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Khosravi A.R.,University of Tehran | Shokri H.,University of Mazandaran | Minooeianhaghighi M.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2011

Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may control the production of aflatoxins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the essential oils (EOs) of Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa on growth and aflatoxins production by A. parasiticus. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs were determined and compared with each other. Determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) was performed by immunoaffinity column extraction using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The major oil components were α-pinene (30%) in C. cyminum, pulegone (37%) in Z. clinopodioides, and trans-anthol (38.9%) in N. sativa oils. In broth microdilution method, C. cyminum oil exhibited the strongest activity (MIC90: 1.6; MFC: 3.5mg/mL), followed by Z. clinopodioides (MIC90: 2.1; MFC: 5.5mg/mL) and N. sativa (MIC90: 2.75; MFC: 6.25mg/mL) oils against A. parasiticus (p<0.05). Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 0.25mg/mL of C. cyminum and Z. clinopodioides oils, of which that of C. cyminum was a stronger inhibitor. C. cyminum EO caused significant reductions in values of 94.2% for AFB1, 100% for AFB2, 98.9% for AFG1, 100% for AFG2, and 97.5% for total aflatoxin. It is concluded that the EOs of C. cyminum, Z. clinopodioides, and N. sativa could be used as natural inhibitors in foods at low concentrations to protect from fungal and toxin contaminations by A. parasiticus. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Ghoodarzi R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Changizi V.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Montazerabadi A.R.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Eyvazzadaeh N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2016

This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Radachlorin as a sensitizer in both photodynamic and radiation therapy on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Another purpose was to assess the effectiveness of radiotherapy in combination with photodynamic therapy. The cells were incubated with Radachlorin and then exposed, in the independent treatment groups, to red visible light (660 nm), at two energy densities (6 and 12 j/cm^2) and 2-Gy X-ray ionizing radiation. In addition, combination effects of these modalities were evaluated. The percentage of the cell survival was investigated using the MTT assay and also survival fraction was evaluated by colony assay. The results demonstrated Radachlorin had no significant cytotoxic effects alone. However, it had a strong cytotoxic effect in the presence of light on MCF-7 cells. Light and Radachlorin reduced the percent of cell survival to 47 %. Despite Radachlorin could not act as a radiosensitizer, using integration of Radachlorin with radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy resulted in a significant cell death in comparison to the control group. Colony assay revealed the synergistic effect of this combined therapy with reduction of survival fraction to 0.03. MTT showed that the viability of breast cancer cells was reduced to 28 % by this integration therapy. Combination of radiation and photodynamic therapy could be a worthwhile approach for breast cancer treatment. It appears that we can reduce the adverse effects of treatments without reducing the efficacy of therapy. © 2015, Springer-Verlag London.


Fateh M.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Emamian M.H.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Asgari F.,Center for Diseases Control | Alami A.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Fotouhi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE:: Hypertension covers a large portion of burden of diseases, especially in the developing countries. The unequal distribution of hypertension in the population may affect 'health for all' goal. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequality of hypertension in Iran and to identify its influencing factors. METHODS:: We used data from Iran's surveillance system for risk factors of noncommunicable diseases which was conducted on 89400 individuals aged 15-64 years in 2005. To determine the socioeconomic status of participants, a new variable was created using a principal component analysis. We examined hypertension at different levels of this new variable and calculated slop index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (C) for hypertension. We then applied Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis to determine the causes of inequality. RESULTS:: The SII and C for hypertension were -32.3 and -0.170, respectively. The concentration indices varied widely between different provinces in Iran and was lower (more unequal) in women than in men. There was significant socioeconomic inequality in hypertension. The results of decomposition indicated that 40.5% of the low-socioeconomic group (n=18190) and 16.4% of the high-socioeconomic group (n=16335) had hypertension. Age, education level, sex and residency location were the main associated factors of the difference among groups. CONCLUSION:: According to our results, there was an inequality in hypertension in Iran, so that individuals with low socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Age was the most contributed factor in this inequality and women in low-socioeconomic group were the most vulnerable people for hypertension. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Mardaneh J.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Dallal M.M.S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Acta Medica Iranica | Year: 2016

Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study. © 2015 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.


Tolide-Ie H.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Tabatabaee H.R.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Kamali-Sarvestani E.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex polygenic disease in which gene-environment interactions are important. A number of studies have investigated the association between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308 G/A polymorphism (substitution G→A, designated as TNF1 and TNF2) and MS susceptibility in different populations, but the results of individual studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published studies is desirable. We sought to quantitatively summarize the association between TNF-α-308 G/A polymorphism and MS. The Medline and Scopus databases were searched to identify potentially relevant case-control studies published in English journals up to January 2010. A meta-analysis of these studies was performed. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated under fixed and random effects models. Twenty-one eligible studies, comprising 2880 patients with MS and 3579 controls, were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled ORs (95%CI) for TNF2 versus TNF1 and TNF2 carriers (2/2+2/1) versus non-carriers (1/1) were 1.02 (0.86-1.21) and 0.99 (0.8-1.24), respectively. In the European populations, the pooled ORs (95%CI) for TNF 2/1 versus 1/1 were 0.85 (0.73-0.98), which was statistically significant. However, the other results did not support this finding. The pooled ORs (95%CI) for TNF 2/1 versus 1/1 and TNF 2/2 versus 2/1 were not statistically significant in the overall population. In addition, the pooled ORs for TNF2/2 versus TNF2/1+1/1 and TNF2/2 versus TNF1/1 were not statistically significant. Our meta-analysis does not support the role of TNF-α-308 G/A polymorphism in developing MS.


