Golestan University of Medical Sciences

www.goums.ac.ir
Gorgan, Iran
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Veghari G.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Research in Health Sciences | Year: 2013

related factors based on three ethnic groups among primary school children in north of Iran in 2010. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out through multistage cluster random sampling on 5698 subjects (2505 Fars-native, 2154 Turkman, and 1039 Sistani) in 112 schools. Well-trained staffs completed the questionnaire and measured students' weight and height. Malnutrition estimated the Z-score less than -2SD for underweight, stunting and wasting were calculated using the cutoffs from WHO references. Results: Generally, malnutrition was observed in 3.20%, 4.93% and 5.13% based on underweight, stunting and wasting respectively. It was more common in girls than in boys and in Sistani than in other ethnic groups. The correlation between malnutrition based on underweight and stunting and ethnicity was statisti-cally significant (P=0.001). Results of logistic regression analyses showed that the risk of malnutrition was in rural area 1.34 times more than urban area, in girls 1.17 times more than boys, in Sistani ethnic group 1.82 times more than Fars-native ethnic group, in low economic families 2.01 times more than high economic families. Conclusion: Underweight, stunting and wasting are the health problems in primary school children in north of Iran with a higher prevalence in girls, in rural areas, and in Sistani ethnic group.


Mansourian A.R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Iodine is in the crucial parts of two hormones of T4 and T3 produced by the thyroid glands which are essential for all the aspects of human metabolisms. It is demonstrated that iodine deficiency can be considered as sole cause of many thyroid abnormalities including mental disorders. Iodine deficiency of sufficient degree to cause hypothyroidism during fetus life and early infancy will be accompanied with brain abnormality possibly to the stage of mental retardation. The iodine deficiency among subjects in their early stage of childhood is not as severe as those in their fetus or infancy. In adult subjects the sever iodine deficiency can be also associated with mental disorders due to the direct side effects of hypothyroidism occurred by lack of iodine. The clinical manifestation of iodine deficiency show itself with psychological disorders in adult subjects. The status of iodine within blood can be evaluated through measurement of urinary iodine level and the low urinary concentration is an indicative of hypothyroidism. Mental retardation and brain damage due to iodine deficiency can be prevented if iodine supplementation prescribed duly on time. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Mansourian A.R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Thyroid hormones play an important role on the cardiovascular systems and thyroid disorder ultimately have a profound adverse effects on myocardium and vascular functions. There are extensive reports on the role of overt thyroid dysfunction which adversely can modify the cardiovascular metabolism but even at the present of some controversial reports, the subclinical thyroid disorders are able also to manipulate cardiovascular system to some extent. The aim of this study is to review the cardiovascular disorders accompanied with subclinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that adverse effect of thyroid malfunction on myocardium and vascular organs are through the direct role of thyroid hormone and dyslipidemia on heart muscle cells at nuclear level and vascular system, respectively. It seems many cardiovascular disorders initially would not have been occurred in the first place if the thyroid of affected person had functioned properly, therefore thyroid function tests should be one of a prior laboratory examinations in cardiovascular disorders. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Mansourian A.R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Thyroid disorders usually associated with lipid abnormalities. Overt hypothyroidism is a state with thyroid hormone deficiency. Sub clinical hypothyroidism is defined as condition, in which thyroid stimulating hormone concentration elevated when serum thyroid hormones are at normal levels. Whether sub-clinical hypothyroidism associated with lipid alteration, it is the main concept behind this study. Although, in this study, we found cases with normal thyroxin and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone are common, but whether the sub-clinical hypothyroidism finally converted to overt hypothyroidism are not universally accepted. The findings also indicated subjects with sub-clinical hypothyroidism usually are accompanied with dyslipidemia and in general the total cholesterol level is higher among sub-clinical hypothyroid patients, with eventual risk of arthrosclerosis. This study indicated that there is not a common findings to support the benefit of thyroxin therapy in sub-clinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that it seems sub-clinical hypothyroidism is a common thyroid abnormality which can be diagnosed by the medical diagnostic laboratory through thyroid function test and it is mainly accompanied with lipid disorder. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Mansourian A.R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

