Gonabad University of Medical Sciences

Gonabad, Iran
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Mokhtarzadeh A.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Mokhtarzadeh A.,Higher Education Institute of Rab Rashid | Alibakhshi A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hashemi M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2017

Nowadays, small non-coding Ribo Nucleic Acids (sncRNAs) such as siRNA, miRNA and shRNA are extremely serving to gene regulation. They are involved in many biological processes and in an increasing number of studies regarding a variety of application of sncRNAs toward human health and relieving diseases ranging from metabolic disorders to those involving various organ systems as well as different types of cancer. One of the most severe limitations for applying RNA interference technology is the absence of safe and effective carriers for in vivo delivery, including localizing the molecules to a specific site of interest and sustaining the presentation of the payloads for a controlled period of time. In this review, we focus on the sncRNA functions and recent advances on the delivery of these molecules by biodegradable, biocompatible and nontoxic biopolymers including chitosan, cyclodextrins, poly-L-lysine, dextran, poly (lactic co-glycolic acid), polyglutamic acid, hyaluronic acid and gelatin. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Soltani F.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Parhiz H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Mokhtarzadeh A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Mokhtarzadeh A.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Ramezani M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2015

Synthetic and biological vesicular carriers have been recognized as attractive and intelligent systems for delivery of a verity of bioactive molecules. The importance of such delivery systems can be mostly due to their physicochemical properties, i.e. a lipid bilayer surrounding an aqueous core which allows encapsulation and protection of active hydrophilic molecules such as nucleic acids. Synthetic vesicles such as liposomes have been studied as gene delivery systems for decades. However, due to their fast clearance, toxicity and immunogenicity which impose restrictions on clinical applications, some other natural lipid vesicles such as exosomes have been considered as alternatives. Attractive features of nature's own ‘nano-vesicles’ such as exosomes, virosomes, bacterial ghosts and erythrocyte ghosts include efficient cellular entry, physicochemical properties and evading immune responses. Nevertheless, there are advantages and disadvantages with both synthetic and biological vesicular systems. Here, we provide an overview into different vesicle-based gene delivery systems and discuss how various modifications in their structure and formulations could improve the transfection efficiency and decrease the toxicity. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Mokhtarzadeh A.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Mokhtarzadeh A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Mokhtarzadeh A.,Higher Education Institute of Rab Rashid | Parhiz H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2016

Objectives: Targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or therapeutic antisense RNAs into specific cells is a major bottleneck in cancer therapy. To overcome this problem and improve the specificity for cancer cells, we describe a new-targeted delivery system using p53-derived peptides, namely PNC 27 and PNC 28. These peptides target HDM-2 on the surface of cancer cells. HDM-2 is overexpressed on the surface of cancerous cells, but not present on the untransformed cells.Methods: To determine HDM-2-expressing cells, we used immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis on nine cell lines including MCF-7 and NIH-3t3. Conjugation of peptides to vectors was confirmed using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Physicochemical properties of vector/DNA complexes including particle size, surface charge and DNA condensation ability were determined. In transfection studies, three plasmids were used including luciferase, pEGFP and shRNA plasmid against Bcl-XL mRNA. The level of Bcl-XL expression was determined by real-time PCR and western blot techniques.Results: The results of gene delivery and shRNA-based gene silencing studies indicated that conjugation of PNC peptides could enhance gene delivery efficiently with high-targeted activity exclusively into cancer cells.Conclusion: Our results strongly indicated that this targeting system could be utilized as an efficient targeting method for most cancer cells. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Mohammadi S.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Mohammadi S.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Background: Formaldehyde, a colorless aldehyde with pungent odor, has negative effects on central nervous system. But, there are a little data about protective substances against neuronal damage induced by formaldehyde. Therefore, the present study was to examine histological changes in the cerebellum of formaldehyde exposed mice and possible effects of N-acetyl cysteine on these changes at histopatological level. Methods: Forty eight adult male NMRI mice were randomly divided into six groups: (I) control, (II) treated with 10 mg/kg formaldehyde, (III) treated with formaldehyde and 50 mg/kg N-acetyl cysteine, (IV) treated with formaldehyde and 100 mg/kg N-acetyl cysteine, (V) treated with formaldehyde and 200 mg/kg N-acetyl cysteine, (VI) treated with formaldehyde and 400 mg/kg N-acetyl cysteine. At the end of 14 days, the cerebellums were processed histologically and morphometric study was carried out using Image J software. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and ANOVA test. Results: The present study demonstrated a remarkable decrease in both the thickness and the number of the neurons of granular layer as well as the mean size and the mean number of Purkinje cells in formaldehyde-treated mice. Treatment with 50 mg/kg NAC increased the number of the neurons in molecular layer of the cerebellum as well as the thickness of the gray and white matter. Moreover, it increased the numbers of Purkinje cells (8.47±3.01 vs. 5.82±1.41). Conclusions: Our results suggest that administration with 50 mg/kg N-acetyl cysteine prevents formaldehyde-induced neuronal damage in cerebellum of mice.

