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Gollasch S.,GoConsult | David M.,Dr. Matej David Consult
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2017

Until now, the purpose of ballast water sampling studies was predominantly limited to general scientific interest to determine the variety of species arriving in ballast water in a recipient port. Knowing the variety of species arriving in ballast water also contributes to the assessment of relative species introduction vector importance. Further, some sampling campaigns addressed awareness raising or the determination of organism numbers per water volume to evaluate the species introduction risk by analysing the propagule pressure of species. A new aspect of ballast water sampling, which this contribution addresses, is compliance monitoring and enforcement of ballast water management standards as set by, e.g., the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. To achieve this, sampling methods which result in representative ballast water samples are essential. We recommend such methods based on practical tests conducted on two commercial vessels also considering results from our previous studies. The results show that different sampling approaches influence the results regarding viable organism concentrations in ballast water samples. It was observed that the sampling duration (i.e., length of the sampling process), timing (i.e., in which point in time of the discharge the sample is taken), the number of samples and the sampled water quantity are the main factors influencing the concentrations of viable organisms in a ballast water sample. Based on our findings we provide recommendations for representative ballast water sampling. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

The human-mediated transfer of harmful organisms via shipping, especially via ballast water transport, has raised considerable attention especially in the last decade due to the negative associated impacts. Ballast water sampling is important to assess the compliance with ballast water management requirements (i.e. compliance monitoring). The complexity of ballast water sampling is a result of organism diversity and behaviour which may require different sampling strategies, as well as ship design implications including availability of ballast water sampling points. This paper discusses the ballast water sampling methodologies with emphasis on compliance monitoring by the Port State Control officers according to the International Convention on the Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004.

David M.,University of Ljubljana | Perkovic M.,University of Ljubljana | Perkovic M.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Suban V.,University of Ljubljana | Gollasch S.,GoConsult
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2012

One of the critical issues in species invasion ecology is the need to understand and evaluate the dimensions and processes of aquatic organisms transfer with vessels ballast water. The assessment of the quantity of ballast water discharged as the medium of transfer is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in ballast water risk assessment and management. The possibility to assess this in advance of the vessel's arrival to a port enhances the management process and gives port authorities a decision supporting tool to respond in time with adequate measures. A new generic ballast water discharge assessment model has been prepared. The model is based on vessel cargo operation and vessel dimensions. The model was tested on real shipping traffic and ballast water discharge data for the Port of Koper, Slovenia. The results show high confidence in predicting whether a vessel will discharge ballast water, as well in assessing the quantity of ballast water (to be) discharged. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gollasch S.,GoConsult | David M.,University of Ljubljana
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2012

Under certain circumstances vessels do not need to meet ballast water management requirements as stated in the International Convention for the Management and Control of Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Besides exceptions to ensure e.g., (a) the safety of a ship, (b) discharge of ballast water for the purpose of avoiding or minimizing pollution incidents, (c) uptake and discharge on high seas of the same ballast water, the same location concept comes into play as ballast water discharges from a ship at the same location where it was taken up is also excepted from BWM requirements. The term same location was not defined in this instrument, hence it is exposed to different interpretations (e.g., a terminal, a port, a larger area where two or more ports may be located). As the BWM Convention is an instrument with biological meaning, the authors recommend a biologically meaningful definition of the same location in this contribution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

David M.,University of Ljubljana | Gollasch S.,GoConsult | Pavliha M.,University of Ljubljana
Ecological Applications | Year: 2013

The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

Vila M.,Estacion Biologica de Donana Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas EBD CSIC | Basnou C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Pysek P.,Charles University | Josefsson M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2010

Recent comprehensive data provided through the DAISIE project (www.europe-aliens.org) have facilitated the development of the first pan-European assessment of the impacts of alien plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments - on ecosystem services. There are 1094 species with documented ecological impacts and 1347 with economic impacts. The two taxonomic groups with the most species causing impacts are terrestrial invertebrates and terrestrial plants. The North Sea is the maritime region that suffers the most impacts. Across taxa and regions, ecological and economic impacts are highly correlated. Terrestrial invertebrates create greater economic impacts than ecological impacts, while the reverse is true for terrestrial plants. Alien species from all taxonomie groups affect "supporting", "provisioning", "regulating", and "cultural" services and interfere with human well-being. Terrestrial vertebrates are responsible for the greatest range of impacts, and these are widely distributed across Europe. Here, we present a review of the financial costs, as the first step toward calculating an estimate of the economic consequences of alien species in Europe. © The Ecological Society of America.

