Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

Gomal University , is a public research university located in D.I. Khan in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Founded and established in 1974, the university is one of the oldest institution in the country, and occupies one of the largest campuses in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province.Gomal University is one of the reputable universities in Pakistan offering a wide range of courses both at undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral levels besides research degree programs in most of the departments. It consisted of four faculties of science, with a strong emphasizes on natural and medical science courses. The Gomal University is affiliated with the HEC and NTS. The university was founded by Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and the donation comes from the Allah Nawaz Khan after donating the large area of his land to the establishment of the University. Allah Nawaz Khan was also the Gomal University's first vice-chancellor in 1974. Wikipedia.

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Marquez F.,University of Santiago de Chile | Ahmad A.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo | Ahmad A.,Gomal University | Buballa M.,TU Darmstadt | And 2 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We study the behavior of the dual quark condensate σ1 in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and its nonlocal variant. In quantum chromodynamics σ1 can be related to the breaking of the center symmetry and is therefore an (approximate) order parameter of confinement. The deconfinement transition is then signaled by a strong rise of σ1 as a function of temperature. However, a similar behavior is also seen in the NJL model, which is known to have no confinement. Indeed, it was shown that in this model the rise of σ1 is triggered by the chiral phase transition. In order to shed more light on this issue, we calculate σ1 for several variants of the NJL model, some of which have been suggested to be confining. Switching between "confining" and "non-confining" models and parametrizations we find no qualitative difference in the behavior of σ1, namely, it always rises in the region of the chiral phase transition. We conclude that without having established a relation to the center symmetry in a given model, σ1 should not blindly be regarded as an order parameter of confinement. © 2015 The Authors.


Zaman M.,Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd New Zealand | Zaman S.,University of Canterbury | Nguyen M.L.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Smith T.J.,Ballance Agri Nutrients Ltd New Zealand | Nawaz S.,Gomal University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

This field study evaluated the effects of applying a combination of urease (UI) and nitrification inhibitors (NI) on ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from urine patches, using zeolite, single superphosphate (SSP) and urea fertilizer as a carrier. The trial was conducted on a Typic Haplustepts silt loam soil, near Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand during 2009-11. The treatments in 2009 included: a control (no urine or inhibitor), urine alone at 600kgNha-1, and urine with either double inhibitor (DI) a mixture (1:7 ratio w/w) of UI (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT - trade name Agrotain®sss) and NI, dicyandiamide (DCD) or DCD alone at 10kgha-1 using zeolite and SSP as carriers. In 2010 trials, both zeolite and urea were used as carriers for DI and DCD. DI-zeolite and DI-urea were equally effective and reduced the average NH3 losses from applied urine over two years by 34.6% in autumn and 40% in spring respectively. The nBTPT in DI-SSP was decomposed by the free acid produced during its dissolution and therefore increased NH3 emission as does DCD alone. DCD consistently increased NH3 emissions by 39% and 15.6% in autumn and spring respectively. Spring application resulted in NH3-N losses of 16.9% as a percentage of the total N applied compared to 8.4% in autumn. Over the two years, the DI reduced N2O emissions by 53% in autumn and 46% in spring over urine alone treatment; the equivalent reductions for DCD were 42% and 39% for autumn and spring, respectively. These results suggest that applying DI in autumn and spring using zeolite or urea carrier five days prior to grazing has the most potential to reduce NH3 and N2O losses from specific urination event than using DCD alone; and therefore warrants further research to improve its longevity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Iqbal S.,Gomal University | Hameed G.,Gomal University | Baloch M.K.,Gomal University | McClements D.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Controlled aggregation of protein microspheres in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions was used to form semi-solid lipid materials. The aqueous phase consisted of 10. wt% whey protein isolate (WPI) in buffer solution (pH 7.0, 100. mM NaCl). The oil phase consisted of a lipophilic nonionic surfactant (8 wt % polyglycerol polyricinoleate, PGPR) dispersed in a liquid oil (soybean oil). Lipid phases containing protein microspheres were formed by homogenization of the oil and aqueous phases to form a W/O emulsion followed by heating (90. °C for 30. min) to promote gelation of the WPI in the aqueous phase. Temperature-scanning dynamic shear measurements showed that the W/O emulsions underwent an irreversible liquid-to-solid transition when heated above the thermal denaturation temperature of WPI, which was attributed to protein gelation and microsphere aggregation. Optical microscopy indicated that a three-dimensional network of aggregated protein microspheres was formed at high aqueous phase contents (> 30 wt %). Shear rheology measurements (shear stress versus shear rate) indicated that these structured emulsions were non-ideal plastic-like materials. The apparent shear viscosity increased with thermal treatment, increasing aqueous phase content, and decreasing shear rate. The structured W/O emulsions developed in this study may be useful materials for the development of foods with highly viscous or gel-like lipid phases, but low saturated or trans-fat contents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hussain Z.,Government of Pakistan | Khan M.A.,Gomal University | Irfan M.,Gomal University
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2010