This literature review was conducted to summarize the main points of maternal thyroid function tests, with particular attention in the first trimester of pregnancy which accompanied with significant biochemical and metabolic alteration. The evaluation of thyroid function of either hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism should be assessed by determination of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), Iodine and Thyroid Autoantibodies. Glomerular filtration rate is increased during pregnancy; therefore iodine deficiency should be evaluated during the pregnancy to prevent hypothyroidism. The role which can be played by Human Chronic Gonadotropin (hCG) on stimulating the thyroid gland to become over-active was investigated. Serum level of thyroglobulin (Tg) and Thyroxin Binding Globulin (TBG) should be assessed for proper assessments of thyroid gland during pregnancy. Thyroid function tests during first-trimester of pregnancy and particularly the reference interval for thyroid function tests for pregnant women in each region has to be established, to prevent mis-diagnosis and irreversible mental and physical adverse affect for growing fetus. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Mansourian A.R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a vital thyrocyte membrane protein in the thyroid gland. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) which is a pituitary hormone is the main stimulator of thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, it binds with high affinity to the TSHR through weak bonds including hydrophobic, ionic, hydrogen bonds and trigger the initial steps in thyroid gland stimulation to produce the related hormones. This study was carried out at department of biochemistry of Golestan university of medical sciences. All the related articles related to TSHR modification happened due to mutations and any other alterations which affect the level of TSH-TSHR complex were studied and the main points were extracted out of the pile of information and were organized as present review. TSH-TSHR is the initial and vital step of a long process of thyroid hormone production within the thyroid gland. Any alteration on the TSH-TSHR affinity which may happen due to the direct effect of TSHR modification eventually lead to the serious adverse effects of either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism if the TSH-TSHR level are suppressed or elevated, respectively. The prime cause of the thyroid disorders relay on the possible modification on the biochemical structure of TSHR with subsequent alteration on the level of TSH-TSHR complex. TSHR mutation accompanied by biochemical modification, unable it to bind properly to TSH. In some other conditions such mutation leave a TSHR with either of higher affinity towards to TSH or even TSHR which can be activated in the absence of TSH. The structural modification of TSHR and alteration in the level of TSH-TSHR in the thyroid gland eventually lead to thyroid disorders either of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Mansourian A.R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Tetraidothyronine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps: active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin (Tg) to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine (MIT) and diiodothyrosine (DIT) on Tg. Oxidized iodine and tyrosyle residues which are an aromatic amino acids are integral part of T4 and T3. The thyroid iodine deficiency of either dietary, thyroid malfunction, or disorder of hypothalamus and pituitary to produce enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), eventually lead to hypothyroidism with sever side effects. Iodine oxidation is the initial step for thyroid hormone synthesis within thyroid, is mediated by thyroperoxidase enzyme (TPO), which itself is activated by TSH required for production of MIT and DIT. T4 and T3 are subsequently are synthesized on Tg following MIT and DIT coupling reaction. Thyroid hormones eventually produced and released into circulation through Tg pinocytosis from follicular space and subsequent lysozomal function, a process again stimulated by TSH. The production of T4 and T3 are highly regulated externally by a negative feed-back interrelation between serum T4, T3 and TSH and internally by the elevated iodine within thyroid gland. It is believed the extra iodine concentration within thyroid gland control thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibition of the TPO and hydrogen peroxide (H202) formation which is also an essential factor of iodine oxidation, via a complex mechanism. In healthy subjects the entire procedures of T4 and T3 synthesis re-start again following a drop in serum T4 and T3 concentration. On conditions of thyroid disorders, which caused by the distruption of either of above mechanisms, thyroid hormone deficiency and related clinical manifestations eventually begin to show themselves. © Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Mansourian A.R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Thyrotoxicosis exhibit collective clinical manifestation, caused by excessive serum thyroid hormones particularity thyroxin. The clinical signs and symptoms included general alteration of metabolic process leading to weight loss fatigue and weakness and some specific disorders such as cardiovascular, neuromuscular reproductive gastrointestinal dermatological and bone disorders. The diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis relay on the thyroid function test carried out by the laboratory serum measurement of thyroxin, triidothyuronin and thyroid stimulating hormones accompanied by other para-medical examinations suggested by clinicians and endociologicst. In thyrotoxicosis serum level of thyroid hormones and thyroxin in particular elevated accompanied by pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone suppression reaching to undetectable level in sever thyrotoxicosis. Among the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis are, thyroid autoimmunitiy diseases thyroid toxic, adenoma toxic nodular and multinodular hyperthyroidism. The main aim behind this review is to explore the clinical manifestation, the causative factors, diagnosis, metabolic disorder occur due to thyrotoxicosis. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Tajbakhsh R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013