Olenin S.,Klaipeda University | Narscius A.,Klaipeda University | Minchin D.,Klaipeda University | David M.,David Consult | And 6 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2014

Biological invasions attract increasing attention from scientists, policy makers and various management authorities. Consequently, the knowledge-base on non-indigenous species (NIS) continuously expands and so the number and availability of web resources on NIS rises. Currently there are more than 250 websites on NIS, ranging from global to regional and national. Many of these databases began as inventories of NIS, but evolved to include information on NIS origin, introduction history, pathways, vectors, and more. The databases have been used increasingly for scientific analyzes, though key information needs for bioinvasion management and research are only partially met. In this account we describe an advanced information system dealing with aquatic NIS introduced to marine, brackish and coastal freshwater environments of Europe and adjacent regions (AquaNIS). AquaNIS differs substantially from existing NIS information sources in its organizational principles, structure, functionality, and output potential for end-users, e.g., managing aquaculture or ship's ballast water. The system is designed to assemble, store and disseminate comprehensive data on NIS, and assist the evaluation of the progress made towards achieving management goals. With the coming into force of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and similar legislation addressing the problem of biological invasions, the availability of advanced, scientifically validated and up-to-date information support on NIS is essential for aquatic ecosystem assessment and management. Key issues related to electronic information systems, such as data management principles and long-term database maintenance, are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Savini D.,University of Pavia | Occhipinti-Ambrogi A.,University of Pavia | Marchini A.,University of Pavia | Tricarico E.,University of Florence | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2010

The information extracted from IMPASSE, DAISIE, FishBase, and FAO-DIAS inventories of alien species were used to draw a list of the 27 most utilized animal alien species for aquaculture and related activities (e.g. stocking, sport fishing, ornamental purposes) in Europe. Three variables have been considered to assess their negative ecological impacts when these species escape from aquaculture facilities: (i) their distribution across Europe (including non-EU Member States); (ii) evidence of their environmental impact in the wild; and (iii) evidence of their being vectors of non-target alien species and other hitchhikers (e.g. pathogens). Drivers of use and mechanisms of dispersal in the wild have been also considered and reviewed. Twenty of the species are freshwater fishes: alien cyprinids and salmonids have been introduced into Europe mainly for food production, sport fishing and ornamental purposes. The most widespread species are the goldfish Carassius auratus and the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, established in 29 and 28 European countries, respectively. Notwithstanding their successful distribution in Europe, only the Gibel carp Carassius gibelio and the peneid shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus were found to have environmental impact in all the countries of establishment. Crayfish and predatory fishes (e.g. catfishes and salmonids) cause major environmental impacts in Europe by outcompeting native species and altering habitat structure. Alien crayfish, Procambarus clarkii and Pacifastacus leniusculus, are responsible for the largest range of impacts (i.e. crayfish plague dissemination, bioaccumulation of pollutants, community dominance, competition and predation on native species, habitat modifications, food web impairment, herbivory and macrophytes removal). Cyprinids (e.g. herbivorous carps) are vectors of diseases and parasites, while salmonids (e.g. Salvelinus fontinalis) often cause genetic impairment of native stocks by hybridization. The importation of alien farmed (target) species frequently leads to the introduction of associated non-target species. The cultures of the Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas and Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum were responsible for the introduction of the largest number (60) of non-native invertebrates and algae, often attached to packaging material, fouling the shell or parasitizing bivalve tissues. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

Lehtiniemi M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Ojaveer H.,University of Tartu | David M.,Dr. Matej David Consult | Galil B.,National Institute of Oceanography of Israel | And 7 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

Non-indigenous species (NIS) are recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and monitoring their presence and impacts is considered a prerequisite for marine environmental management and sustainable development. However, monitoring for NIS seldom takes place except for a few baseline surveys. With the goal of serving the requirements of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, the paper highlights the importance of early detection of NIS in dispersal hubs for a rapid management response, and of long-term monitoring for tracking the effects of NIS within recipient ecosystems, including coastal systems especially vulnerable to introductions. The conceptual framework also demonstrates the need for port monitoring, which should serve the above mentioned requirements but also provide the required information for implementation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments. Large scale monitoring of native, cryptogenic and NIS in natural and man-made habitats will collectively lead to meeting international requirements. Cost-efficient rapid assessments of target species may provide timely information for managers and policy-advisers focusing on particular NIS at particular localities, but this cannot replace long-term monitoring. To support legislative requirements, collected data should be verified and stored in a publicly accessible and routinely updated database/information system. Public involvement should be encouraged as part of monitoring programs where feasible. © 2015.

David M.,David Consult | Gollasch S.,GoConsult | Leppakoski E.,Åbo Akademi University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments sets requirements to prevent organism transfers. Vessels on certain routes can be exempted from such requirements based on risk assessment (RA). As the convention nears its entry into force, the interest in exemptions increases. Such RA should be conducted according to the International Maritime Organization G7 Guidelines. We present a RA study for exemptions applied to intra-Baltic shipping considering different RA methods, i.e., environmental matching, species specific method including target species and species biogeographical aspects. As reliable species data in the ports considered are unavailable and following the precautionary principle, no exemptions should be granted. To ensure data reliability, port baseline surveys and regular monitoring programs should be undertaken during the exemption period as new species found influence the RA result. The RA model prepared is considered as of value to other areas worldwide. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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