The project's aim was to reduce Pakistan's water use and consequently its costs in semi-arid crop production system by increasing awareness, benchmarking water use and targeting practical solutions for optimising water use with raised bed irrigation system. The aim of this study was to compare water as well as energy used in wheat production on raised bed (RB) and conventional farming systems in Pakistan in terms of energy ratio, energy and water productivity and benefit/cost ratio of the two systems. The values of all energy inputs and output were converted to energy farm. Economic analysis was performed for each crop. The total energy requirement under RB farming on two understudy sites were 3653kWhha -1 and 4455kWhha -1, whereas 3910kWhha -1 and 4752kWhha -1 were consumed under conventional farming, i.e. 6% higher energy inputs were used on conventional farming than RB farming system. Average energy ratios of 6.3 and 4.6 were achieved under the RB and conventional farming systems, respectively.The main conclusion of the study is that in RB farming system, water, seed and fertilizer energies applied were properly utilized but in the conventional (basin) system some parts of the applied energies vanished due to many reasons. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Rashid A.,Gomal University
Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control | Year: 2014

A pseudo-spectral method based on Legendre polynomial is used to solve two-dimensional (2D) sine-Gordon (SG) equation. A set of nonlinear system are generated by applying pseudo-spectral method to discrete version of the problem. The unknown function based on Kronecker product is introduced, The differential operational matrix is solved with such function. Numerical results are displayed to show the efficiency of the present method.


Ramzan F.,Gomal University | Khan M.A.,Gomal University | Ramzan M.H.,Khyber Medical University
Endocrine | Year: 2014

The discovery that kisspeptin was critical for normal fertility in all mammalian species including humans, ushered in a new chapter in our understanding of the control of GnRH secretion. Kisspeptin, the product of the KISS1 gene, plays an essential role in the regulation of spermatogenesis acting primarily at the hypothalamic level of the gonadotropic axis. Among the many identified substances in human semen, fructose is becoming increasingly significant. Fructose is synthesized and secreted by the seminal vesicles. Its synthesis is regulated by androgens and it is correlated directly with the levels of testosterone. Dose dependent degeneration of seminal vesicle has been described following intraperitoneal kisspeptin treatment; however, effects of kisspeptin administration on the levels of seminal fructose remain elusive till date. The present study, therefore, addresses the effects of 12-day administration of kisspeptin on seminal fructose levels in male mice. Kisspeptin-10 was administered intraperitoneally at different dosage concentrations (1 μg, 1 ng, and 10 ρg) to adult male mice, twice daily for 12 days. Seminal fructose levels were studied photometrically after 12 days of treatment. At the end of the treatment, seminal fructose levels decreased significantly after all tested doses. Chronic intermittent kisspeptin-10 administration negatively regulates seminal fructose levels in adult male mice. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Amin A.,Gomal University
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

