Enugu State, Nigeria
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Nwozor K.K.,University of Aberdeen | Nwozor K.K.,University of Nigeria | Onuorah L.O.,Godfrey Okoye University
Petroleum and Coal | Year: 2014

Significant discrepancies often exist between measured and predicted pore pressures especially in deep-seated reservoirs in the Niger Delta Basin. The associated risks when not properly considered contribute to drilling challenges and some exploration downturns. At the background to these challenges is the vague understanding of the subtle complexities that may characterize the geopressure system. Key to this is the growing need to account for additional mechanisms of overpressure generation beyond the routinely believed undercompaction during pressure prognosis and well planning. Data from a deep well in the Central Swamp Depobelt depict the occurrence of two vertical effective stress regimes. The corresponding two pressure settings by massive succession of shales at an approximate depth of 14500ft(4421m) to wards the base of the Agbada Formation. Cross-plots of density and velocity as well as velocity and vertical effective stress indicate that undercompaction dominates pressure generation above the massive shale while late geopressure processes, especially hydrocarbon generation could be responsible for deep-seated extreme overpressures. The intervening massive shale acts as an effective regional seal with the result that there is no pressure communication between the reservoirs above and beneath it. Calculated overpressures in the water-saturated section of the reservoir that lies above the seal typically were below 150 psi (1.03MPa). On the contrary, overpressure beneath the seal is as much as 4490psi (30.96MPa). Pressure estimation based on standard Eaton method failed to produce matching profile with measured data in the deep reservoir. Modified Eaton and Bowers methods were then used to obtain a geopressure profile consistent with wireline measurements.


Onuorah L.O.,Godfrey Okoye University | Nwozor K.K.,University of Aberdeen | Nwozor K.K.,University of Nigeria
Petroleum and Coal | Year: 2014

Rocks as natural materials are inhomogeneous and anisotropic with the implication that their physical properties are never the same but rather vary in depth, time and space. A good understanding of rock parameters at deep and challenging settings helps improve the interpretation of essential explo-ration data. Vital to this improved knowledge is the need to establish a threshold of normal and standard rock property behaviours in target areas in order to detect abnormal trends that could be critical to exploration success. Analyses of rock property trends in a normally pressured reservoir in Offshore Niger Delta have been carried out using wireline log data such as sonic, density, resistivity and gamma ray logs. The petrophysical workflow involved the generation and interpretation of cross-plots of density - Vp, and Poisson's ratio - Vp; and depth trends of Vp, Vs, density, acoustic impedance and Poisson's ratio for sands and shales. A predictable linear relationship exist in these plots; it is normal for velocity, density and acoustic impedance trends to increase with depth due to progressive mechanical compaction while Poisson's ratio decreases with depth.


Rotimi O.J.,Covenant University | Rotimi O.J.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Wang Z.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Ako B.D.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Uhuegbu C.C.,Godfrey Okoye University
Petroleum and Coal | Year: 2014

Structural pattern mapping and modeling for structural styles delineation and prospect identification in the complex Xinglongtai-Majuanzi structure, Liaohe depression, China is a concern in exploring for hydro-carbon. This is as a result of the occurrence of varied faulting pattern and sub-seismic faults. Analysis was on attributes computed from migrated 3D seismic data, with support from well logs from the area. Architectural assessment, structural delineation and prospect analysis was done on the portion of the massive sag structure proven to have originated in the Paleogene period. Combinations of structural and stratigraphic attributes were used in evaluating the nature of the fairly consolidated turbidite deposits of the hydrocarbon prolific Shahejie formation amidst numerous syndepositional faults. Results indicate that normal and reverse faults are quite common in the study area with dipping angle between 50 and 80 degrees. The deposits of interbeded sand shale sequences are characterized by non-uniformity in strata arrangement. The stratigraphy of the area is observed as dipping sub-parallel and chaotic clinoforms which terminates in a thick wedge structure in the distal portion. This pattern is bestowed by the interplay of both the underlying regional and overlying sub-regional strike slip faults. This has increased the hetero-geneity of the petrophysical parameters observed for the facies models and thereby assisted in under-standing structural trapping configuration for the play prospect of the area.


