London, United Kingdom
London, United Kingdom

Goldsmiths, University of London is is the operational name for Goldsmiths' College, a public research university located in London, United Kingdom which specialises in the arts, humanities and social science, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It was founded in 1891 as Goldsmiths' Technical and Recreative Institute by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths in New Cross, London. It was acquired by the University of London in 1904 and was renamed Goldsmiths' College. Wikipedia.


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Gruzelier J.H.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

In continuing this three-part review on validation of EEG-neurofeedback for optimal performance evidence is first provided for feedback influences on the CNS, the integration of EEG with fMRI methodology as well as anatomical correlates. Then whereas Parts I and II reviewed the considerable behavioural outcome gains and evidence for their feedback causation, part III lays bare the not inconsiderable methodological and theoretical conundrums. Cardinal assumptions amongst practitioners about specificity of topography, behavioural outcome and frequency bands are critically examined. The hitherto mostly neglected nature of feedback learning is reviewed including evidence of within- and between-session and successive baseline learning; the enduring impact on the tonic EEG; implications for experimental design, individual differences and the trainer-participant interface; distinguishing between the learning and mastery of self-regulation; connectivity, ratio, unidirectional and multimodal feedback protocols. A thorough grounding in human neuroscience plus interpersonal skills are considered prerequisites for scientific advancement and ethically sound practice. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Gruzelier J.H.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Stewart L.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2011

The ability to make sense of the music in our environment involves sophisticated cognitive mechanisms that, for most people, are acquired effortlessly and in early life. A special population of individuals, with a disorder termed congenital amusia, report lifelong difficulties in this regard. Exploring the nature of this developmental disorder provides a window onto the cognitive architecture of typical musical processing, as well as allowing a study of the relationship between processing of music and other domains, such as language. The present article considers findings concerning pitch discrimination, pitch memory, contour processing, experiential aspects of music listening in amusia, and emerging evidence concerning the neurobiology of the disorder. A simplified model of melodic processing is outlined, and possible loci of the cognitive deficit are discussed. © 2011 The Experimental Psychology Society.


Gruzelier J.H.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

As a continuation of a review of evidence of the validity of cognitive/affective gains following neurofeedback in healthy participants, including correlations in support of the gains being mediated by feedback learning (Gruzelier, 2014a), the focus here is on the impact on creativity, especially in the performing arts including music, dance and acting. The majority of research involves alpha/theta (A/T), sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) and heart rate variability (HRV) protocols. There is evidence of reliable benefits from A/T training with advanced musicians especially for creative performance, and reliable benefits from both A/T and SMR training for novice music performance in adults and in a school study with children with impact on creativity, communication/presentation and technique. Making the SMR ratio training context ecologically relevant for actors enhanced creativity in stage performance, with added benefits from the more immersive training context. A/T and HRV training have benefitted dancers. The neurofeedback evidence adds to the rapidly accumulating validation of neurofeedback, while performing arts studies offer an opportunity for ecological validity in creativity research for both creative process and product. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Skeggs B.,Goldsmiths, University of London
British Journal of Sociology | Year: 2014

We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.


Blackwell T.,Goldsmiths, University of London
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2012

The dynamic update rule of particle swarm optimization is formulated as a second-order stochastic difference equation and general relations are derived for search focus, search spread, and swarm stability at stagnation. The relations are applied to three particular particle swarm optimization (PSO) implementations, the standard PSO of Clerc and Kennedy, a PSO with discrete recombination, and the Bare Bones swarm. The simplicity of the Bare Bones swarm facilitates theoretical analysis and a further no-collapse condition is derived. A series of experimental trials confirms that Bare Bones situated at the edge of collapse is comparable to other PSOs, and that performance can be still further improved with the use of an adaptive distribution. It is conjectured that, subject to spread, stability and no-collapse, there is a single encompassing particle swarm paradigm, and that an important aspect of parameter tuning within any particular manifestation is to remove any deleterious behavior that ensues from the dynamics. © 2012 IEEE.


Gruzelier J.H.,Goldsmiths, University of London
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2014

The common assumption in EEG-neurofeedback is one of functional specificity of the trained spectral bands, though it has been posited that only a nonspecific generalised learning process may be engaged. Earlier we reported differential effects on attention in healthy participants measured with continuous performance tests and the P300, following training of the sensory-motor rhythm band (SMR, 12-15. Hz) compared with the adjacent beta1 (15-18. hz) band. Here previously unreported results are presented with phenomenological data from an activation checklist in support of the putative calming effect of SMR neurofeedback. While within sessions both protocols induced tiredness, this was paralleled by an increase in calmness only following SMR training. The differential effect on mood was theoretically consistent and extends evidence of cognitive functional specificity with neurofeedback to affective processes. © 2012 .


