Gondar Agricultural Research Center

Gonder, Ethiopia

Gondar Agricultural Research Center

Gonder, Ethiopia
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Melaku N.D.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Melaku N.D.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Bayu W.,Center for Agricultural Bioscience International | Ziadat F.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2017

Sorghum is cultivated on Vertisols in the Ethiopian Highlands. An experiment was conducted in the Gumara-Maksegnit watershed in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effect of rate and timing of nitrogen fertilizer application on the possibility to shorten the maturity period and to improve the productivity of sorghum. The experiment was laid out as Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments were nitrogen doses between 0 and 87 kg N ha−1 as urea applied at planting, at knee-height stage or in split doses at both stages. Results showed that application of 23, 41, 64 and 87 kg ha−1 N gave a yield increase of 40, 53, 62 and 69% over the control (0 kg N ha−1), respectively. In addition, split application of 41 kg ha−1, 64 kg ha−1 and 87 kg ha−1 of nitrogen fertilizer, half at planting and half at knee height stage, gave 19%, 15% and 18% increase in sorghum grain yield over a single dose application, respectively. Applying 87 kg ha−1 nitrogen fertilizer with split application half at planting and half at knee height stage, along with 46 kg ha−1 of P2O5, gave the highest grain yield and income. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Kassa A.,Austrian Research Center for Forests | Kassa A.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Konrad H.,Austrian Research Center for Forests | Geburek T.,Austrian Research Center for Forests
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2017

Understanding patterns of genetic diversity at the landscape scale will enhance conservation and management of natural populations. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity, population connectivity, and spatial genetic structure among subpopulations and age groups of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata, a cornerstone species of the Afromontane highlands. The study was conducted at the landscape level within a radius of approximately 4 km, as well as on a fine scale (intensive study plot) of less than 300 m radius. In total 542 samples from four natural subpopulations in northwestern Ethiopia were analyzed using ten nuclear microsatellite markers. Inbreeding was higher in smaller populations. No genetic difference was detected among cohorts of different tree sizes in the intensive studied plot. Average population differentiation was low but significant (FST = 0.016). Landscape genetic analysis inferred two groups: the most distant subpopulation WE located less than 4 kms from the other three subpopulations formed a separate group. Sixty-four percent of the total migrants were shared among the three latter subpopulations, which are spatially clustered. Immigrants were non-randomly distributed inside of the intensive study plot. Significant spatial genetic structure (SGS) was found both at the landscape scale and in the intensive study plot, and adults showed stronger SGS than young trees. An indirect estimate of 220 m as mean gene dispersal distance was obtained. We conclude that even under fragmentation migration is not disrupted in wild olive trees and that large protected populations at church forests are very important to conserve genetic resources. However, the higher level of inbreeding and evidence for population bottlenecks in the small populations, as well as the persisting heavy pressure on most remaining populations, warrants quick action to maintain genetic diversity of wild olive in the Ethiopian highlands. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Abegaz S.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Hegde B.P.,Haramaya University | Taye M.,Bahir Dar University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

A study to characterize Gumuz sheep breed was conducted at Metema district of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Farmers in Metema area rear different breeds of sheep such as Gumuz, Rutana and highland sheep, in combination as well as sole. However, most (68.9%) rear Gumuz sheep alone. The flock size for only Gumuz sheep rearing farmers was 13.2 heads of sheep. Gumuz sheep is a thin tailed short haired sheep. The most common coat color pattern in both male and female sheep was plain (47.7%; 60% in males and 41% in females) with varying colours. White coat colour was common followed by mixture of red-brown with white in males while the mixture of red-brown with white was the dominant colour in females. Most sheep (93%) had convex head profile. Wattle and horn were only present on 2.9% and 13.8 (only on males), respectively. Most (63.8%) of the males had ruff. They had long and semi pendulous ears. The mean mature body weight (kg) obtained was 31.4 and 34.6 for females and males, respectively. The average body length (cm) obtained were 67.0 and 68.3, height at wither (cm) were 63.6 and 67.3and chest girth (cm) were 76.1 and 78.0 for mature females and males, respectively. The average birth weight, one month weight and adjusted weaning weight were 2.79±0.03 kg, 6.57±0.18 kg and 12.5±0.23 kg, respectively. Birth weight was significantly affected by parity of the dam, type of birth and sex of lamb. Weaning weight was affected by sex of lamb only. The growth curve fitted depicts that Gumuz sheep attained their mature weight around 1 and 1.5 years of age. In general, Gumuz sheep is one of the most important sheep breeds with better body size and growth performance adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of the country. Efforts that could make wise utilization of this genetic resource should be acknowledged.