Godwill E.A.,Godfrey Okoye University | Unaegbu M.,Godfrey Okoye University | Uchenna Esther A.,Godfrey Okoye University | Amarachukwu Gloria O.,Godfrey Okoye University | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2016

Objective To investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the seed and leaf extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum (C. albidum). Methods After assessing the in vitro ferric reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities as well as the flavonoid and flavanol contents, the seed and leaf extracts were administered to diabetic rats for 7 days. The animals were sacrificed and serum was obtained for the determination of blood glucose level while liver sample was used for the quantification of glycogen level as well as lipidic peroxidation and catalase activity. Results Seed and leaf extracts of C. albidum showed ferric reducing activity and very high hydrogen peroxide scavenging potential. After the administration of treatment in diabetic rats, there was a significant decrease (P <0.05) in blood sugar level and a significant increase (P<0.05) in liver glycogen level in Groups 3 and 4 animals administered the leaf and seed extracts respectively compared to Group 1 (the negative control). Also, catalase activity and malondialdehyde levels increased in Groups 3 and 4 administered the extracts compared to Group 1 animals (the negative control). Flavonoids and flavanol were present and significantly higher (P<0.05) in the leaf than seed extract. In all, the leaf extract showed the greatest activities. Conclusions These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of C. albidum possess both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities in scavenging free radicals as well as antidiabetic activity, and as such, a potentially important compound in antidiabetic drug discovery. © 2016 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press


Ezeonu C.S.,Godfrey Okoye University | Egbuna P.A.C.,University of Nigeria | Ezeanyika L.U.S.,University of Nigeria | Nkwonta C.G.,University of Nigeria | Idoko N.D.,University of Nigeria
Research Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

The antihepatotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against CCL (10 mL kg-1 body weight) were investigated. Total 7 groups of rats were used in the investigation with alternative methods of administration of ginger extract and CC14 both at 24 h intervals as well as simultaneous administrations. All the administration methods involved injection of the substances intraperitoneally. Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) and Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT) decreased significantly (p<0.05) when ginger ethanolic extract was administered first (1000 mg kg-1 body weight) followed by CC14 24 h later. Injection of CC14 followed by ethanolic ginger extract 24 h later gave a reduction in the serum enzyme but not as much as when ginger extract was first administered. The same result above was also obtained for lipid peroxidation production. Protein synthesis was not affected by the various groups although, CC14 and ethanolic extract of ginger caused increase in serum protein which did not show any significant increase (p>0.05). Inorganic phosphate was increased by both CC14 and ethanolic extract administration. Fraction D was shown to have more hepatoprotective effect than even the ethanolic extract itself. Administration of ginger extract and CC14 simultaneously had the least hepatoprotective effect. Thus, preventive intraperitoneal administration of ginger ethanolic extract before liver injury had the highest efficacy against hepatotoxic induction using CC14. © Medwell Journals, 2011.


Godwill E.A.,Godfrey Okoye University | Godwill E.A.,International Bio Research Institute | Jane I.C.,Godfrey Okoye University | Scholastica I.U.,Godfrey Okoye University | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology Reports | Year: 2015

Soft drinks are consumed daily in Nigeria due to its affordability, characteristic taste, and thirst quenching potential. However, the high demand may compromise the quality of production with possible contamination of heavy metals which have shown to cause intoxication and death in humans. This study evaluated some constituents of twenty-six soft drinks in Nigeria and investigated the presence of some heavy metal contaminants. The soft drinks were screened for the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate and alcohol as well as the pH and acidity determined. The level of cadmium, mercury and lead were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study showed the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate, and alcohol in the soft drinks. The soft drinks were acidic in nature, pH ranging from 3 to 5 with a mean of 3.6 and the acid concentration was relatively low between 3 and 12. g/L with a mean of 8.1. g/L. Lead was present in all the samples ranging from 0.17 to 3.39. mg/L with a mean of 0.8, mercury was present in 22 samples ranging from 0.29 to 11.32. mg/L with a mean of 2.08. mg/L while cadmium was present only in one sample (0.149. mg/L). When compared to EPA, WHO and NIS standards, the levels of the heavy metal contaminants were above the tolerated limits for good quality drinking water in most samples. These results suggest that soft drinks in Nigeria may be contaminated with heavy metals which constitute a major public health problem. Thus, quality control is recommended during the production process especially at the stages of sterilization and purification. © 2015 The Authors.


