Singh P.K.,Banaras Hindu University |
Singh G.P.,Gombe State University |
Singh M.P.,Banaras Hindu University
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2011
Sub-bituminous coals of Ramagundam coalfield have been studied to know their petrographic and chemical composition. Based on the petrographic characters, an attempt has been made to understand their depositional environment. These coals are characterized by low to medium moisture and volatile matter contents. Inertinite is the dominant maceral group followed by vitrinite and liptinite and the coal contains significantly elevated inorganic content. The study reveals that they have originated from forest swamps under a mildly oxic to anoxic environment with conditions favorable for tissue preservation. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Nwosu F.O.,University Of Ilorin |
Muzakir M.M.,Gombe State University
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2016
Corrosion has been chronic problem to industries and has increased cost of production. Lignin is the second most natural organic polymer on the earth and it can be obtained from the wastes of wood pulping processing in the form of black liquor. The inhibition efficiency of lignin on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl have been evaluated by conventional weight loss method, and surface analysis using 500-5000 mg/L (w/v) inhibitor concentration in temperature range of 303-343 K. Maximum inhibition efficiency of 92.39 % was obtained with optimum inhibitor concentration of 4000 mg/L at 303 K. The activation and free energies for the inhibition reactions support the mechanism of physical adsorption. The adsorption of lignin extract on mild steel surface is endothermic, spontaneous and consistent with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm at all studied temperatures. FT-IR and SEM analyses confirmed that the surface of mild steel was affected by the adsorption of lignin onto the surface to form ferric-lignin compounds.
Yarkasuwa C.I.,Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University |
Wilson D.,Gombe State University |
Michael E.,Gombe State University
Journal of the Korean Chemical Society | Year: 2013
Thevetia peruviana (Yellow Oleander) seed oil was extracted with n-hexane in a soxhlet extractor. The ethanolysis and methanolysis of the oil were carried out with 50% of potassium hydroxide in ethanol and methanol respectively by weight of oil, as catalyst. The biodiesel was tested for biodegradability using E. coli. The percentage yield of the FAEE and FAME were 84.8% and 91.6% respectively. The biodegradability values of 81.4% and 86.2% were obtained for FAEE and FAME respectively after a period of 28 days. Other fuel quality parameters determined are the cetane index of 47.19 (FAEE) and 58.97 (FAME), flash point of 198 °C (FAEE) and 175 °C (FAME), kinematic viscosity at 40 °C of 5.21 mm2s-1 (FAEE) and 5.10 mm 2s-1(FAME), pour point of 4 °C (FAEE) and-2 °C (FAME) and a cloud point of 6 °C (FAEE) and 3 °C (FAME). Thus, Thevetia peruviana oil has a high potential for use in production of environmentally friendly biodiesel.
Bala U.,University Putra Malaysia |
Bala U.,Gombe State University |
Tan K.-L.,University Putra Malaysia |
Ling K.-H.,University Putra Malaysia |
Cheah P.-S.,University Putra Malaysia
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014
Background: Over the past several decades, many studies concerning peripheral nerve damage or regeneration have been performed. Mice have been widely used for many of these studies, with the sciatic nerve being the most targeted and preferred nerve. Therefore, techniques for harvesting mouse sciatic nerves of a maximum length that is sufficient for different analyses will be highly valuable. Here we describe a simple step-by-step guide for harvesting the maximum length of mouse sciatic nerve and compare the length of the harvested nerves gathered with the proposed method with nerves obtained using a conventional mid-thigh incision approach.Findings: The sciatic nerve was exposed while holding both hind limbs together in one hand and the tail was gently pulled away in the opposite direction. The nerve was traced by dissecting through its course both distally and proximally and was carefully harvested. The total average length of the sciatic nerves obtained using the proposed harvesting method and the mid-thigh incision method was 22.60 ± 1.62 mm and 7.0 ± 0.76 mm, respectively. This length of harvested nerve allows further dissection into several segments that can be used for additional independent analyses such as histochemical/histological analysis and RNA or protein extraction.Conclusion: The approach described here has several advantages over mid-thigh incision methods in that it: i) allows harvesting of maximum lengths of the sciatic nerve ii) allows simultaneous harvesting of both sciatic nerves, iii) provides time savings; iv) requires no extensive knowledge of veterinary anatomy; and v) provides hassle-free dissection. © 2014 Bala et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Maina M.B.,Gombe State University |
Mahdi O.,Gombe State University |
Kalayi G.G.,Gombe State University
International Journal of Morphology | Year: 2012
Anthropometric measurements such as cranial and facial forms provide essential information that can be used added provide in orofacial surgery and in diagnostic comprehension between patient and normal populations. There is no published literature about the types of head and face shapes in Fulani, Tangale and Tera ethnic groups of Nigeria. Hence, this study was undertaken to document the various cranial and facial forms of these ethnic groups residing in Gombe region of North-Eastern Nigeria. Head length, head width, head circumference, face length and face width were measured and the cephalic and prosopic indices calculated in a total of 300 subjects (150 males and 150 females). Results analyzed placed all males of the three ethnic groups in dolicocephalic head group with mean cephalic indices lower than 74.9, while all females to mesocephalic head group with mean cephalic indices between the range of 75-79.9. On the basis of face shapes, The Fulani and Tera males were found to belong to hyperleptoprosopic group, while the Tangale and Tera females to leptoprosopic group with prosopic indices over 95 and between the ranges of 90-94.9, respectively. Therefore, the findings revealed that all males and females of the three ethnic groups share close similarities in head types and some variations in face types. Furthermore, variation of head and face shapes from this study exists with those of other studies within and outside Nigeria.
