dairy enterprise, mastitis has remained the most economically damaging disease. The objective of this study was mainly to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Combretum molle (R. Br. Ex. G. Don) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) against antibiotic-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis using agar disc diffusion method. The leaf and bark extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus at concentrations of 3 mg/ml while the stem and seed extract did not show any bioactivity. Although both leaf and bark extracts were handled in the same manner, the antibacterial activity of the bark extract against the bacterial strains had declined gradually to a lower level as time advanced after extraction. The leaf extract had sustained bioactivity for longer duration. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the leaf extract is not obviously different between S. aureus and S. agalactiae. Also, there was no difference in susceptibility to the leaf extract between the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. Further phytochemical and in vivo efficacy and safety studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic value of the plant against bovine mastitis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Dagnew M.,Gondar University | Yismaw G.,Gondar University | Gizachew M.,Gondar University | Gadisa A.,Gondar University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: Bacterial blood stream infection constitutes a significant public health problem and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bacterial isolates from septicemia suspected patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in Gondar University Hospital. Methods. This laboratory based retrospective study of 390 blood culture and susceptibility tests was conducted in Bacteriology Laboratory of the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. The samples were collected and processed following standard microbiological techniques as part of the routine clinical management of the patient. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done on pure culture isolates employing disc-diffusion method for the commonly used antibiotics. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and the results were summarized by using tables and graphs. Results: Out of 390 blood culture results, 71 (18.2%) were culture positive. The predominant bacteria isolated from blood culture were Coagulase negative staphylococci 30 (42.3%), followed by S. aureus 17 (23.9%) and Klebiesella spp 9 (12.9%), E. coli 5 (7.0%), Pseudomonas aeroginosa 4 (5.6%) and Salmonella spp. 3 (4.2%). The gram positive and gram negative bacteria constituted 49 (69%) and 22 (31%) of the culture isolates; respectively. The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested. The range of resistance for Gram positive and Gram negative were from 23.5% - 58.8%, and 20%- 100% respectively. Conclusions: In the present study most of the pathogens isolated from blood culture showed high rate of resistance to most commonly used antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Therefore, rational use of antibiotics should be practiced. © 2013 Dagnew et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Jeyasankar A.,Government of Tamilnadu | Jeyasankar A.,Entomology Research Institute | Raja N.,Gondar University | Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

A new crystal compound 2,5-diacetoxy-2-benzyl-4,4,6,6-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione was isolated from the leaves of Syzygium lineare. The insecticidal activity of the compound was assessed against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. Its activity was better than the positive control azadirachtin. The compound was responsible for growth inhibition on S. litura. It induced larval, pupal and adult deformities even at low concentration. The compound may be useful as a botanical pesticide. © 2011.


Tekeste Z.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Tekeste Z.,Gondar University | Petros B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

Background: The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum is associated with the capacity of the infected red blood cell (iRBC) to adhere to uninfected RBCs, a process known as rosetting, which has been linked to the occurrence of severe malaria. The present study was carried out in three Ethiopian malaria endemic localities to investigate the relationship between blood group type and severe disease in falciparum malaria. Methods: A total of 210 cases of malaria (70 severe and 140 uncomplicated) and 190 healthy controls participated in the study. Patients with at least one of the severe malaria syndromes (cerebral malaria, severe anaemia and circulatory collapse) were considered as severe malaria cases. Results: In the severe malaria category, there were 25 (35.7%), 15 (21.4%), 14 (20%) and 16 (22.9%) blood group A, B, AB and O patients, respectively. Blood group O was the dominant blood type in both uncomplicated malaria (45.7%) and healthy controls (41.6%). A case of severe malaria was almost twice as likely to be of type A as to be of type O (odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.88, P = 0.019), and more than twice as likely to be of type B as to be of type O (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.89, P = 0.02). Furthermore, individuals with severe malaria were about six fold less likely to be of O as to be of type AB (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07-0.51, P = 0.0005). Conclusion: The study revealed that on the basis of the three criteria (cerebral malaria, severe anaemia and circulatory collapse) used to determine severity in P. falciparum malaria, patients with blood group O, which is less prone to rosetting have a reduced chance of developing severe falciparum malaria as compared to patients with other blood groups. © 2010 Tekeste and Petros; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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