Gaver W.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2012

In this essay, I explore several facets of research through design in order to contribute to discussions about how the approach should develop. The essay has three parts. In the first, I review two influential theories from the Philosophy of Science to help reflect on the nature of design theory, concluding that research through design is likely to produce theories that are provisional, contingent, and aspirational. In the second part, I discuss three possible interpretations for the diversity of approaches to research through design, and suggest that this variation need not be seen as a sign of inadequate standards or a lack of cumulative progress in the field, but may be natural for a generative endeavour. In the final section, I suggest that, rather than aiming to develop increasingly comprehensive theories of design, practice based research might better view theory as annotation of realised design examples, and particularly portfolios of related pieces. Overall, I suggest that the design research community should be wary of impulses towards convergence and standardisation, and instead take pride in its aptitude for exploring and speculating, particularising and diversifying, and - especially - its ability to manifest the results in the form of new, conceptually rich artefacts. Copyright 2012 ACM.


Gabrys J.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2014

A new wave of smart-city projects is underway that proposes to deploy sensor-based ubiquitous computing across urban infrastructures and mobile devices to achieve greater sustainability. But in what ways do these smart and sustainable cities give rise to distinct material-political arrangements and practices that potentially delimit urban 'citizenship' to a series of actions focused on monitoring and managing data? And what are the implications of computationally organized distributions of environmental governance that are programmed for distinct functionalities and are managed by corporate and state actors that engage with cities as datasets to be manipulated? In this paper I discuss the ways in which smart-city proposals might be understood through processes of environmentality or the distribution of governance within and through environments and environmental technologies. I do this by working through an early and formative smart-city design proposal, the Connected Sustainable Cities (CSC) project, developed by MIT and Cisco within the Connected Urban Development initiative between 2007 and 2008. Revisiting and reworking Foucault's notion of environmentality in the context of the CSC smart-city design proposal, I advance an approach to environmentality that deals not with the production of environmental subjects, but rather with the specific spatial- material distribution and relationality of power through environments, technologies, and ways of life. By updating and advancing environmentality through a discussion of computational urbanisms, I consider how practices and operations of citizenship emerge that are a critical part of the imaginings of smart and sustainable cities. This reversioning of environmentality through the smart city recasts who or what counts as a 'citizen' and attends to the ways in which citizenship is articulated environmentally through the distribution and feedback of monitoring and urban data practices, rather than through governable subjects or populations. © 2014 Pion and its Licensors.


Livingstone S.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Smith P.K.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2014

Aims and scope The usage of mobile phones and the internet by young people has increased rapidly in the past decade, approaching saturation by middle childhood in developed countries. Besides many benefits, online content, contact or conduct can be associated with risk of harm; most research has examined whether aggressive or sexual harms result from this. We examine the nature and prevalence of such risks, and evaluate the evidence regarding the factors that increase or protect against harm resulting from such risks, so as to inform the academic and practitioner knowledge base. We also identify the conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in this relatively new body of research, and highlight the pressing research gaps. Methods Given the pace of change in the market for communication technologies, we review research published since 2008. Following a thorough bibliographic search of literature from the key disciplines (psychology, sociology, education, media studies and computing sciences), the review concentrates on recent, high quality empirical studies, contextualizing these within an overview of the field. Findings Risks of cyberbullying, contact with strangers, sexual messaging ('sexting') and pornography generally affect fewer than one in five adolescents. Prevalence estimates vary according to definition and measurement, but do not appear to be rising substantially with increasing access to mobile and online technologies, possibly because these technologies pose no additional risk to offline behaviour, or because any risks are offset by a commensurate growth in safety awareness and initiatives. While not all online risks result in self-reported harm, a range of adverse emotional and psychosocial consequences is revealed by longitudinal studies. Useful for identifying which children are more vulnerable than others, evidence reveals several risk factors: personality factors (sensation-seeking, low self-esteem, psychological difficulties), social factors (lack of parental support, peer norms) and digital factors (online practices, digital skills, specific online sites). Conclusions Mobile and online risks are increasingly intertwined with pre-existing (offline) risks in children's lives. Research gaps, as well as implications for practitioners, are identified. The challenge is now to examine the relations among different risks, and to build on the risk and protective factors identified to design effective interventions. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

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