Gold Coast, Australia
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Imteaz M.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Hossain I.,Swinburne University of Technology | Hossain M.I.,Gold Coast City Council
International Journal of Water | Year: 2014

This paper presents calibration of a catchment water quality model for continuous simulation of the water quality parameters from a catchment to the catchment outlet. The model is an integration of two sub-models: The hydrologic model and the water quality model. The hydrologic model estimates the amount of surface water runoff generated from the catchment during the storm event/ events. The water quality model estimates the transportation of the pollutants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus and suspended solids) from a particular catchment. The water quality model integrates two sub-processes: pollutants build-up and pollutants wash-off. The model calculates separate build-up and wash-off from pervious and impervious catchment surfaces. Rainfall and water quality data were collected for the Hotham creek catchment in Gold Coast, Australia. Runoff calculations from hydrologic model were compared with calculated discharges through widely used Australian models WBNM and DRAINS. Finally, based on measured water quality data, model water quality parameters were calibrated for the above-mentioned catchment. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Hossain I.,Swinburne University of Technology | Imteaz M.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Hossain M.I.,Gold Coast City Council
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues | Year: 2012

This paper presents the calibration of a catchment water quality model developed for the continuous simulation of stormwater pollutants from a catchment to the catchment outlet. Calibration of the model was performed using the rainfall and water quality data collected for 'Saltwater Creek Catchment' in Gold Coast, Australia. Runoff estimations from the hydrologic model were compared with calculated discharges through widely used Australian runoff models, WBNM and DRAINS. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters showed that maximum build-up rate, build-up rate coefficient and wash-off coefficients are sensitive parameters of the model. Based on measured water quality data, different parameters of the model were calibrated for the above-mentioned catchment. Calibration of the model was demonstrated for the water quality pollutants suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Hossain I.,Swinburne University of Technology | Imteaz M.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Arulrajah A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Hossain M.I.,Gold Coast City Council
International Journal of Water | Year: 2013

This paper presents the development of a one-dimensional stream water quality model for the continuous simulation of suspended sediment transport and deposition processes along a particular stream section. The model integrates stream hydraulics and suspended sediment transport and deposition processes. The stream hydraulic model was developed using the Muskingum-Cunge method of channel routing. The well-known suspended sediment processes have been modifi ed and integrated with the developed hydraulic model. The developed model was applied and simulated for the Saltwater Creek, Gold Coast, Australia. Sensitivity analysis of the model showed that all the particles' characteristics within the incoming stream fl ows are important for the better prediction of suspended sediment loads.


Jackson A.,International Coastal Management | Hill P.,Gold Coast City Council
Coasts and Ports 2013 | Year: 2013

Nourishment will become increasingly important to manage beaches worldwide as recreational beaches become an increasingly more valuable and threatened resource. Nourishment is an essential element of the management of the Gold Coast beaches and unit rates /m3 are competitive with international rates due to the growth of a local dredging industry that has developed innovative dredging techniques and expertise. Beach nourishment, from small to large scale using different sources and methods carried out on the Gold Coast, spans almost 40 years from the early 1970's and has involved many previously untried methodologies, such as nearshore profile nourishment, that have been proven and have evolved from theoretical to routine. Nearshore nourishment has been particularly important as it allows the huge reserves of sand offshore from the beaches to be utilised at a much lower cost than estuarine or other reserves. . The Gold Coast uses a number of sand sources for beach nourishment including terrestrial /building sites, river /estuarine, sand bypassing, sand bypassing and offshore. Sand nourishment is often combined with structures, such as the Narrowneck Reef to maximise efficiency. To date about 49Mm3 of sand nourishment has been implemented and this paper documents this history and lessons learned for application on the Gold Coast and other areas in the future.


Chen Z.,University of Technology, Sydney | Ngo H.H.,University of Technology, Sydney | Guo W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Lim R.,University of Technology, Sydney | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | City West Water, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney Olympic Park Authority, Port Macquarie Hastings Council and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance.


PubMed | City West Water, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney Olympic Park Authority, Port Macquarie Hastings Council and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study.


