Gonbad-e Qābūs, Iran
Gonbad-e Qābūs, Iran

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Davari Varanlou Z.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Hassani S.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Azari M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Samadi F.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | And 2 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science | Year: 2017

The ovine melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) and aromatase (CYP19) genes were structurally characterized and the association between their variants and reproductive and growth traits was studied in Kurdi sheep at Kurdi sheep breeding station located in Shirvan, Iran. The genomic DNA was extracted by guanidine thio-cyanate-silica gel method. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify 824 bp fragment of exon 2 of MTNR1A and 140 bp fragment of the exon 3 of the ovine CYP19 genes. The PCR products were digested with restriction endonucleases RsaI for MTNR1A and BstMBI for CYP19 genes and checked by poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis for the presence of restriction sites. Two alleles were found for all the loci investigated, which were named as A and B for CYP19, and R and r for MTRN1A. Allelic frequencies for MTRN1A were 0.49 and 0.51 for R and r alleles, while in the case of CYP19 gene, frequencies were 0.475 and 0.525for A and B alleles, respectively. Association analysis did not show any significant relations be-tween MTNR1A gene polymorphisms and litter size (LS), age at first lambing (AFL) and lambing interval (LI). Moreover, CYP19 gene polymorphism did not affect birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), 6, 9 and 12 months (YW) body weights, age at first lambing (AFL) and lambing interval (LI). © 2010 by Islamic Azad Univerty, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran.


Seyfzadeh M.,Iranian Fisheries National Fish Processing Center | Motalebi A.A.,Iranian Fisheries Research Organization | Kakoolaki S.,Iranian Fisheries Research Organization | Gholipour H.,Gonbad University
Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences | Year: 2013

The effects of whey protein (12%) and sodium alginate (0.5%) on chemical, microbial and sensory changes and shelf life in kilka during frozen storage are investigated for up to 6 months. Total bacteria count and Staphylococcus bacteria counts(2 / 51 and 1 / 44 log CFU/g) in coated samples showed decrease in comparison with control samples(3.21- 2.28 log CFU/g). Moisture of coated samples had significant increase than control treatment (p<0.05). protein, lipid, ash and calorie were higher in test samples as compared with the control samples. Free fatty acids, TBRS, peroxide value, TVN and pH in coated samples showed significant decrease in comparison with control (p<0.05). Sensory evaluation of coated samples showed significant difference in comparison with control (p<0.05). It is suggested that whey protein edible coating incorporated with sodium alginate can enhance quality and increase shelf life of kilka fish in storage of freezing up to 6 months.


Iranshahi F.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Faramarzi M.,Gonbad University | Kiaalvandi S.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Boloki M.L.,Gonbad University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2011

In this study, Artemia urmiana was used as a vector to carry probiotic Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to digestive tract of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) larvae. The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the commercial title of Thepax was prepared from Doxal Co.-Italy and was used for bioencapsulation of Artemia urmiana. This experiment was conducted in a completely random design. Artemia urmiana with three concentrations of Baker's yeast, 5, 5.30 and 5.48 Log cfumL-1 in suspension of broth for 10 h was bioencapsulated and was fed by Persian Sturgeon larvae. The Persian Sturgeon larvae were fed on the base of the 30% of their body weight for 6 times a day. The control treatment were fed on unbioencapsulated Artemia urmiana. The results indicated that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae could influence growth and feeding parameters in Persian Sturgeon larvae. The final body weight and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) in experimental treatments had significant difference in comparison with control treatment (p<0.05). Food Convertion Efficiency (FCE) was increased significantly. The Baker's yeast had significant positive effects on Conversion Efficiency Ratio (CER), Thermal Growth Coefficient (TGC), Velocity of growth body Weight (VW%) and Velocity of growth body Length (VL%) in comparison with control treatment (p<0.05). Also, the Relative Food Intake (RFI) significantly decreased (p<0.05) while crude protein and energy significantly increased (p<0.05). The maximum of Lpid Productive Value (LPV) and Protein Productive Value (PPV) were obtained in treatment of T2 (p<0.05). This study showed that S. cerevisiae had high efficiency in feeding parameters and growth performance of Acipenser persicus larvae. © Medwell Journals, 2011.


