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Dimova C.,Goce Delcev University of Stip
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2014

Various materials are used in modern dental and maxillofacial surgery for bone tissue substitution and reconstruction. All osteoplastic materials can be divided into four groups by origin: autogenic, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic. Synthetic resorbable materials were intended as an inexpensive substitute for natural bone. Synthetic graft materials include various types of ceramics: tricalcium phosphate; bioglass; hydroxyapatite and its compositions with collagen, sulphated glycosaminoglycans such as keratan and chrondroitin sulphates well as with sulphate and calcium phosphate. Jaw deformities from tooth removal can be prevented and repaired by a procedure called socket preservation. The procedure begins with atraumatic tooth extraction. Every attempt is made to preserve the surrounding bone and soft tissue, with an emphasis on being careful not to fracture the delicate buccal plate. There are a number of techniques and instruments that aid in this process. In general, one never wants to elevate so that force is directed toward the buccal plate. It is important that good bleeding is established in the socket. Next, a bone graft material is placed into the socket and covered with a resorbable or non-resorbable membrane and sutured. Most importantly, socket preservation helps to maintain the alveolar architecture and significantly reduces the loss of ridge width and height following tooth removal. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source


Ruskovska T.,Goce Delcev University of Stip | Bernlohr D.A.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2013

While historically considered simply as a depot for excess energy, white adipose tissue is a dynamically active endocrine organ capable of responding to a variety of efferent stimuli resulting in the synthesis and secretion of peptides, proteins and metabolites that serve as signal transducers to the peripheral and central circulation. Such regulation controls a variety of physiological processes including energy expenditure, food intake, reproductive capacity and responsiveness to insulin. Indeed, the accumulation of inflammatory cells in white adipose tissue is considered to be causative in the development of insulin resistance and eventually type 2 diabetes mellitus. A large body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress in adipose tissue not only correlates with insulin resistance but is also causative in its development. Moreover, using the available plasma oxidative stress biomarkers, many clinical studies have shown the presence of systemic oxidative stress in obese insulin resistant subjects, and its decrease after the successful treatment of obesity. In this review we emphasize the role of protein carbonylation in dysfunctional obese white adipose tissue and its metabolic implications. We focus on glutathione S-transferase A4 as the key enzyme for trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and trans-4-oxo-2-nonenal removal from the cell, thus preventing protein carbonylation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Posttranslational Protein modifications in biology and Medicine. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Jansen E.H.J.M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Ruskovska T.,Goce Delcev University of Stip
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and total antioxidant status (TAS) assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922) and FRAP assay (0.869). The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302), which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114). The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510) and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279) and not with the FRAP assay (-0.008). The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY) assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and total oxidant status (TOS), based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Stevceva L.,Goce Delcev University of Stip
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors responsible for detecting invading pathogens. About 13 TLRs are currently known to be expressed (see Table 1). TLR2 detects lipotechoic acid and bacterial lipoproteins, TLR4 recognizes LPS, TLR5, flagellin and TLR3 detects double-stranded RNA. The unmethylated CPG DNA of bacteria and viruses is detected by TLR9. TLR7 recognizes single-stranded RNA of viruses. TLR 11 in mice recognizes profillin from Toxoplasma gondii. Binding to TLRs expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) can trigger adaptive immune responses and DCs thus serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. In HIV, it has been shown that polymorphism of the TLR9, 4, 7 and 8 plays a role in disease progression and viral load. In addition, several researchers began investigating using TLR agonists as adjuvants for HIV vaccine candidates. TLR3 has shown good results if used with vaccine proteins selectively delivered to DCs by antibodies to DEC-205/CD205, a receptor for antigen presentation. TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists enhanced immune responses if conjugated to the vaccine protein. A triple combination of TLR2/6, -3, and -9 agonists and IL-15 synergistically up regulated immune responses to vaccine formulated as recombinant MVA viruses expressing SIVmac239 Gag, Pol, Env and Rev, Tat, Nef. These and other studies are just beginning to unravel the potential of TLRs agonists and much more and broader research is needed in order to revitalize the field of HIV vaccines. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Gicev V.,Goce Delcev University of Stip | Trifunac M.D.,University of Southern California
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2012

Three variants of a two-dimensional (2-D) model of a building supported by a rectangular, flexible foundation embedded in nonlinear soil are analyzed. The building, the foundation, and soil have different physical properties. The building is assumed to be linear, but the foundation and the soil can experience nonlinear deformations. It is shown that the work spent for the development of nonlinear strains in the soil can consume a significant part of the input wave energy, and thus less energy is available for excitation of the building. The results help explain why the damage, during the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California, to residential buildings in the areas that experienced large strains in the soil was absent or reduced. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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