Jiang G.,University of Queensland | Keating A.,University of Queensland | Corrie S.,CWE Corrie Water and Environment | O'halloran K.,Gold Coast City Council | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2013

Intermittent dosing of free nitrous acid (FNA), with or without the simultaneous dosing of hydrogen peroxide, is a new strategy developed recently for the control of sulfide production in sewers. Six-month field trials have been carried out in a rising main sewer in Australia (150mm in diameter and 1080m in length) to evaluate the performance of the strategy that was previously demonstrated in laboratory studies. In each trial, FNA was dosed at a pumping station for a period of 8 or 24h, some with simultaneous hydrogen peroxide dosing. The sulfide control effectiveness was monitored by measuring, on-line, the dissolved sulfide concentration at a downstream location of the pipeline (828m from the pumping station) and the gaseous H2S concentration at the discharge manhole. Effective sulfide control was achieved in all nine consecutive trials, with sulfide production reduced by more than 80% in 10 days following each dose. Later trials achieved better control efficiency than the first few trials possibly due to the disrupting effects of FNA on sewer biofilms. This suggests that an initial strong dose (more chemical consumption) followed by maintenance dosing (less chemical consumption) could be a very cost-effective way to achieve consistent control efficiency. It was also found that heavy rainfall slowed the recovery of sulfide production after dosing, likely due to the dilution effects and reduced retention time. Overall, intermittent dose of FNA or FNA in combination with H2O2 was successfully demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for sulfide control in rising main sewers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mosadeghi R.,Griffith University | Warnken J.,Griffith University | Tomlinson R.,Griffith University | Mirfenderesk H.,Gold Coast City Council
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems | Year: 2015

Modern planning theories encourage approaches that consider all stakeholders with a variety of discourse values to avoid political and manipulative decisions. In the last decade, application of quantitative approaches such as multi-criteria decision making techniques in land suitability procedures has increased, which allows handling heterogeneous data. The majority of these applications mainly used decision-making techniques to rank the priority of predefined management options or planning scenarios. The presented study, however, shows how spatial decision-making can be used not only to rank the priority of options and performing scenario analysis, but also to provide insight into the spatial extent of the alternatives. This is particularly helpful in situation where political transitions in regard to urban planning policies leave local decision-makers with considerable room for discretion. To achieve this, the study compares the results of two quantitative techniques (analytical hierarchy procedure (AHP) and Fuzzy AHP) in defining the extent of land-use zones at a large scale urban planning scenario. The presented approach also adds a new dimension to the comparative analysis of applying these techniques in urban planning by considering the scale and purpose of the decision-making. The result demonstrates that in the early stage of the planning process, when identifying development options as a focal point is required, simplified methods can be sufficient. In this situation, selecting more sophisticated techniques will not necessarily generate different outcomes. However, when planning requires identifying the spatial extent of the preferred development area, considering the intersection area suggested by both methods will be ideal. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Gold Coast City Council
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science. Processes & impacts | Year: 2014

Optimizing the utility of constructed waterways as residential development with water-frontage, along with a productive and functional habitat for wildlife is of considerable interest to managers. This study examines Lake Hugh Muntz, a large (17 ha) freshwater lake built in Gold Coast City, Australia. A ten year water quality monitoring programme shows that the lake has increasing nutrient concentrations, and together with summer algal blooms, the lake amenity as a popular recreational swimming and triathlon training location is at risk. A survey of fish and aquatic plant communities showed that the lake supports a sub-set of species found in adjacent natural wetlands. Sediment contaminants were below the lower Australian trigger values, except As, Hg, Pb and Zn, probably a function of untreated and uncontrolled stormwater runoff from nearby urban roads. Sediment biogeochemistry showed early signs of oxygen depletion, and an increase in benthic organic matter decomposition and oxygen consumption will result in more nitrogen recycled to the water column as NH4(+) (increasing the intensity of summer algal blooms) and less nitrogen lost to the atmosphere as N2 gas via denitrification. A series of catchment restoration initiatives were modeled and the optimal stormwater runoff restoration effort needed for lake protection will be costly, particularly retrospective, as is the case here. Overall, balancing the lifestyles and livelihoods of residents along with ecosystem protection are possible, but require considerable trade-offs between ecosystem services and human use.

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