Kordnaeij A.,Imam Khomeini International University | Kalantary F.,K. N. Toosi University of Technology | Kordtabar B.,National Iranian Oil Company | Mola-Abasi H.,Gonbad University
Soils and Foundations | Year: 2015

Settlement based design for shallow foundations realizing the consolidation aspect is a major challenge in geotechnical engineering. The recompression index (Cr) from the oedometer test is used to estimate the consolidation settlement of over-consolidated (OC) clays. Since the determination of Cr from oedometer tests is relatively time-consuming and is usually determined for a single unloading, empirical equations based on index properties can be useful for settlement estimation. Correlations have been proposed to relate the Cr of clay deposits to other soil parameters. Since existing equations are incapable of estimating Cr well, artificial intelligence methods are used to predict them. In the present study, a Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) type neural network is used to estimate the Cr from more simply determined index properties such as the liquid limit (LL) and initial void ratio (e0) as well as specific gravity (Gs). In order to assess the merits of the proposed approach, a database containing 344 data sets has been compiled from case histories via geotechnical investigation sites in the province of Mazandaran, along the southern shoreline of the Caspian Sea, Iran. In addition to the physical properties mentioned already, the natural water content (ωn), plastic index (PI) and dry density (γd) were also included in the model development. A comparison was carried out between the experimentally measured recompression indexes and the predictions in order to evaluate the performance of the GMDH neural network method. The results demonstrate that an improvement with respect to the other correlations has been achieved. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the obtained model was performed to study the influence of the input parameters on the model output. The sensitivity analysis reveals that e0 and LL have significant influence on predicting Cr. & 2015 The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yang M.-Q.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yang M.-Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | van Velzen R.V.,Wageningen University | Bakker F.T.,Wageningen University | And 3 more authors.
Taxon | Year: 2013

Cannabaceae includes ten genera that are widely distributed in tropical to temperate regions of the world. Because of limited taxon and character sampling in previous studies, intergeneric phylogenetic relationships within this family have been poorly resolved. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic study based on four plastid loci (atpB-rbcL, rbcL, rps16, trnL-trnF) from 36 ingroup taxa, representing all ten recognized Cannabaceae genera, and six related taxa as outgroups. The molecular results strongly supported this expanded family to be a monophyletic group. All genera were monophyletic except for Tr e ma, which was paraphyletic with respect to Parasponia. The Aphananthe clade was sister to all other Cannabaceae, and the other genera formed a strongly supported clade further resolved into a Lozanella clade, a Gironniera clade, and a trichotomy formed by the remaining genera. Morphological ancestral state reconstructions indicated the complex evolution pattern of most analyzed morphological characters, and it is difficult to identify morphological synapomorphies for most clades within Cannabaceae.


Sarcmi M.,University of Zabol | Rouhimoghaddam E.,University of Zabol | Fakhireh A.,Gonbad University
Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2015