Heydari A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Ahrari S.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Vaghee S.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:: Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in Iran, and currently, heart failure (HF) has a prevalence of 3500 in 100A000 people. Despite advances in medical treatment for HF, nonadherence to prescribed therapeutic regimen remains as a problem among HF patients. A better understanding of the factors that influence patient adherence to therapeutic regimen may help nurses enhance quality of care in HF patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-concept cognitive perception (threat and challenge) and adherence to therapeutic regimens in patients with HF in an Iranian population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:: Using a descriptive correlational design, a convenience sample of 108 HF patients were selected from 2 major medical and academic centers, affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Two validated and reliable questionnaires including Cognitive Perception of Cardiovascular Healthy Lifestyles and Adherence questionnaires were completed by each patient. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:: A direct relationship between challenge to self-concept and adherence to prescribed regimen was noted (P < .01); threat to self-concept had an inverse relationship to adherence (P < .01). In other words, patients who faced more challenge and less threat to self-concept adhered more to the prescribed therapeutic regimen. Through education and counseling, nurses can empower their patients to perceive HF as a challenge to better adhere to the prescribed therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Moshki M.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Hassanzade T.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences | Taymoori P.,Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected through quota random sampling and assigned randomly into two Intervention and control groups. Data were collected through a questionnaire, including two sections of demographic information and drug abuse preventive behaviors. The questionnaire was first assessed as to its validity and reliability and then administered both before and after educational intervention and also as a follow-up 4 years after intervention - Data were then analyzed using t-tests and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of post-test mean scores of drug abuse preventive behaviors of both groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) which remained stable 4 years after intervention. There was a significant relationship between father's educational level and drug abuse preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Life skills' training is effective in the promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors of university students.


Moshki M.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Cheravi K.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Social Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Background: Prenatal depression is a significant predictor of postpartum depression and is detrimental to fetal development. Aim: To examine whether depression during pregnancy is associated with social support and health locus of control (HLC). Method: Data were collected from a sample of 208 Iranian pregnant women using a demographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the multidimensional HLC Scale and the social support appraisals. Results: Depression was experienced by 37% of participants. Overall, women reported higher level of family support (6.88 ± 1.15) than other supports (6.87 ± 1.29). Protective supports from other resources (6.87 ± 1.29) were higher than those from friends (5.94 ± 1.5). Internal, powerful others and chance beliefs had the highest mean scores. Social support and chance HLC significantly influenced the proposed mediator (depressive mood) in the linear regression model. Bivariate analysis showed significant associations between social support (friend, family and others) and depressive mood. Internal HLC had a significant association with social support and powerful others HLC. However, Pearson correlation coefficient was not significant between depressive mood and all dimensions of HLC. Conclusion: Clinicians could assess social support and chance HLC to identify and treat women at risk of prenatal depression. By providing support during pregnancy, depression levels in women and its effects on the fetus may be decreased, which could prevent postpartum depression. © SAGE Publications.


Ramezani Awal Riabi H.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Atarodi A.R.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2012

Background: Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. Methods: In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. Results: The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Conclusion: Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi.


Moshki M.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Baloochi Beydokhti T.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Cheravi K.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Clinical Nursing | Year: 2014

Aims and objectives: To assess the effectiveness of application of health locus of control in pregnant women for prevention of postpartum depression in Iran. Background: Nearly 10-15% of women suffer postnatal depression by the end of the second week after delivery, which creates problems in caring for the child that may affect child's future learning and concentration. Design: Pre-post experimental design. Methods: Two hundred and thirty volunteer women were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and the Edinburg Depression Scale. Based on the associations found in the pretest, intervention programme was planned and carried out in the focused group discussion method. Data were collected after the end of scheduled sessions, immediately and one month later. The data were analysed with SPSS-16 using statistical methods including anova, chi-square test, Student's t-test and paired t-test. Results: Chance health locus of control significantly reduced and internal health locus of control significantly increased, immediately after intervention. Also, a month after intervention, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in reducing postpartum depression. Conclusions: The planned participatory intervention led to empowerment and increased awareness and internalisation of health control beliefs and less tendency towards external health control beliefs, especially chance, improvement in general health leading to improved psychological health for prevention of postpartum depression in mothers. Relevance to clinical practice: Clinicians might assess chance and internal health locus of control to identify the women at risk of developing depression during their pregnancy and to develop prevention and treatment plans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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