Andargae Y.E.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Tagele S.B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Girsil T.S.,Melkassa Agricultural Research Center | Woldemariam S.S.,University of Gondar
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

The pesticide efficacy of locally available seven botanicals "Gime" (Chenopodium ambrosioides), "Ayderke" (Jatropha curcas), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Melia (Melia azadirach), "Chobe" (Cisus rotonifolia), "Kelewa" (Maesa lanceolata) and "Antharfa" at a rate of 4% weight by weight was evaluated for the control of cowpea bruchid using 200 g cowpea seeds in 500 cm3 volume jar in 2010 and 2011 under laboratory condition at Sirinka Agricultural Research Centre. The combined analysis showed that "Gime" (both leaf and seed) had high speed of pesticide effect as it showed significantly higher per cent of parent adult mortality (84 and 71%, respectively) as to the standard check Malathion 5% dust (100%) in the first day of adult mortality count. "Antharfa" and "Ayderke" also have shown significantly higher per cent of parent adult mortality as to Malathion in the third and fifth day of adult mortality count, respectively. In the seventh day, all botanicals showed significantly higher per cent of adult mortality as compared to untreated check. "Gime" leaf and seed powder, "Ayderke" seed, Neem seed and "Antharfa" leaf powders significantly reduced the number of progeny emergence per day as compared to all other treatments. Moreover, these botanicals were effective in reducing per cent seed damage (0.00, 0.00, 0.57, 5.86 and 10.86%, respectively) and storage loss (0.00, 0.00, 0.073, 1.02 and 2.27%, respectively). Gime (both leaf and seed powder), "Ayderke" seed and Neem seed are locally available, simple for preparation and environmentally friendly. Therefore, these three botanicals can be recommended to satisfy the demand for organic food and save the seed damage and yield loss of cowpea caused by Callosobruchus maculates and bean bruchid (Zabrotes subfasciatus) which has similar biology with Callosobruchus maculatus. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Getachew T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Getachew T.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | Gizaw S.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | Lemma S.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on reproductive performance. A village based sheep crossbreeding project has been implemented since 1998 in three villages in the South Wollo, Menz and Chacha districts in Ethiopia. Crossbred rams (3/4 Awassi × 1/4 Local) were supplied to a group of farmers aiming to upgrading the indigenous genotype through backcrossing. The combined levels of location and genotype, year, season and parity had significant effects on the reproductive performance of ewes. Generally, local genotypes showed better (p<0.05) reproductive performance except for number of lambs weaned per ewe per year. The interaction of genotype and location was significant for age at first lambing and lambing interval. In Wollo, Corriedale × local crossbred ewes had similar reproductive performance to that of the local breed. The variation in reproductive performance among locations indicated the importance of delineating crossbreeding areas depending on environmental situation and farmers' capacity.

Demelash N.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Bayu W.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Tesfaye S.,Wello University | Ziadat F.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Sommer R.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2014