Introduction: The phenomenon of climate change is one of the most important challenges in sustainable development, which has a negative impact on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This will change rainfall patterns the power to increase hurricane and the risk of drought, flood and will strengthen pressure on water resources. Therefore, in order to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas content balance, Atmospheric carbon should be absorbed and sequestration in various form. Our country pastures options for research on carbon sequestration projects are. Because on the one hand, many pastures in arid and semi - arid region is located which covers an area of about 90 million hectares to be included. On the other hand, according to the UNDP, the areas capable of storing approximately one billion tons of organic carbon. In recent years, the role of grasslands as a basis for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon sequestration more important than ever given, but far more important is not a lot of research on the effects of grazing management on carbon sequestration. The present study examined the effect of management grazing and enclosure of the A. peristerus carbon sequestration. Material and Methods: The study area is approximately 24 km from city Shamiran located in the North East of Tehran. The study area is 314.5 hectares. 159 hectares to preserve plant and animal species enclosure, and the levels of that is 155.5 hectares of grazing it takes. Based on rainfall data recorded can be seen that the average rainfall system Fasham station 696.2 mm. Average maximum and minimum average annual rainfall is 1321 mm and 248.5. The average annual temperature of 15.2°C, the warmest and coldest months of the year an average of 28.4 and 1.7, respectively, July and December were. The registered absolute maximum and minimum temperatures are also mentioned belong to two months and 39.8 and -11.4C. The prevailing wind in the area southwest and the average annual wind speed is 3.6 nots. The direction and speed of wind worst annual western and is 47 nots. Generally the bare earth or very shallow gravel soils with moderate to heavy texture. Soil acidity in the area between the 7.2-7.5. After preliminary identification and demarcation of the area under study, in order to study vegetation variables, the systematic sampling was used. So that in each of the treatments (grazing and enclosoure) two transects the length of 100 m (a transect in the direction perpendicular to the slope and a transect of the slope) and along each transect, 10 plots of one square meter (based on the plants pattern) was established. To determine the percentage of dominant canopy species, a list of plants in each plot and cover plants species were assessed separately. In order to estimate above-ground biomass include plant shoots direct measurement method (cutting and weighing) was used. To determine underground biomass the root to shoot ratio were these. To this end, 10 of these were selected by the digging of the soil to the depth of root biomass was harvested roots. Then, with the total weight of the plant biomass (above-ground biomass + underground biomass) above-ground biomass and underground biomass ratio was determined. Then, with the total weight of the plant biomass (above-ground biomass+ underground biomass) above-ground biomass underground biomass ratio was determined. In order to determine the carbon conversion efficiency above-ground and underground organic carbon, the combustion method was used. For this purpose, plant samples were dried in the oven completely milled and from each of species, three samples (each 5 g) were taken. The samples were then weighed and electric oven at 550°C for 5 hours was. Samples (organic matter or ash) after leaving the electric furnace and cooling were weighed by desiccator. Finally, with a weight (5 g) and the amount of organic carbon, according to Equation (1), organic carbon conversion coefficient was calculated for above-ground and underground. COC OC(gr)/Wp = COC (1) By multiplying the conversion coefficient of organic carbon in the above-ground and ground fresh weight of each species according to (2), the total weight of carbon sequestration, respectively (g per square meter). CS COC × Wp=CS (2) The study was a randomized complete block design. Initially, data normality by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and homogeneity of variances was checked by the Leven test. To compare the weight of plant biomass, conversion coefficient and carbon sequestration plant in the area of enclosure and grazing were used as t-Test. Results and Conclusions: Weight of biomass The mean weight of above-ground and underground biomass of the species are significant differences in the two areas of enclosure and grazing there. But the biomass plant of this kind in the region, there is no significant difference. (P < 0.05) Conversion coefficient biomass By comparing conversion coefficient the above-ground and underground biomass in the pasture grazing and enclosure of A. peristerus species has revealed that no significant difference between the conversion coefficient ratio of two organ in the region. (P<0.05) Carbon sequestration Above-ground biomass and plant biomass carbon sequestration A. peristerus species no significant difference in the two areas. But carbon sequestration underground biomass, a significant difference. (P<0.05). Carbon distribution In both grazed and enclosure rangeland carbon underground organ is more. Conclusions: The management tools that influence carbon levels in rangeland ecosystems are: the intensity and frequency of grazing livestock that through grazing systems applied. Plant biomass A. peristerus species is allocated to a greater degree of enclosure area. Mr. Mohseni Fashamy with study carbon storage in the central Alborz concluded that enclosure the development of perennial plants and reduced annual plants is too early. Compared to carbon ratio in the treatment of enclosure and grazing A. peristerus not show any significant difference in the region. Livestock grazing is likely to have profound effects on the ability to store carbon in plant species A. peristerus is not. Conversion coefficient Carbon in underground parts ground due to more wood and less bodywater underground is more. This plant is one of the perennial plants. That is why it is natural that the enclosure increase of underground plant biomass and thus increase carbon sequestration more. Distribution of carbon in biomass underground A. peristerus, it was more than the above ground biomass. Large amounts of organic matter inputs to the soil the land grazed by organs located under the soil (such as root). Effect the upper floor disorders such as grazing, fires, etc. on the underside of soil organic matter, indirect. In general we can say, rangeland management should be multilateral management. Means a manager, maximum rangeland production, maximum animal production, sustainable use, management of soil erosion and the carbon sequestration should also consider and coverage range will lead to the side that won all of the above at the same time. If biomass is increased with moderate grazing, due to higher amounts of organic matter to the soil system will increase the carbon in pasture. After the conclusion, a balanced grazing capacity is the best option for pasture management as with the exploitation of the natural resources, the benefits of carbon storage and carbon sequestration and the mitigation of global warming benefit. It should be noted that the enclosure of soil and vegetation in pastures that are in the waney, it can be effective to deploy and protect the soil until later in the pasture ready for principles operation.