Engwa G.A.,Godfrey Okoye University | Ayuk E.L.,Godfrey Okoye University | Igbojekwe B.U.,Godfrey Okoye University | Unaegbu M.,Godfrey Okoye University
Biochemistry Research International | Year: 2016

The global increase in oxidative stress related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases caused by overwhelming level of free radicals in the body has encouraged the search for new antioxidant agents. Based on the ability of newly synthesized phenothiazine derivatives (6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one and 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one) to oxidize H2O2, a known free radical to sulfoxide, this study assessed the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The synthesized phenothiazine derivatives exhibited reducing power potential to convert Fe3+ to Fe2+ and high ability to scavenge H2O2 free radical in vitro. These activities were comparable to ascorbic acid, a standard antioxidant. The catalase activity significantly increased (p<0.05) in groups 1 and 2 animals that received the phenothiazine derivatives compared to the controls (groups 3 and 4) suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to scavenge H2O2 in vivo. The malondialdehyde level in groups 1 and 2 animals was lower than that in group 3 that received the reference compound (ascorbic acid) and group 4 that received the solvent suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to prevent lipid membrane damage. AST and bilirubin levels were higher in group 2 animals which received 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one compared to group 3, the positive control. The results suggest that phenothiazine derivatives, especially 6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one, possess antioxidant activity though 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one was slightly toxic. This activity may be due to the presence of electron donors such as sulfur as well as the richness of hydrogen in the additional benzene rings for substitution. Further study is needed to identify tolerable doses for possible therapeutic purposes. © 2016 Godwill Azeh Engwa et al.


Njoku M.G.C.,Godfrey Okoye University
International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation | Year: 2016

This study examined the trend in articles published on mobile and ubiquitous learning from 2014 to 2015. Articles were drawn from Computers & Education, Computers in Human Behavior, Educational Technology and Society, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, British Journal of Educational Technology and Turkish Journal of Educational Technology. A total of 135 articles related to mobile and ubiquitous learning were published in the journals indicated above for the 2014/2015 period. The most frequently studied learning domain was science; empirical research method was used most often and majority of the studies were conducted in the USA. This study indicates that interest in mobile and ubiquitous learning has increased. The implication is that course instructors and designers should continue to integrate mobile and ubiquitous learning into their course delivery and design. © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


PubMed | Godfrey Okoye University
Type: | Journal: Biotechnology research international | Year: 2012

The environment is a very important component necessary for the existence of both man and other biotic organisms. The degree of sustainability of the physical environment is an index of the survival and well-being of the entire components in it. Additionally, it is not sufficient to try disposing toxic/deleterious substances with any known method. The best method of sustaining the environment is such that returns back all the components (wastes) in a recyclable way so that the waste becomes useful and helps the biotic and abiotic relationship to maintain an aesthetic and healthy equilibrium that characterizes an ideal environment. In this study, the method investigated includes biological method of environmental sustainability which seeks to investigate the various biotechnological tools (biotools) in current use and those undergoing investigations for future use.


PubMed | Godfrey Okoye University
Type: | Journal: Biochemistry research international | Year: 2016

The global increase in oxidative stress related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases caused by overwhelming level of free radicals in the body has encouraged the search for new antioxidant agents. Based on the ability of newly synthesized phenothiazine derivatives (6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one and 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one) to oxidize H2O2, a known free radical to sulfoxide, this study assessed the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The synthesized phenothiazine derivatives exhibited reducing power potential to convert Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) and high ability to scavenge H2O2 free radical in vitro. These activities were comparable to ascorbic acid, a standard antioxidant. The catalase activity significantly increased (p < 0.05) in groups 1 and 2 animals that received the phenothiazine derivatives compared to the controls (groups 3 and 4) suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to scavenge H2O2 in vivo. The malondialdehyde level in groups 1 and 2 animals was lower than that in group 3 that received the reference compound (ascorbic acid) and group 4 that received the solvent suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to prevent lipid membrane damage. AST and bilirubin levels were higher in group 2 animals which received 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one compared to group 3, the positive control. The results suggest that phenothiazine derivatives, especially 6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one, possess antioxidant activity though 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one was slightly toxic. This activity may be due to the presence of electron donors such as sulfur as well as the richness of hydrogen in the additional benzene rings for substitution. Further study is needed to identify tolerable doses for possible therapeutic purposes.

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