Restoring soil fertility in smallholder farming systems is essential to sustain crop production. An experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to study the effect of compost and inorganic fertilizer application on soil chemical properties and wheat yield in northwest Ethiopia. Full factorial combinations of four levels of compost (0, 4, 6, 8 t ha−1) and three levels of inorganic fertilizers (0–0, 17.3–5, 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1) were compared in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In 2012, two sets of trials were conducted: one was the repetition of the 2011 experiment on a new experimental plot and the second was a residual effect study conducted on the experimental plots of 2011. Results showed that in the year of application, applying 6 t compost ha−1 with 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1 gave the highest significant grain yield. In the residual effect trial, 8 t compost ha−1 with 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1 gave 271 % increase over the control. Grain protein content increased 21 and 16 % in the current and residual effect trials, respectively, when 8 t compost ha−1 was applied; it increased 11 and 14 % in the current and residual effect trials, respectively, when 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1 was applied. Under the current and residual effects of 8 t compost ha−1, SOM increased 108 and 104 %; available P 162 and 173 %; exchangeable Ca 16.7 and 17.4 %; and CEC 15.4 and 17.1 %, respectively. Applying 6 t compost ha−1 with 34.5–10 kg N–P ha−1 is economically profitable with 844 % MRR. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Addis H.K.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Addis H.K.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Klik A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Strohmeier S.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2016

A soil map of a watershed provides a wealth of knowledge and can be vital for implementing site-specific soil managements. Hence, watershed-based soil assessment was conducted to select an optimum spatial interpolation method, while aiming for sustainable soil managements. Intensive soil sampling was undertaken to investigate the performance of ordinary kriging (OK), inverse distance weighting (IDW), and radial basis functions (RBF) for predicting the spatial distribution of soil texture, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), and available phosphorus (AP). The 72 ha study area was divided into a 100 x 100 m grid and approximately at the center of each grid, topsoil samples (roughly from 10-25cm depth) were collected from over 75 locations across the entire watershed. The exponential and Gaussian models were best fitted in the semivariogram of measured soil. The performance of each interpolation method was assessed quantitatively in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (E), coefficient of determination (R2), and index of agreement (d). The interpolated maps generated based on the highest value of E displayed OK was best performed for SOC and sand. RBF was most suitable for mapping of AP and clay, while IDW gave better results when applied to pH. The highest value of R2, E, and d (0.51, 0.51, and 0.83, respectively) resulted from the spatial interpolation of AP. Overall, the cross-validation statistics for each interpolation method showed there was no single method that significantly outperformed the others. Therefore, one of the interpolation methods could be applied for surface map generation in future studies of similar regions. © 2016 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Tarekegn A.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center | Zelalem T.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

The effect of intercropping some forage legumes with maize crop on biomass yield of legumes and the grain and Stover yield of maize was determined under irrigation condition of Megech by using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). The legumes used for under sowing were Vigna unguiculata, Lablab purpureus and Vicia atropurpurea and the maize-legume integration were sole Maize (SM), Maize + Vigna unguiculata (MU), Maize + Lablab purpureus (ML) and Maize + Vicia atropurpurea (MV). The results indicated that intercropping forage legumes with maize crop did not affect the growth, grain and Stover yield of maize. The biomass yield of individual forage legumes showed that L. purpureus gave the highest forage dry matter yield and higher than the rest of under sown forage legumes. With respect to total biomass yield (Biomass yield of Forage and Maize Stover) ML yielded the highest biomass. The results suggest that maize grain yield and biomass yield of intercrops can be maximized for both human and livestock feeding by integrating L. purpureus with maize crop.

Tarekegn A.,Gondar Agricultural Research Center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the adaptability and productivity of different vetch species under the ecological conditions of Gumara- Maksegnit watershed in the year 2012. Five vetch species (Vicia dasycarpa, Vicia villosa, Vicia atropurpurea, Vicia benghalensis and Vicia sativa) were used as experimental treatments. Seeds were broadcasted at a rate of 25kg ha-1. Field trial was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, dry matter percentage, herbage and dry matter yield were recorded. The results indicated that vetch species evaluated showed statistical variation in dry matter percentage (DM %), green herbage yield (t ha-1), dry matter yield (t ha-1), and plant height at harvest (cm) while there is no statistical difference in number of branches and pods per plant among the species. From the vetch species evaluated V. villosa and V. sativa scored the highest and the least herbage and dry matter yield. Based on the biological yield obtained Vicia dasycarpa, Vicia villosa and Vicia atropurpurea are more adaptive and productive than others. Thus according to the results of this study Vicia dasycarpa, Vicia villosa and Vicia atropurpurea are recommended for wider use as livestock feed in the Gumara- Maksegnit watershed area.

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