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Andargae Y.E.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Tagele S.B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Girsil T.S.,Melkassa Agricultural Research Center | Woldemariam S.S.,University of Gondar
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

The pesticide efficacy of locally available seven botanicals "Gime" (Chenopodium ambrosioides), "Ayderke" (Jatropha curcas), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Melia (Melia azadirach), "Chobe" (Cisus rotonifolia), "Kelewa" (Maesa lanceolata) and "Antharfa" at a rate of 4% weight by weight was evaluated for the control of cowpea bruchid using 200 g cowpea seeds in 500 cm3 volume jar in 2010 and 2011 under laboratory condition at Sirinka Agricultural Research Centre. The combined analysis showed that "Gime" (both leaf and seed) had high speed of pesticide effect as it showed significantly higher per cent of parent adult mortality (84 and 71%, respectively) as to the standard check Malathion 5% dust (100%) in the first day of adult mortality count. "Antharfa" and "Ayderke" also have shown significantly higher per cent of parent adult mortality as to Malathion in the third and fifth day of adult mortality count, respectively. In the seventh day, all botanicals showed significantly higher per cent of adult mortality as compared to untreated check. "Gime" leaf and seed powder, "Ayderke" seed, Neem seed and "Antharfa" leaf powders significantly reduced the number of progeny emergence per day as compared to all other treatments. Moreover, these botanicals were effective in reducing per cent seed damage (0.00, 0.00, 0.57, 5.86 and 10.86%, respectively) and storage loss (0.00, 0.00, 0.073, 1.02 and 2.27%, respectively). Gime (both leaf and seed powder), "Ayderke" seed and Neem seed are locally available, simple for preparation and environmentally friendly. Therefore, these three botanicals can be recommended to satisfy the demand for organic food and save the seed damage and yield loss of cowpea caused by Callosobruchus maculates and bean bruchid (Zabrotes subfasciatus) which has similar biology with Callosobruchus maculatus. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Abegaz S.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Hegde B.P.,Haramaya University | Taye M.,Bahir Dar University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

A study to characterize Gumuz sheep breed was conducted at Metema district of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Farmers in Metema area rear different breeds of sheep such as Gumuz, Rutana and highland sheep, in combination as well as sole. However, most (68.9%) rear Gumuz sheep alone. The flock size for only Gumuz sheep rearing farmers was 13.2 heads of sheep. Gumuz sheep is a thin tailed short haired sheep. The most common coat color pattern in both male and female sheep was plain (47.7%; 60% in males and 41% in females) with varying colours. White coat colour was common followed by mixture of red-brown with white in males while the mixture of red-brown with white was the dominant colour in females. Most sheep (93%) had convex head profile. Wattle and horn were only present on 2.9% and 13.8 (only on males), respectively. Most (63.8%) of the males had ruff. They had long and semi pendulous ears. The mean mature body weight (kg) obtained was 31.4 and 34.6 for females and males, respectively. The average body length (cm) obtained were 67.0 and 68.3, height at wither (cm) were 63.6 and 67.3and chest girth (cm) were 76.1 and 78.0 for mature females and males, respectively. The average birth weight, one month weight and adjusted weaning weight were 2.79±0.03 kg, 6.57±0.18 kg and 12.5±0.23 kg, respectively. Birth weight was significantly affected by parity of the dam, type of birth and sex of lamb. Weaning weight was affected by sex of lamb only. The growth curve fitted depicts that Gumuz sheep attained their mature weight around 1 and 1.5 years of age. In general, Gumuz sheep is one of the most important sheep breeds with better body size and growth performance adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of the country. Efforts that could make wise utilization of this genetic resource should be acknowledged. Source

Getachew T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Getachew T.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | Gizaw S.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | Lemma S.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on reproductive performance. A village based sheep crossbreeding project has been implemented since 1998 in three villages in the South Wollo, Menz and Chacha districts in Ethiopia. Crossbred rams (3/4 Awassi × 1/4 Local) were supplied to a group of farmers aiming to upgrading the indigenous genotype through backcrossing. The combined levels of location and genotype, year, season and parity had significant effects on the reproductive performance of ewes. Generally, local genotypes showed better (p<0.05) reproductive performance except for number of lambs weaned per ewe per year. The interaction of genotype and location was significant for age at first lambing and lambing interval. In Wollo, Corriedale × local crossbred ewes had similar reproductive performance to that of the local breed. The variation in reproductive performance among locations indicated the importance of delineating crossbreeding areas depending on environmental situation and farmers' capacity. Source

Demelash N.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Bayu W.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Tesfaye S.,Wello University | Ziadat F.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Sommer R.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2014

Restoring soil fertility in smallholder farming systems is essential to sustain crop production. An experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to study the effect of compost and inorganic fertilizer application on soil chemical properties and wheat yield in northwest Ethiopia. Full factorial combinations of four levels of compost (0, 4, 6, 8 t ha−1) and three levels of inorganic fertilizers (0–0, 17.3–5, 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1) were compared in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In 2012, two sets of trials were conducted: one was the repetition of the 2011 experiment on a new experimental plot and the second was a residual effect study conducted on the experimental plots of 2011. Results showed that in the year of application, applying 6 t compost ha−1 with 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1 gave the highest significant grain yield. In the residual effect trial, 8 t compost ha−1 with 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1 gave 271 % increase over the control. Grain protein content increased 21 and 16 % in the current and residual effect trials, respectively, when 8 t compost ha−1 was applied; it increased 11 and 14 % in the current and residual effect trials, respectively, when 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1 was applied. Under the current and residual effects of 8 t compost ha−1, SOM increased 108 and 104 %; available P 162 and 173 %; exchangeable Ca 16.7 and 17.4 %; and CEC 15.4 and 17.1 %, respectively. Applying 6 t compost ha−1 with 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1 is economically profitable with 844 % MRR. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Tarekegn A.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the adaptability and productivity of different vetch species under the ecological conditions of Gumara- Maksegnit watershed in the year 2012. Five vetch species (Vicia dasycarpa, Vicia villosa, Vicia atropurpurea, Vicia benghalensis and Vicia sativa) were used as experimental treatments. Seeds were broadcasted at a rate of 25kg ha-1. Field trial was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, dry matter percentage, herbage and dry matter yield were recorded. The results indicated that vetch species evaluated showed statistical variation in dry matter percentage (DM %), green herbage yield (t ha-1), dry matter yield (t ha-1), and plant height at harvest (cm) while there is no statistical difference in number of branches and pods per plant among the species. From the vetch species evaluated V. villosa and V. sativa scored the highest and the least herbage and dry matter yield. Based on the biological yield obtained Vicia dasycarpa, Vicia villosa and Vicia atropurpurea are more adaptive and productive than others. Thus according to the results of this study Vicia dasycarpa, Vicia villosa and Vicia atropurpurea are recommended for wider use as livestock feed in the Gumara- Maksegnit watershed area. Source

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