Biabani A.,Gonbad University | Katozi M.,Islamic Azad University at Tabriz | Mollashahi M.,Gonbad University | Bahlake A.G.,Gonbad University | Khani A.H.G.,Gonbad University
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

This study was done in order to evaluate the relationships between grain yield and the other characteristics with two cultivars of chickpea (Hashem and Arman) in deterioration (0 (control), 7 and 14 days). The experiment was a factorial completely randomized design with 2 factors. It was conducted on a research farm at Gonbadekavoos High Education Center- Iran in 2009. At harvest time, height of the plants, filled and unfilled pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, plant dry weight and yield were measured. Results showed the yield had highly positive correlation with filled pod per plant (r = 0.96)) (p<0.01). In Arman and Hashem cultivar, yield had highly correlation with seed number per plant (r = 0.95) (p<0.01) Dependence of seed yield to height was great with deterioration 14 days; and the correlation coefficient between filled pod number and height after 7 days deterioration was significantly (P<0.01) negative (r = -0.95) (P<0.01) but it was of greater magnitude in 14 days deterioration (r = 0.79) (P<0.01). © 2011 Academic Journals.


Nejhad R.K.,Gonbad University | Ahmadi A.K.,Gonbad University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to identify polymorphisms in GDF9 and FecB genes in Dalagh sheep breed. About 100 mature ewes from three flocks in Golestan province were genotype for the GDF9 ligand (FecGH) and fecB (BMPRIB) receptor. Using two pairs of specific primers, DNA fragments with the size of 139 and 190 bp were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction. The PCR products were digested using Ddel and Avail restriction enzymes for GDF9 and FecB loci, respectively. The results showed no differences in the band patterns of digested products only the wild type alleles were detected and all animals for these two loci were monomorph. © Medwell Journals, 2012.


Yousefzadeh H.,Tarbiat Modares University | Yousefzadeh H.,University of Mazandaran | Hosseinzadeh Colagar A.,University of Mazandaran | Tabari M.,Tarbiat Modares University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Nucleotide sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and 5.8S gene were used to infer the phylogeny of Tilia species (represented by 13 distinct populations) growing in different geographical areas of Hyrcanian forests in northern Iran. Four well-supported lineages were revealed, including that of a new species, T. hyrcana, with stellate trichomes on both sides of the leaves and petiole. T. hyrcana is a well-supported cladospecies, with the ITS sequence and secondary structure following the diagnosable phylogenetic species concept, and is also characterized by a distinct morphology. A controversial species is Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica, with three different forms-an assemblage of taxa characterized by a lack of stellate trichomes on leaves-while Tilia begonifolia is distinguished by stellate trichomes on the underside of both leaves and petiole. The fourth lineage group, T. dastyla, is characterized by the presence of trichomes on the style. A single taxon found in the west of the Hyrcanian forest region is similar to T. begonifolia, but due to the former being located in a distinct group, a reassessment of the diagnostic morphology is recommended. ITS sequence data also suggested a closer relationship between T. rubra and T. begonifolia. Compensatory base change analysis was not strong enough to separate individual species within the Tilia genus. In general, the study supports the utility of ITS sequence data and secondary structure as accessory taxonomic characteristics with which to help clarify the systematics of the Tilia genus. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Bagheri T.,Islamic Azad University at Gorgan | Bagheri T.,Gonbad University | Imanpoor M.R.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari V.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Bennetau-Pelissero C.,ENITA de Bordeaux
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

A long-term feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the inclusion of soybean meal in diets for goldfish (Carassius auratus) on fish reproduction. In the present study, 20 weeks after hatching, goldfish with an initial average weight of 2±0.03g (mean±SD) were divided into 12 groups (three tanks per dietary treatment) and fed 400gkg-1 crude protein diets. The four experimental diets were as follows: diet 1, fish meal (FM); diet 2, 35% soybean meal (SBM35%); diet 3, 65% soybean meal (SBM65%); diet 4, 100% soybean meal (SBM100%). After feeding with experimental diets, the impact on reproduction was investigated. In both males and females, the plasma testosterone (T) was significantly decreased, while 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were significantly increased. Levels of 17α, hydroxyprogesterone. (17-OH-P) did not differ as a result of soybean meal feeding in either males or females. The average number of eggs spawned and sperm quality were reduced on feeding with soybean inclusion. Histological examination showed impact on oocyte maturation progress and spermatogenesis process in female and male fish, respectively. In addition, feeding goldfish with soybean meal until maturation caused reduction in fertilization and hatching rates in parallel to increasing soybean meal inclusion. The results demonstrated that inclusion of soybean meal might cause sex hormone biosynthesis disruption and reproductive impairments in fish, ultimately decreased fertilization as well as hatching rates in the offspring. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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