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Gniel J.,Golder Associates |
Bouazza A.,Monash University
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2010
Geogrid encasement has recently been investigated to provide an alternative and perhaps stiffer option to the now established method of geotextile encased columns (GECs). To construct geogrid encasement, the geogrid is typically rolled into a sleeve and welded using a specialized welding frame. However, the process is unlikely to be economical for site construction and therefore an alternative method of encasement construction was investigated in this paper. The technique comprises overlapping the geogrid encasement by a nominal amount and relying on interlock between the stone aggregate and section of overlap to provide a level of fixity similar to welding. A series of small-scale tests were initially used to investigate the technique, followed by medium-scale compression tests using different geogrids and typical stone column aggregates. The results of testing indicate that the "method of overlap" provides a simple and effective method of encasement construction, providing a level of fixity similar to welding. A full circumference of overlap should generally be adopted to achieve adequate fixity. Biaxial geogrids are best suited to the technique, with increased encasement stiffness resulting in increased column capacity and column stiffness. Higher strength geogrids are also more robust, providing a greater resistance to cutting from pieces of angular crushed rock. Site trials are recommended for final confirmation of the technique. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Chapman P.M.,Golder Associates
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2012
Global climate change is a reality that is rendering the concept of 'background conditions' meaningless. We can no longer attempt to maintain the environmental status quo. What we can do is to attempt to maintain ecosystem services despite climate-driven environmental change. There is a pressing need for proactive management that purposefully changes ecosystems to maintain ecosystem services before uncontrolled, detrimental changes occur. Such management would go beyond the bounds of current management efforts and could include, for example, introduction of species, bioengineering, and physical engineering. I suggest that this approach be applied first to coastal lagoons as they are clearly defined geographic areas where this approach can, hopefully, be demonstrated such that it can be applied more widely - when it is accepted, which unfortunately will most probably not occur until the adverse impacts of global climate change become much more apparent. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Sadrekarimi A.,Golder Associates
Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering | Year: 2011
Quay walls are one of the key elements of port and harbor facilities; however, their collapse and unexpected displacements during earthquakes have caused disastrous damage and economic consequences. Therefore, adequate design and assessing the seismic performance of waterfront quay walls continues to be a concern to the waterborne transportation industry. In this paper, the seismic displacement of broken-back quay walls is studied through eight reduced-scale shaking table model experiments. The experimental results indicate that backfill settlement is smaller in a region behind a broken-back quay wall in which coastal and port facilities located in this area would undergo less deformation and damage during earthquakes. The observations from the model tests also show that for walls on loose seabed materials, seabed softening may significantly contribute to quay wall horizontal displacement, and rotation. Moreover, the sliding displacements estimated using an improved sliding block model that incorporates the pseudostatic method of Mononobe-Okabe for lateral earth pressures, agree well with quay walls' sliding displacements measured in the shaking table model tests. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source
Chapman P.M.,Golder Associates
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012
Monitoring consists of repetitive data collection to determine trends in parameters monitored. Unfortunately, too often monitoring consists of "fishing expeditions" where data collection is justified after the fact rather than being based on a priori technically defensible and testable hypotheses. Monitoring conducted following legal (e.g., regulatory) stipulations is not always useful. Ideally, monitoring should be conducted to determine the current status of the parameters monitored, their temporal and spatial trends (to assist in predicting future status), and the possible need for management actions. The most effective and productive scientific monitoring is adaptive, and is based on assessment endpoints that comprise ecosystem services, in other words, the benefits of Nature to human beings. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.6.1.1 | Award Amount: 4.10M | Year: 2013
The main objective of the proposed project is to develop a generic UCG-CCS site characterisation workflow, and the accompanying technologies, which would address the dilemma faced by the proponents of reactor zone CO2 storage, and offer technological solutions to source sink mismatch issues that are likely to be faced in many coalfields. This objective will be achieved through integrated research into the field based technology knowledge gaps, such as cavity progression and geomechanics, potential groundwater contamination and subsidence impacts, together with research into process engineering solutions in order to assess the role/impact of site specific factors (coal type, depth/pressure, thickness, roof and floor rock strata, hydrology) and selected reagents on the operability of a given CO2 emission mitigation option in a coalfield. CO2 storage capacity on site for European and international UCG resources will be assessed and CO2 mitigation technologies based on end use of produced synthetic gas will be evaluated. The technology options identified will be evaluated with respect to local and full chain Life Cycle environmental impacts and costs. The project takes a radical and holistic approach to coupled UCG-CCS, and thus the site selection criteria for the coupled process, considering different end-uses of the produced synthetic gas, covering other options beyond power generation, and will evaluate novel approaches to UCG reagent use in order to optimise the whole process. This approach aims at minimising the need for on-site CO2 storage capacity as well as maximising the economic yield of UCG through value added end products, as well as power generation, depending on the local coalfield and geological conditions.