Richmond, Australia
Richmond, Australia

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King D.,Monash University | King D.,Golder Assoc. Pty Ltd. | Bouazza A.,Monash University | Gniel J.,Golder Assoc. Pty Ltd. | Bui H.,Monash University
Australian Geomechanics Journal | Year: 2016

As part of the Regional Rail Link (RRL) project in Melbourne, Australia, a number of geosynthetic reinforced (GR) embankments with ground improvement were constructed where the rail alignment passes over the Coode Island Silt (CIS), a well-known soft soil encountered around inner Melbourne. To better understand the behaviour and performance of the load transfer platform (LTP) at the base of these embankments, a field case study has been undertaken which has seen an extensive array of instrumentation installed within the North Dynon embankment. This paper presents and describes a significant amount of field and laboratory data gathered as part of the geotechnical site characterisation of the instrumented areas. Based on this data a description of the compressibility and permeability of the CIS is presented and insight into the structured nature of the CIS is described. In addition, it is shown that a far better characterisation of soft soil behaviour can be gained through the use of more sophisticated oedometer testing techniques.


Barry-Macaulay D.,Golder Assoc. Pty. Ltd. | Bouazza A.,Monash University | Singh R.M.,Golder Assoc. Pty. Ltd. | Wang B.,Monash University
Australian Geomechanics Journal | Year: 2014

The thermal conductivity of soils and rocks is an important property for the design of thermally active ground structures such as geothermal energy foundations and borehole heat exchange systems. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of soils and rocks from around Melbourne, Australia. The thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of six soils were experimentally measured using a thermal needle probe and the thermal conductivity of three rock types were measured using a divided bar apparatus. Soil samples were tested at a wide range of moisture contents and densities. The results demonstrated that the thermal conductivity varied with soil moisture content, density, mineralogical composition and particle size and that volumetric heat capacity was strongly dependent on the moisture content of the soils. Rock samples were tested dry and water saturated. Rock samples demonstrated an improvement in thermal conductivity with an increase in density when dry. However, when water saturated, siltstone and sandstone rocks showed no significant correlation between density and thermal conductivity. This was attributed to both variations in mineralogy and anisotropy. The thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity data obtained from this study provides an initial dataset of soils and rocks thermal conductivities for the design of thermally active ground structures installed throughout Melbourne, Australia.


Wendt H.K.,University of The South Pacific | Weeks R.,James Cook University | Comley J.,Golder Assoc. Pty Ltd | Aalbersberg W.,University of The South Pacific
Pacific Conservation Biology | Year: 2016

Although conservation planning research has influenced conservation actions globally in the last two decades, successful implementation of systematic conservation plans in regions where customary marine tenure exists has been minimal. In such regions, local community knowledge and understanding of socioeconomic realities may offer the best spatially explicit information for analysis, since required socioeconomic data are not available at scales relevant to conservation planning. Here we describe the process undertaken by the Kadavu Yaubula Management Support Team, a team of researchers from The University of the South Pacific and the local communities to assess whether systematic conservation planning tools can be effectively applied and useful in a customary governance context, using a case study from Fiji. Through a participatory approach and with the aim of meeting local-scale conservation and fisheries needs, a spatial conservation planning tool, Marxan with Zones, was used to reconfigure a collection of locally designed marine protected areas in the province of Kadavu in order to achieve broader objectives. At the local scale, the real value of such tools has been in the process of identifying and conceptualising management issues, working with communities to collate data through participatory techniques, and in engaging communities in management decision making. The output and use of the tool has been of secondary value. The outcome was invaluable for developing marine protected area network design approaches that combine traditional knowledge with ecological features in a manner appropriate to a Melanesian context. © CSIRO 2016.


Stone R.,Golder Assoc. Pty Ltd.
International Journal of Mining Science and Technology | Year: 2016

There have been many design practices utilised within the coal mining industry to arrive at the minimum densities of primary ground support required during roadway development. This paper demonstrates the practical use of empirical databases, and focuses on the main drivers for ground support as demonstrated in conceptual models. Golder Associates' empirical databases used for ground support include a primary roof support database and a primary rib support database. Both are based on successful ground support designs installed in mines in Australia, the US, the UK, South Africa, New Zealand, and Europe. The term "successful" refers to those designs that were used on a repeated basis for the purpose of roadway development. The primary roof support database indicates that the major factors influencing successful roof support designs are roof competency, expressed as the coal mine roof rating (CMRR), and in situ stress. In regard to the primary rib support database, it is evident from the current database that the primary factors affecting the capacity of rib support required for a successful design are roadway height and depth of cover. These databases have been used to help determine the minimum primary ground support designs required at many mine sites in Australasia, Europe, and the US. This paper will demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of these databases at two selected mines in Australia and the US. In order to improve the primary rib support database, this paper will also propose a new rib deformation rating based on the addition of site specific coal strength data for the Australian mines. The proposed rating attempts to capture the main variables that define the behaviour of a buckling column. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of China University of Mining & Technology.


Srithar S.T.,Golder Assoc. Pty. Ltd.
Australian Geomechanics Journal | Year: 2014

This paper discusses the geotechnical engineering design aspects related to reactive basaltic clays in Victoria. The issues associated with earthworks, such as the effect of placement moisture content, strength of the clays and testing of the earthworks are also discussed. Possible measures to reduce the future shrink and swell movements, including lime stabilisation are discussed. The required amount of lime, the effect of addition of lime on plasticity, California Bearing Ratio and permeability are presented and discussed. Durability of lime stabilisation is also briefly discussed. Although the results and discussions presented are specific for basaltic clays in Victoria, the issues and concepts discussed are applicable for reactive clays in general.

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