London, United Kingdom

Goldsmiths, University of London
London, United Kingdom

Goldsmiths, University of London is is the operational name for Goldsmiths' College, a public research university located in London, United Kingdom which specialises in the arts, humanities and social science, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It was founded in 1891 as Goldsmiths' Technical and Recreative Institute by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths in New Cross, London. It was acquired by the University of London in 1904 and was renamed Goldsmiths' College. Wikipedia.

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Neyland D.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Theory, Culture & Society | Year: 2015

This short paper acts as a comment on Totaro and Ninno's ‘The Concept of Algorithm as an Interpretative Key of Modern Rationality’ and also introduces some new avenues for exploring the organization of algorithms. In recent discussion of algorithms, concerns have been expressed regarding the apparent power, agential capacity and control that algorithms command of our lives (Beer, 2009; Lash, 2007; Slavin, 2011; Spring, 2011; Stalder and Mayer, 2009). The logic of order, if there is one within these discussions, appears somewhat distinct from the metaphor of recursion suggested by Totaro and Ninno. Using this distinction as a starting point, the paper explores alternative metaphors from which to begin an engagement with political questions of algorithmic ordering. The paper argues for engaging with associative metaphors of: algorithmic account, fluidity, absent-presence and sociality. The paper explores these associative metaphors through an important set of emerging questions regarding organizing algorithms: who and what is included or excluded, on what terms and to what ends?. © 2014, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.

Luft C.D.B.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2014

Different levels of feedback, from sensory signals to verbal advice, are needed not only for learning new skills, but also for monitoring performance. A great deal of research has focused on the electrophysiological correlates of feedback processing and how they relate to good learning. In this paper, studies on the EEG correlates of learning from feedback are reviewed. The main objective is to discuss these findings whilst also considering some key theoretical aspects of learning. The learning processes, its operational definition and the feedback characteristics are discussed and used as reference for integrating the findings in the literature. The EEG correlates of feedback processing for learning using various analytical approaches are discussed, including ERPs, oscillations and inter-site synchronization. How these EEG responses to feedback are related to learning is discussed, highlighting the gaps in the literature and suggesting future directions for understanding the neural underpinnings of learning from feedback. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

De Jesus P.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2016

In their recent book Radicalizing Enactivism. Basic minds without content, Dan Hutto and Erik Myin (H&M) make two important criticisms of what they call autopoietic enactivism (AE). These two criticisms are that AE harbours tacit representationalists commitments and that it has too liberal a conception of cognition. Taking the latter claim as its main focus, this paper explores the theoretical underpinnings of AE in order to tease out how it might respond to H&M. In so doing it uncovers some reasons which not only appear to warrant H&M’s initial claims but also seem to point to further uneasy tensions within the AE framework. The paper goes beyond H&M by tracing the roots of these criticisms and apparent tensions to phenomenology and the role it plays in AE’s distinctive conception of strong life-mind continuity. It is highlighted that this phenomenological dimension of AE contains certain unexamined anthropomorphic and anthropogenic leanings which do not sit comfortably within its wider commitment to life-mind continuity. In light of this analysis it is suggested that AE will do well to rethink this role or ultimately run the risk of remaining theoretically unstable. The paper aims to contribute to the ongoing theoretical development of AE by highlighting potential internal tensions within its framework which need to be addressed in order for it to continue to evolve as a coherent paradigm. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kuhn G.,Goldsmiths, University of London | Rensink R.A.,University of British Columbia
Cognition | Year: 2016

Our perceptual experience is largely based on prediction, and as such can be influenced by knowledge of forthcoming events. This susceptibility is commonly exploited by magicians. In the Vanishing Ball Illusion, for example, a magician tosses a ball in the air a few times and then pretends to throw the ball again, whilst secretly concealing it in his hand. Most people claim to see the ball moving upwards and then vanishing, even though it did not leave the magician's hand (Kuhn & Land, 2006; Triplett, 1900). But what exactly can such illusions tell us? We investigated here whether seeing a real action before the pretend one was necessary for the Vanishing Ball Illusion. Participants either saw a real action immediately before the fake one, or only a fake action. Nearly one third of participants experienced the illusion with the fake action alone, while seeing the real action beforehand enhanced this effect even further. Our results therefore suggest that perceptual experience relies both on long-term knowledge of what an action should look like, as well as exemplars from the immediate past. In addition, whilst there was a forward displacement of perceived location in perceptual experience, this was not found for oculomotor responses, consistent with the proposal that two separate systems are involved in visual perception. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Gruzelier J.H.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

