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Gniel J.,Golder Associates |
Bouazza A.,Monash University
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2010
Geogrid encasement has recently been investigated to provide an alternative and perhaps stiffer option to the now established method of geotextile encased columns (GECs). To construct geogrid encasement, the geogrid is typically rolled into a sleeve and welded using a specialized welding frame. However, the process is unlikely to be economical for site construction and therefore an alternative method of encasement construction was investigated in this paper. The technique comprises overlapping the geogrid encasement by a nominal amount and relying on interlock between the stone aggregate and section of overlap to provide a level of fixity similar to welding. A series of small-scale tests were initially used to investigate the technique, followed by medium-scale compression tests using different geogrids and typical stone column aggregates. The results of testing indicate that the "method of overlap" provides a simple and effective method of encasement construction, providing a level of fixity similar to welding. A full circumference of overlap should generally be adopted to achieve adequate fixity. Biaxial geogrids are best suited to the technique, with increased encasement stiffness resulting in increased column capacity and column stiffness. Higher strength geogrids are also more robust, providing a greater resistance to cutting from pieces of angular crushed rock. Site trials are recommended for final confirmation of the technique. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Chapman P.M.,Golder Associates
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2012
Global climate change is a reality that is rendering the concept of 'background conditions' meaningless. We can no longer attempt to maintain the environmental status quo. What we can do is to attempt to maintain ecosystem services despite climate-driven environmental change. There is a pressing need for proactive management that purposefully changes ecosystems to maintain ecosystem services before uncontrolled, detrimental changes occur. Such management would go beyond the bounds of current management efforts and could include, for example, introduction of species, bioengineering, and physical engineering. I suggest that this approach be applied first to coastal lagoons as they are clearly defined geographic areas where this approach can, hopefully, be demonstrated such that it can be applied more widely - when it is accepted, which unfortunately will most probably not occur until the adverse impacts of global climate change become much more apparent. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Chapman P.M.,Golder Associates
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012
Monitoring consists of repetitive data collection to determine trends in parameters monitored. Unfortunately, too often monitoring consists of "fishing expeditions" where data collection is justified after the fact rather than being based on a priori technically defensible and testable hypotheses. Monitoring conducted following legal (e.g., regulatory) stipulations is not always useful. Ideally, monitoring should be conducted to determine the current status of the parameters monitored, their temporal and spatial trends (to assist in predicting future status), and the possible need for management actions. The most effective and productive scientific monitoring is adaptive, and is based on assessment endpoints that comprise ecosystem services, in other words, the benefits of Nature to human beings. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.. Source
Golder Associates | Date: 2010-10-06
A method of mapping concentrations of airborne matter from an emission source of interest in an emission plume is provided. The method involves measuring airborne matter at one or more than one identified locations using an optical sensing instrument (OSI) operatively connected with one or more than one matter samplers and mounted on a vehicle. The one or more than one airborne matter samplers are passed through an airspace to be sampled, and one or more concentration measurements are obtained. Geographic positions and altitude values for each of the one or more identified locations are established, and a point concentration measurement for the airborne matter for each identified location determined. The concentration measurements are mapped relative to the geographic position and altitude values for each of the one or more identified locations to obtain an airborne matter concentration distribution map in one or more measurement surfaces through a cross-section or profile of the emission plume. The method further comprises a step of determining a representative wind velocity distribution at one or more measurement surfaces and calculating the mass flow rate of airborne matter across the measurement surface in mass per unit time.
Golder Associates | Date: 2011-03-30
A system for sampling a fluid includes a conduit having an inner surface with a substantially constant, unobstructed diameter between upstream and downstream points. A sample line having an inlet and outlet provides fluid communication outside of the conduit. An inlet port in the sample line is radially inward from the upstream point and faces substantially upstream inside the conduit. A sensor is in fluid communication with the sample line. A method for sampling a fluid includes providing fluid communication through a sample line to a conduit having an inner surface with a substantially constant, unobstructed diameter between upstream and downstream points, wherein the sample line has an inlet port radially inward from an upstream point and facing substantially upstream inside the conduit. The method further includes flowing at least a portion of the fluid through a sensor in fluid communication with the sample line.