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Carmona A.,Joseph Fourier University | Pinte C.,Joseph Fourier University | Pinte C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Thi W.F.,Joseph Fourier University | And 19 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Context. Constraining the gas and dust disk structure of transition disks, particularly in the inner dust cavity, is a crucial step toward understanding the link between them and planet formation. HD 135344B is an accreting (pre-)transition disk that displays the CO 4.7 μm emission extending tens of AU inside its 30 AU dust cavity. Aims. We constrain HD 135344B's disk structure from multi-instrument gas and dust observations. Methods. We used the dust radiative transfer code MCFOST and the thermochemical code ProDiMo to derive the disk structure from the simultaneous modeling of the spectral energy distribution (SED), VLT/CRIRES CO P(10) 4.75 μm, Herschel/PACS [O≠i] 63 μm, Spitzer/IRS, and JCMT 12CO J = 3-2 spectra, VLTI/PIONIER H-band visibilities, and constraints from (sub-)mm continuum interferometry and near-IR imaging. Results. We found a disk model able to describe the current gas and dust observations simultaneously. This disk has the following structure. (1) To simultaneously reproduce the SED, the near-IR interferometry data, and the CO ro-vibrational emission, refractory grains (we suggest carbon) are present inside the silicate sublimation radius (0.08 100 to account for the 870 μm continuum upper limit and the CO P(10) line flux. (5) The gas-to-dust ratio in the outer disk (30

Todorov K.,Connecticut College | Todorov K.,Goddard Center for Astrobiology | Todorov K.,Pennsylvania State University | Deming D.,Goddard Center for Astrobiology | And 6 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% ± 0.008% [3.6 μm], 0.135% ± 0.022% [4.5 μm], 0.203% ± 0.031% [5.8 μm], and 0.238% ± 0.040% [8.0 μm]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 ± 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3σ limit of |e cos ω| < 0.002. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

Meeus G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Montesinos B.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Mendigutia I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Kamp I.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | And 16 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

We observed a sample of 20 representative Herbig Ae/Be stars and 5 A-type debris discs with PACS onboard Herschel, as part of the GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) project. The observations were done in spectroscopic mode, and cover the far-infrared lines of [O I], [C II], CO, CH +, H 2O, and OH. We have a [O I] 63 μm detection rate of 100% for the Herbig Ae/Be and 0% for the debris discs. The [O I] 145 μm line is only detected in 25% and CO J = 18-17 in 45% (and fewer cases for higher J transitions) of the Herbig Ae/Be stars, while for [C II] 157 μm, we often find spatially variable background contamination. We show the first detection of water in a Herbig Ae disc, HD 163296, which has a settled disc. Hydroxyl is detected as well in this disc. First seen in HD 100546, CH + emission is now detected for the second time in a Herbig Ae star, HD 97048. We report fluxes for each line and use the observations as line diagnostics of the gas properties. Furthermore, we look for correlations between the strength of the emission lines and either the stellar or disc parameters, such as stellar luminosity, ultraviolet and X-ray flux, accretion rate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strength, and flaring. We find that the stellar ultraviolet flux is the dominant excitation mechanism of [O I] 63 μm, with the highest line fluxes being found in objects with a large amount of flaring and among the largest PAH strengths. Neither the amount of accretion nor the X-ray luminosity has an influence on the line strength. We find correlations between the line flux of [O I] 63 μm and [O I] 145 μm, CO J = 18-17 and [O I] 6300Ã.., and between the continuum flux at 63 μm and at 1.3 mm, while we find weak correlations between the line flux of [O I] 63 μm and the PAH luminosity, the line flux of CO J = 3-2, the continuum flux at 63 μm, the stellar effective temperature, and the Brγ luminosity. Finally, we use a combination of the[O I] 63 μm and 12CO J = 2-1 line fluxes to obtain order of magnitude estimates of the disc gas masses, in agreement with the values that we find from detailed modelling of two Herbig Ae/Be stars, HD 163296 and HD 169142. © 2012 ESO.

Thalmann C.,ETH Zurich | Thalmann C.,University of Amsterdam | Mulders G.D.,University of Amsterdam | Mulders G.D.,University of Arizona | And 17 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

We present four new epochs of Ks-band images of the young pre-transitional disk around LkCa 15 and perform extensive forward modeling to derive the physical parameters of the disk. We find indications of strongly anisotropic scattering (Henyey-Greenstein g = 0.67-0.11 +0.18) and a significantly tapered gap edge ("round wall") but see no evidence that the inner disk, whose existence is predicted by the spectral energy distribution, shadows the outer regions of the disk visible in our images. We marginally confirm the existence of an offset between the disk center and the star along the line of nodes; however, the magnitude of this offset (x = 27-20+19 mas) is notably lower than that found in our earlier H-band images. Intriguingly, we also find an offset of y=69 -25+49 mas perpendicular to the line of nodes at high significance. If confirmed by future observations, this would imply a highly elliptical - or otherwise asymmetric - disk gap with an effective eccentricity of e ≈ 0.3. Such asymmetry would most likely be the result of dynamical sculpting by one or more unseen planets in the system. Finally, we find that the bright arc of scattered light we see in direct imaging observations originates from the near side of the disk and appears brighter than the far side because of strong forward scattering. © ESO, 2014.

Wirstrom E.S.,Goddard Center for Astrobiology | Wirstrom E.S.,Chalmers University of Technology | Geppert W.D.,University of Stockholm | Hjalmarson A.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

Context. It has been established that the classical gas-phase production of interstellar methanol (CH3OH) cannot explain observed abundances. Instead it is now generally thought that the main formation path has to be by successive hydrogenation of solid CO on interstellar grain surfaces. Aims. While theoretical models and laboratory experiments show that methanol is efficiently formed from CO on cold grains, our aim is to test this scenario by astronomical observations of gas associated with young stellar objects (YSOs). Methods. We have observed the rotational transition quartets J = 2K-1K of 12CH3OH and 13CH3OH at 96.7 and 94.4 GHz, respectively, towards a sample of massive YSOs in different stages of evolution. In addition, the J = 1-0 transitions of 12C18O and 13C18O were observed towards some of these sources. We use the 12C/13C ratio to discriminate between gas-phase and grain surface origin: If methanol is formed from CO on grains, the ratios should be similar in CH3OH and CO. If not, the ratio should be higher in CH3OH due to 13C fractionation in cold CO gas. We also estimate the abundance ratios between the nuclear spin types of methanol (E and A). If methanol is formed on grains, this ratio is likely to have been thermalized at the low physical temperature of the grain, and therefore show a relative over-abundance of A-methanol. Results. We show that the 12C/13C isotopic ratio is very similar in gas-phase CH3OH and C18O, on the spatial scale of about 40″, towards four YSOs. For two of our sources we find an overabundance of A-methanol as compared to E-methanol, corresponding to nuclear spin temperatures of 10 and 16 K. For the remaining five sources, the methanol E/A ratio is less than unity. Conclusions. While the 12C/13C ratio test is consistent with methanol formation from hydrogenation of CO on grain surfaces, the result of the E/A ratio test is inconclusive. © 2011 ESO.

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