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Raghvendra,P.A. College | Sharma V.,P.A. College | Shakya A.,P.A. College | Hedaytullah M.,Shivdan Singh Institute of Technology and Management | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2011

Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments ranging from red to blue to purple shades that provide the colour in certain flowers and fruits (red, blue and purple tints in apples, berries, red grapes, eggplant, red cabbage and radishes). They are synthesized by organisms of the plant kingdom and bacteria, and have been observed to occur in all tissues of higher plants, providing colour in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Anthocyanins consist of sugar molecules bound to a benzopyrylium salt (called anthocyanidin). Anthocyanins are synthesized by organisms in the plant kingdom, and have been observed to occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves and stems. Anthocyanins exist only in plants with bright colours in everything from flower petals to autumn leaves and edible fruits or vegetables. Chemical identification studies reveal that there are as many as 600 unique anthocyanins in nature. It has been found that anthocyanins have shown potential health effects against various disorders like cancer, aging, neurological diseases, inflammation, diabetes as well as bacterial infections. Anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids that are uniformly, predictably produced in rigorously controlled plant cell culture systems can be a great advantage for health and nutrition research because they are quickly, easily isolated, lack interferences found in whole fruits, can be elicited to provoke rapid and prolific accumulation, and are amenable to biolabeling so that metabolic fate can be investigated after ingestion. This article presents a brief review of Anthocyanins with an emphasis on their chemical and potential aspects. Source


Verma N.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Amresh G.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Sahu P.K.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Singh A.P.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To explore and identify the most potent antihyperglycemic fraction from the ethanol extract of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) flowers. Methods: Normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were treated with all four fractions of R. arboreum flowers for short term and with fraction 3 for long term study. On completion of the treatment, a range of indicators were tested including fasting blood glucose, plasma protein, haemoglobin A1C, insulin secretion, body weight, blood lipid profile and carbohydrate metabolism regulating enzymes of liver. Results: In short term study, the fraction 3 (Active fraction) produced a significant (P < 0.000 1) reduction (73.6%) in blood glucose level at a dose of 200 mg/kg after the treatment in the diabetic rats. Administration of active fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) once daily for 30 d in streptozotocin diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.001 to P < 0.000 1) fall in blood glucose level, hemoglobin A1C, serum urea and creatinine with significant but a increase in insulin level similar to standard drug glybenclamide. Further, the active fraction showed antihyperlipidemic activity as evidenced by significant (P < 0.001 to P < 0.000 1) decreases in serum serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic rats. Conclusions: The active fraction of R. arboreum flowers decreases streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by promoting insulin secretion and glycolysis and by decreasing gluconeogenesis. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source


Verma N.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Singh A.P.,National Botanical Research Institute | Amresh G.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Sahu P.K.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Materials and Methods: Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl4-treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. Result and Discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl4 treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. Source


Verma N.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Singh A.P.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Gupta A.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Sahu P.K.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Rao Ch.V.,National Botanical Research Institute Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA) flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling. Results: The concentration of hyperin in flowers of R. arboreum was found to be 0.148% by HPTLC. Oral administration of EFRA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001) antidiarrheal potential in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. EFRA at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg also produced significant (P<0.05-0.001) dose-dependent reduction in propulsive movement in castor oil-induced gastrointestinal transit using charcoal meal in rats. EFRA was found to possess an antienteropooling in castor oil-induced experimental animals by reducing both weight and volume of intestinal content significantly. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that standardized ethyl acetate fraction of R. arboreum flowers has potent antidiarrheal activity thus justifying its traditional use in diarrhea and have great potential as a source for natural health products. Source


Verma N.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Amresh G.,Goel Institute of Pharmacy and science | Sahu P.K.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | Mishra N.,Siksha O' Anusandhan University | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013

Antihyperglycemic potential of hyperin at 25 and 50 mg/kg doses for 30 days to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats has been reported. In oral glucose tolerance test, hyperin treated rats showed a significant reduction in blood glucose level after 120 min. It was found that hyperin exhibited dose dependent and significant antihyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats which were nearly similar with standard drug glybenclamide. Activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glycogen phosphorylase, glycosylated haemoglobin and level of serum urea and creatinine were significantly decreased in hyperin supplemented diabetic rats, dose dependently. Activities of hexokinase and glycogen synthase were increased with augmentation in liver glycogen, insulin and haemoglobin content in hyperin treated diabetic rats. General hematological parameters did not show any significant change in hyperin treated diabetic rats hence it is safe at these doses. Histopathological studies showed significant morphological changes in pancreatic β-cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. A decreased number of secretory granules of β cells were observed in diabetic rats andthese pathological abnormalities were normalized after treatment with hyperin and standard drug glybenclamide. Further, hyperin decreases significant in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein levels coupled with elevation of high density lipoprotein in diabetic rats. These results suggest that hyperin has a pivotal role in blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by improving the function of pancreatic islets and increasing glycolysis and decreasing gluconeogenesis. Source

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