Abdus-Salam N.,University Of Ilorin |
Buhari M.,Gombe State University
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2016
Activated carbon was prepared from date palm seed using one step procedure with 56.54 % efficiency, 2.89 % ash content, 781.40 m2 g-1 surface area, 711.2 mg g-1 iodine number and the CHN analysis gave 69.25 % C, 3.91% H and 1.56% N. The FTIR spectroscopy revealed O-H, C-H, C=C, C=C and C-O stretching; XRF revealed P, Ca, Si, S and K as major elements. The influences of agitation time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature were studied in batch experiments. A 57.78% Alizarin and 68.40% Fluorescein removal were attained within the first 15 min of agitation. Kinetic studies showed good correlation coefficient for pseudo-first and pseudosecond order kinetic models. The adsorption data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm than Freundlich isotherms with correlation coefficient (R2) very close to unity and Langmuir maximum adsorption constant, qm > 1000. The Freundlich coefficients relating to overall adsorption capacity, Kf (mg g-1) is 197.65 and 396.28 and surface heterogeneity, n is 3.34 and 3.18 for Alizarin and Fluorescein respectively. The activation energy (Ea) of the adsorption process of alizarin and fluorescein on DPA were found to be -8.19 and +21.43 Kj mol-1 respectively. The evaluation of the thermodynamic quantities showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic.
PubMed | Ahmadu Bello University and Gombe State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Metabolic brain disease | Year: 2016
Resveratrol (RESV) and Environmental Enrichment (EE) have been separately reported to protect organisms against various diseases. This study investigated the potential benefit of the combination of RESV and EE on biomarkers of oxidative stress in young healthy mice. Fifty mice of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups of 10 animals each: group I served as control, group II were maintained on alternate day feeding, group III received RESV 50mg/kg, suspended in caboxymethylcellulose orally per kg/day. Group IV received CMC and kept in an Enriched Environment, group V received RESV + EE. The treatment lasted for 28days. The animals were sacrificed 24h after the last treatment and brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation. The results obtained showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in malondialdehyde concentration in EE group and RESV treated group kept EE when compared to the control. A significant decrease was also observed in glutathione peroxidase activity in all the treatment groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease in GPx activities in RESV, EE and RESV + EE treated groups in male and female mice when compared to the control groups respectively. However, a significant increase in GPx activities was observed in EE group in male mice and EODF, RESV groups in female mice when compared to RESV + EE groups respectively. In conclusion, the result of our study indicates that EE possesses antioxidant properties by decreasing MDA concentration and attenuating lipid peroxidation in the brain of young Swiss albino mice.
PubMed | Kaduna State University, Ahmadu Bello University and Gombe State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Metabolic brain disease | Year: 2016
Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.
PubMed | University of Surrey, Gombe State University and Middlesex University
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016
An evaluation of the radioactivity levels associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a surface radiological map of the State of Kuwait. Soil samples from across Kuwait were collected, measured and analysed in the current work. These evaluations provided soil activity concentration levels for primordial radionuclides, specifically members of the (238)U and (232)Thdecay chains and (40)K which. The (238)U and (232)Th chain radionuclides and (40)K activity concentration values ranged between 5.932.3, 3.527.3, and 74698Bq/kg respectively. The evaluated average specific activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K across all of the soil samples have mean values of 18, 15 and 385Bq/kg respectively, all falling below the worldwide mean values of 35, 40 and 400Bq/kg respectively. The radiological risk factors are associated with a mean of 33.162.46nG/h and 68.55.09Bq/kg for the external dose rate and Radium equivalent respectively. The measured annual dose rates for all samples gives rise to a mean value of 40.83.0Sv/y while the internal and internal hazard indices have been found to be 0.230.02 and 0.190.01 respectively.
PubMed | University Putra Malaysia and Gombe State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS | Year: 2016
Several occupational diseases of multiple origins are encountered among abattoir workers. Presence of indicator microorganisms (coliforms) on hands of workers can be used a gauge for hygienic practices.A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of The results have shown that no Based on the findings the hygienic practices of hand washing among the workers in few locations was found to be low especially after work.