The rational drug prescribing practice is an important health concern around the globe that not only interferes patient's life but also the socioeconomic issues. The aim of current study was to evaluate the rational use of drug, prescribing behaviour of consultant physicians, role of medical team members in irrational therapy and form the basis for providing necessary information to the policy makers. This cross-sectional study was conducted involving a set of 340 medication orders containing about 1,755 medications prescribed to patients in DHQ Teaching Hospital DI Khan, Pakistan from March to July 2009. The WHO operational package for monitoring and assessing country pharmaceutical situations indicators were used for data collection. Among drugs prescribed per average encounter, 75% were dispensed from hospital pharmacy. Generally about 22.3% encounters of overdosing, 16.16% drug duplication, 24.25% drug-drug interactions, 3.5% adverse drug effects and 3.8% cases of contraindications were recorded. The proportion of consultations with antibiotics and injectables prescribed was 80% and 57% respectively. Likewise not less than 70% patients were prescribed NSAIDS, 67% steroids, 55% vitamin supplements, and 34% oral re-hydration solutions. Minimum 5 drugs per prescription were recorded and 70% of prescriptions were reported with high cost of therapy. The drug practice among hospitalised patients was clearly irrational accompanied by high levels of medication error. An accurate prescribing decision, appropriate treatment, and rational use of drugs are major needs of the day to ensure safe medication practice.


The miscibility of polystyrene and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) blend in tetrahydrofuran was investigated by viscometric, density, and refractometric methods over an extended range of concentration, composition, and temperature. The miscibility of the polymer blend was investigated on the basis of the sign of the interaction parameters α, β, μ, ΔB, and Δ[η]m. The results from the viscosity method were correlated with the miscibility data obtained for the same blend by refractive index and density methods. These investigations indicated that the examined blend was immiscible over the investigated composition and temperature range. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


With decreasing availability of water for agriculture and increasing demand for rice production, an optimum use of irrigation water and phosphorus may guarantee sustainable rice production. Field experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to investigate the effect of phosphorus and irrigation levels on yield, water productivity (WP), phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and income of low land rice. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements replicated four times. Main plot consisted of five phosphorus levels, viz. 0 (P0), 50 (P50), 100 (P100), 150 (P150), and 200 (P200) kg/hm2, while subplots contained of irrigation times, i.e. 8 (I8), 10 (I10), 12 (I12), and 14 (I14) irrigation levels, each with a water depth of 7.5 cm. Mean values revealed that P150 in combination with I10 produced the highest paddy yield (9.8 t/hm2) and net benefit (1 231.8 US$/hm2) among all the treatments. Phosphorus enhanced WP when applied in appropriate combination with irrigation level. The highest mean WP [13.3 kg/(hm2·mm)] could be achieved at P150 with I8 and decreased with increase in irrigation level, while the highest mean PUE (20.1 kg/kg) could be achieved at P100 with I10 and diminished with higher P levels. The overall results indicate that P150 along with I10 was the best combination for sustainable rice cultivation in silty clay soil. © 2013 China National Rice Research Institute.


Baloch I.B.,Gomal University | Baloch M.K.,Gomal University
Natural Product Research | Year: 2012

The aerial parts of Euphorbia cornigera Boiss., on extraction with MeOH, yielded new bio-active constituents (1, 2) and known compounds (3 and 4) after MTT cytotoxicity assay-guided fractionation and chromatographic separation were conducted. From the aerial parts of E. cornigera Boiss., new bio-active constituents were extracted in methanol. The extract was partitioned in different organic solvents and the ethylacetate-soluble portion was subjected to Craig's distribution. The MTT cytotoxicity assay-guided chromatographic separation yielded four (1-4), out of which two (1, 2) were new and two known (3, 4) bio-active compounds, and they are reported for the first time from this source. Their structure and relative stereochemistry were established by analysing spectroscopic and mass measurement data. The isolates were named as: 13-O-[(2Z,4E,6Z)]-deca-2,4,6-trienoylingenol (1), 13-O-(2Z,4E,6Z)-deca-2,4,6- trienoyl-20-O-angeloylingenol (2), 13-O-dodecanoyl-20-O-hexanoylingenol (3) and 3-O-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-dodecanoyl-20-O-hexadecanoylingenol (4). Literature revealed that compounds 1 and 2 are new metabolites, while 3 and 4 are known, and are reported for the first time from this source. Cytotoxicities of isolates were evaluated in terms of IC50 against RAW and HT-29 cell lines through MTT assay using ambrucin hydrochloride as a control. Compound 3 showed more activity than control, while 1, 2 and 4 were moderate. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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