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Khosravi A.R.,University of Tehran | Shokri H.,University of Mazandaran | Minooeianhaghighi M.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2011

Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may control the production of aflatoxins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the essential oils (EOs) of Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa on growth and aflatoxins production by A. parasiticus. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs were determined and compared with each other. Determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) was performed by immunoaffinity column extraction using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The major oil components were α-pinene (30%) in C. cyminum, pulegone (37%) in Z. clinopodioides, and trans-anthol (38.9%) in N. sativa oils. In broth microdilution method, C. cyminum oil exhibited the strongest activity (MIC90: 1.6; MFC: 3.5mg/mL), followed by Z. clinopodioides (MIC90: 2.1; MFC: 5.5mg/mL) and N. sativa (MIC90: 2.75; MFC: 6.25mg/mL) oils against A. parasiticus (p<0.05). Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 0.25mg/mL of C. cyminum and Z. clinopodioides oils, of which that of C. cyminum was a stronger inhibitor. C. cyminum EO caused significant reductions in values of 94.2% for AFB1, 100% for AFB2, 98.9% for AFG1, 100% for AFG2, and 97.5% for total aflatoxin. It is concluded that the EOs of C. cyminum, Z. clinopodioides, and N. sativa could be used as natural inhibitors in foods at low concentrations to protect from fungal and toxin contaminations by A. parasiticus. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Fateh M.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Emamian M.H.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Asgari F.,Center for Diseases Control | Alami A.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Fotouhi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE:: Hypertension covers a large portion of burden of diseases, especially in the developing countries. The unequal distribution of hypertension in the population may affect 'health for all' goal. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequality of hypertension in Iran and to identify its influencing factors. METHODS:: We used data from Iran's surveillance system for risk factors of noncommunicable diseases which was conducted on 89400 individuals aged 15-64 years in 2005. To determine the socioeconomic status of participants, a new variable was created using a principal component analysis. We examined hypertension at different levels of this new variable and calculated slop index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (C) for hypertension. We then applied Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis to determine the causes of inequality. RESULTS:: The SII and C for hypertension were -32.3 and -0.170, respectively. The concentration indices varied widely between different provinces in Iran and was lower (more unequal) in women than in men. There was significant socioeconomic inequality in hypertension. The results of decomposition indicated that 40.5% of the low-socioeconomic group (n=18190) and 16.4% of the high-socioeconomic group (n=16335) had hypertension. Age, education level, sex and residency location were the main associated factors of the difference among groups. CONCLUSION:: According to our results, there was an inequality in hypertension in Iran, so that individuals with low socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Age was the most contributed factor in this inequality and women in low-socioeconomic group were the most vulnerable people for hypertension. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ghoodarzi R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Changizi V.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Montazerabadi A.R.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Eyvazzadaeh N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2016

This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Radachlorin as a sensitizer in both photodynamic and radiation therapy on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Another purpose was to assess the effectiveness of radiotherapy in combination with photodynamic therapy. The cells were incubated with Radachlorin and then exposed, in the independent treatment groups, to red visible light (660 nm), at two energy densities (6 and 12 j/cm^2) and 2-Gy X-ray ionizing radiation. In addition, combination effects of these modalities were evaluated. The percentage of the cell survival was investigated using the MTT assay and also survival fraction was evaluated by colony assay. The results demonstrated Radachlorin had no significant cytotoxic effects alone. However, it had a strong cytotoxic effect in the presence of light on MCF-7 cells. Light and Radachlorin reduced the percent of cell survival to 47 %. Despite Radachlorin could not act as a radiosensitizer, using integration of Radachlorin with radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy resulted in a significant cell death in comparison to the control group. Colony assay revealed the synergistic effect of this combined therapy with reduction of survival fraction to 0.03. MTT showed that the viability of breast cancer cells was reduced to 28 % by this integration therapy. Combination of radiation and photodynamic therapy could be a worthwhile approach for breast cancer treatment. It appears that we can reduce the adverse effects of treatments without reducing the efficacy of therapy. © 2015, Springer-Verlag London.

Heydari A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Ahrari S.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Vaghee S.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:: Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in Iran, and currently, heart failure (HF) has a prevalence of 3500 in 100A000 people. Despite advances in medical treatment for HF, nonadherence to prescribed therapeutic regimen remains as a problem among HF patients. A better understanding of the factors that influence patient adherence to therapeutic regimen may help nurses enhance quality of care in HF patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-concept cognitive perception (threat and challenge) and adherence to therapeutic regimens in patients with HF in an Iranian population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:: Using a descriptive correlational design, a convenience sample of 108 HF patients were selected from 2 major medical and academic centers, affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Two validated and reliable questionnaires including Cognitive Perception of Cardiovascular Healthy Lifestyles and Adherence questionnaires were completed by each patient. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:: A direct relationship between challenge to self-concept and adherence to prescribed regimen was noted (P < .01); threat to self-concept had an inverse relationship to adherence (P < .01). In other words, patients who faced more challenge and less threat to self-concept adhered more to the prescribed therapeutic regimen. Through education and counseling, nurses can empower their patients to perceive HF as a challenge to better adhere to the prescribed therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mardaneh J.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Dallal M.M.S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Acta Medica Iranica | Year: 2016

Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study. © 2015 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

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