In continuing this three-part review on validation of EEG-neurofeedback for optimal performance evidence is first provided for feedback influences on the CNS, the integration of EEG with fMRI methodology as well as anatomical correlates. Then whereas Parts I and II reviewed the considerable behavioural outcome gains and evidence for their feedback causation, part III lays bare the not inconsiderable methodological and theoretical conundrums. Cardinal assumptions amongst practitioners about specificity of topography, behavioural outcome and frequency bands are critically examined. The hitherto mostly neglected nature of feedback learning is reviewed including evidence of within- and between-session and successive baseline learning; the enduring impact on the tonic EEG; implications for experimental design, individual differences and the trainer-participant interface; distinguishing between the learning and mastery of self-regulation; connectivity, ratio, unidirectional and multimodal feedback protocols. A thorough grounding in human neuroscience plus interpersonal skills are considered prerequisites for scientific advancement and ethically sound practice. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Gruzelier J.H.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gruzelier J.H.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

As a continuation of a review of evidence of the validity of cognitive/affective gains following neurofeedback in healthy participants, including correlations in support of the gains being mediated by feedback learning (Gruzelier, 2014a), the focus here is on the impact on creativity, especially in the performing arts including music, dance and acting. The majority of research involves alpha/theta (A/T), sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) and heart rate variability (HRV) protocols. There is evidence of reliable benefits from A/T training with advanced musicians especially for creative performance, and reliable benefits from both A/T and SMR training for novice music performance in adults and in a school study with children with impact on creativity, communication/presentation and technique. Making the SMR ratio training context ecologically relevant for actors enhanced creativity in stage performance, with added benefits from the more immersive training context. A/T and HRV training have benefitted dancers. The neurofeedback evidence adds to the rapidly accumulating validation of neurofeedback, while performing arts studies offer an opportunity for ecological validity in creativity research for both creative process and product. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Skeggs B.,Goldsmiths, University of London
British Journal of Sociology | Year: 2014

We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

Blackwell T.,Goldsmiths, University of London
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2012

The dynamic update rule of particle swarm optimization is formulated as a second-order stochastic difference equation and general relations are derived for search focus, search spread, and swarm stability at stagnation. The relations are applied to three particular particle swarm optimization (PSO) implementations, the standard PSO of Clerc and Kennedy, a PSO with discrete recombination, and the Bare Bones swarm. The simplicity of the Bare Bones swarm facilitates theoretical analysis and a further no-collapse condition is derived. A series of experimental trials confirms that Bare Bones situated at the edge of collapse is comparable to other PSOs, and that performance can be still further improved with the use of an adaptive distribution. It is conjectured that, subject to spread, stability and no-collapse, there is a single encompassing particle swarm paradigm, and that an important aspect of parameter tuning within any particular manifestation is to remove any deleterious behavior that ensues from the dynamics. © 2012 IEEE.

Gabrys J.,Goldsmiths, University of London
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2014

A new wave of smart-city projects is underway that proposes to deploy sensor-based ubiquitous computing across urban infrastructures and mobile devices to achieve greater sustainability. But in what ways do these smart and sustainable cities give rise to distinct material-political arrangements and practices that potentially delimit urban 'citizenship' to a series of actions focused on monitoring and managing data? And what are the implications of computationally organized distributions of environmental governance that are programmed for distinct functionalities and are managed by corporate and state actors that engage with cities as datasets to be manipulated? In this paper I discuss the ways in which smart-city proposals might be understood through processes of environmentality or the distribution of governance within and through environments and environmental technologies. I do this by working through an early and formative smart-city design proposal, the Connected Sustainable Cities (CSC) project, developed by MIT and Cisco within the Connected Urban Development initiative between 2007 and 2008. Revisiting and reworking Foucault's notion of environmentality in the context of the CSC smart-city design proposal, I advance an approach to environmentality that deals not with the production of environmental subjects, but rather with the specific spatial- material distribution and relationality of power through environments, technologies, and ways of life. By updating and advancing environmentality through a discussion of computational urbanisms, I consider how practices and operations of citizenship emerge that are a critical part of the imaginings of smart and sustainable cities. This reversioning of environmentality through the smart city recasts who or what counts as a 'citizen' and attends to the ways in which citizenship is articulated environmentally through the distribution and feedback of monitoring and urban data practices, rather than through governable subjects or populations. © 2014 Pion and its Licensors.

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