Afzalpour M.E.,Birjand University | Chadorneshin H.T.,Birjand University | Foadoddini M.,Birjand University | Eivari H.A.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2015

The research literature suggests that oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors influence neurotrophins in vitro. However, there is insufficient information about their effects on exercise training conditions, especially during high intensity trainings. This study aimed to compare the effects of 6weeks of high intensity interval and continuous training regimens on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the rat brain. For this purpose, twenty-four Albino Wistar rats were divided into sedentary control (SC), high intensity interval training (HIIT), and continuous training (CT) groups. Both HIIT and CT regimens increased H2O2 level and TNF-α concentration in the brain, and the alterations made were greater following HIIT than CT. In addition, both HIIT and CT regimens increased BDNF and GDNF concentrations significantly, with a higher elevation following HIIT than CT. Furthermore, H2O2 level and TNF-α concentration correlated positively with both BDNF and GDNF concentrations. Generally, high intensity interval training regimen, rather than continuous training regimen, is highly potential to improve BDNF and GDNF through a greater increase in H2O2 and TNF-α as oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Khosravi A.R.,University of Tehran | Shokri H.,University of Mazandaran | Minooeianhaghighi M.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2011

Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may control the production of aflatoxins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the essential oils (EOs) of Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa on growth and aflatoxins production by A. parasiticus. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs were determined and compared with each other. Determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) was performed by immunoaffinity column extraction using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The major oil components were α-pinene (30%) in C. cyminum, pulegone (37%) in Z. clinopodioides, and trans-anthol (38.9%) in N. sativa oils. In broth microdilution method, C. cyminum oil exhibited the strongest activity (MIC90: 1.6; MFC: 3.5mg/mL), followed by Z. clinopodioides (MIC90: 2.1; MFC: 5.5mg/mL) and N. sativa (MIC90: 2.75; MFC: 6.25mg/mL) oils against A. parasiticus (p<0.05). Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 0.25mg/mL of C. cyminum and Z. clinopodioides oils, of which that of C. cyminum was a stronger inhibitor. C. cyminum EO caused significant reductions in values of 94.2% for AFB1, 100% for AFB2, 98.9% for AFG1, 100% for AFG2, and 97.5% for total aflatoxin. It is concluded that the EOs of C. cyminum, Z. clinopodioides, and N. sativa could be used as natural inhibitors in foods at low concentrations to protect from fungal and toxin contaminations by A. parasiticus. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Ghoodarzi R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Changizi V.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Montazerabadi A.R.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Eyvazzadaeh N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2016

This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Radachlorin as a sensitizer in both photodynamic and radiation therapy on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Another purpose was to assess the effectiveness of radiotherapy in combination with photodynamic therapy. The cells were incubated with Radachlorin and then exposed, in the independent treatment groups, to red visible light (660 nm), at two energy densities (6 and 12 j/cm^2) and 2-Gy X-ray ionizing radiation. In addition, combination effects of these modalities were evaluated. The percentage of the cell survival was investigated using the MTT assay and also survival fraction was evaluated by colony assay. The results demonstrated Radachlorin had no significant cytotoxic effects alone. However, it had a strong cytotoxic effect in the presence of light on MCF-7 cells. Light and Radachlorin reduced the percent of cell survival to 47 %. Despite Radachlorin could not act as a radiosensitizer, using integration of Radachlorin with radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy resulted in a significant cell death in comparison to the control group. Colony assay revealed the synergistic effect of this combined therapy with reduction of survival fraction to 0.03. MTT showed that the viability of breast cancer cells was reduced to 28 % by this integration therapy. Combination of radiation and photodynamic therapy could be a worthwhile approach for breast cancer treatment. It appears that we can reduce the adverse effects of treatments without reducing the efficacy of therapy. © 2015, Springer-Verlag London.

Fateh M.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Emamian M.H.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Asgari F.,Center for Diseases Control | Alami A.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Fotouhi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE:: Hypertension covers a large portion of burden of diseases, especially in the developing countries. The unequal distribution of hypertension in the population may affect 'health for all' goal. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequality of hypertension in Iran and to identify its influencing factors. METHODS:: We used data from Iran's surveillance system for risk factors of noncommunicable diseases which was conducted on 89400 individuals aged 15-64 years in 2005. To determine the socioeconomic status of participants, a new variable was created using a principal component analysis. We examined hypertension at different levels of this new variable and calculated slop index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (C) for hypertension. We then applied Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis to determine the causes of inequality. RESULTS:: The SII and C for hypertension were -32.3 and -0.170, respectively. The concentration indices varied widely between different provinces in Iran and was lower (more unequal) in women than in men. There was significant socioeconomic inequality in hypertension. The results of decomposition indicated that 40.5% of the low-socioeconomic group (n=18190) and 16.4% of the high-socioeconomic group (n=16335) had hypertension. Age, education level, sex and residency location were the main associated factors of the difference among groups. CONCLUSION:: According to our results, there was an inequality in hypertension in Iran, so that individuals with low socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Age was the most contributed factor in this inequality and women in low-socioeconomic group were the most vulnerable people for hypertension. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mardaneh J.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Dallal M.M.S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Acta Medica Iranica | Year: 2016

Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study. © 2015 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Ramezani Awal Riabi H.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Atarodi A.R.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2012

Background: Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. Methods: In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. Results: The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Conclusion: Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi.

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