Chronic renal disorders have a progressive course in most cases, and finally result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the mainstays in the treatment of these patients. Disturbance in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism and alteration of serum levels of parathormone (PTH) are observed in these patients. One of the most common cutaneous manifestations in patients on HD is pruritus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pruritus and serum concentrations of Ca, P and PTH in patients with chronic renal disease. This analytic, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on 120 patients on HD at the Fifth-Azar Hospital in Gorgan, Iran, in 2010. Information related to the patients, including age, gender, pruritus, time of pruritus and duration on dialysis, was extracted from questionnaires. Serum concentrations of intact PTH, Ca and P were measured. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test and SPSS-16 software. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the 120 study patients, 50% were male and the mean age (±SD) was 49 ± 12.3 years. Sixty percent of the patients had pruritus, of whom 33.3% had PTH levels above the normal range. Among the 40% of the patients who did not have pruritus, 39.6% had PTH levels higher than the normal levels. The mean serum Ca and P levels were 8.44 ± 1.65 mg/dL and 5.48 ± 1.81 mg/dL, respectively. The mean (±SD) Ca-P product was 55.46 ± 47.16 and the mean PTH concentration was 274.34 ± 286.53 pg/mL. No significant association was found between pruritus and age, sex, serum PTH and P levels as well as Ca-P product. However, the association between serum Ca levels and pruritus was significant (P = 0.03). Our study showed that most patients with pruritus had serum Ca levels in the abnormal range (lower or higher), and there was no significant correlation between serum iPTH level and pruritis. Thus, good control of serum Ca levels is important to reduce pruritus in these patients.


Eslami L.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are common causes of elevated liver enzymes in the general population. NASH and to some extent NAFLD have been associated with increased liver-related and all-cause mortality. No effective treatment is yet available. Recent reports have shown that the use of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in patients with elevated plasma aminotransferases may result in normalisation of these liver enzymes. Whether this is a consistent effect or whether it can lead to improved clinical outcomes beyond normalisation of abnormal liver enzymes is not clear. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of statins (that is, lovastatin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin) on all-cause and liver-related mortality, adverse events, and histological, biochemical, and imaging responses in patients with NAFLD or NASH. We performed a computerised literature search in the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded up to March 2013. We did fully recursive searches from the reference lists of all retrieved relevant publications to ensure a complete and comprehensive search of the published literature. We did not apply any restrictions regarding language of publication or publication date. All randomised clinical trials using statins as the primary treatment for NAFLD or NASH versus no treatment, placebo, or other hypolipidaemic agents. Data were extracted, and risk of bias of each trial was assessed independently by two or more review authors. Meta-analyses were performed whenever possible. Review Manager 5.2 was used. When the described search method was used and the eligibility criteria of the search results were applied, 653 records were found. Only two of these were randomised clinical trials that were considered eligible for inclusion. We assessed both trials as trials with high risk of bias. One of the trials was a pilot trial in which 16 participants with biopsy-proven NASH were randomised to receive simvastatin 40 mg (n = 10) or placebo (n = 6) once daily for 12 months. No statistically significant improvement in the aminotransferase level was seen in the simvastatin group compared with the placebo group. Liver histology was not significantly affected by simvastatin.The other trial had three arms. The trial compared atorvastatin 20 mg daily (n = 63) versus fenofibrate 200 mg daily (n = 62) versus a group treated with a combination of the two interventions (n = 61). There were no statistically significant differences between any of the three intervention groups regarding the week 54 mean activity levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase. The triglyceride levels seemed higher in the fenofibrate group compared with the atorvastatin group. Liver histology was not assessed in this trial. The presence of biochemical and ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD seemed to be higher in the fenofibrate group compared with the atorvastatin group (58% versus 33%). Three patients discontinued treatment due to myalgia and elevated serum creatine kinase activity; one from the atorvastatin group and two from the combination group. Another patient from the atorvastatin group discontinued treatment due to alanine aminotransferase activity that was over three times the upper normal limit.No data for all-cause mortality and hepatic-related mortality were reported in the included trials. Based on the findings of this review, which included two trials with high risk of bias and a small numbers of participants, it seems possible that statins may improve serum aminotransferase levels as well as ultrasound findings. Neither of the trials reported on possible histological changes, liver-related morbidity or mortality. Trials with larger sample sizes and low risk of bias are necessary before we may suggest statins as an effective treatment for patients with NASH. However, as statins can improve the adverse outcomes of other conditions commonly associated with NASH (for example, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome), their use in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis may be justified.

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