Reifferscheid G.,Federal Institute of Hydrology BfG |
Maes H.M.,RWTH Aachen |
Allner B.,Gobio GmbH |
Badurova J.,Vyzkumny ustav vodohospodarsky T. G. Masaryka |
And 25 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2012
An international round-robin study on the Ames fluctuation test [ISO 11350, 2012], a microplate version of the classic plate-incorporation method for the detection of mutagenicity in water, wastewater and chemicals was performed by 18 laboratories from seven countries. Such a round-robin study is a precondition for both the finalization of the ISO standardization process and a possible regulatory implementation in water legislation. The laboratories tested four water samples (spiked/nonspiked) and two chemical mixtures with and without supplementation of a S9-mix. Validity criteria (acceptable spontaneous and positive control-induced mutation counts) were fulfilled by 92-100%, depending on the test conditions. A two-step method for statistical evaluation of the test results is proposed and assessed in terms of specificity and sensitivity. The data were first subjected to powerful analysis of variance (ANOVA) after an arcsine-square-root transformation to detect significant differences between the test samples and the negative control (NC). A threshold (TH) value based on a pooled NC was then calculated to exclude false positive test results. Statistically, positive effects observed by the William's test were considered negative, if the mean of all replicates of a sample did not exceed the calculated TH. By making use of this approach, the overall test sensitivity was 100%, and the test specificity ranged from 80 to 100%. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Allner B.,Gobio GmbH |
von der Gonna S.,Gobio GmbH |
Griebeler E.-M.,University of Mainz |
Nikutowski N.,Gobio GmbH |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2010
Background, aim, and scope: Impacts on the reproductive health of wild fish are thought to be suitable early-warning tools indicating contamination of surface waters with endocrine-disrupting compounds. Ecotoxicological assessment of these field observations depends on the availability of reliable biomarkers to enable a discrimination of natural variations of reproductive functions from anthropogenic impacts. Materials and methods: Roach and perch were caught at eight sampling sites by electrofishing twice a year in summer (July-September) and late autumn/winter (November-December) over a 2-year period. The sites are characterized by different degrees of anthropogenic impact and are situated within the greater Upper Rhine catchment. Age growths, parasitization and gonadal histology of more than 3,000 fish were examined. Results: The two dominant fish species in German surface waters perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) differ considerably regarding their suitability for biomonitoring. Even in pristine habitats, perch show several variants of sex differentiation in terms of (1) the time of first sexual maturation, (2) the course of seasonal gonadal recrudescence, and (3) the occurrence of heterologous germ cells (testes ova). A statistically significant elevated proportion of males were observed in fish obtained from a TBT-contaminated marina and suppression of gonadal ripening was observed in females caught in a sewage-contaminated brook. Both effects appear to be due to chemical contamination. The only "natural" alteration of sex differentiation in roach was related to parasitization with Ligula intestinalis (Eucestoda, Pseudophyllidea). Other deviations from the normal pattern of sex differentiation were (1) suppression of ovarian ripening and (2) asynchronic seasonal gonadal recrudescence. These are strong indicators of an anthropogenically induced impact on reproductive health. Feminization phenomena were not observed at either the individual or the population level. Discussion: Interpretation of field monitoring results concerning reproductive health requires large numbers of samples and detailed knowledge of the natural plasticity of sex differentiation in the species under investigation. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the plasticity of sex differentiation in perch is indispensable to enable perch to be used as a bioindicator. Conclusions: Deviation from the strict and probably endogenous control of sex differentiation in roach is a strong and unequivocal warning signal. Recommendations and perspectives: The subject of fish monitoring should be addressed in the context of a broader spectrum of potential risks. Seasonal and ontogenetic integrity of gonadal development and recrudescence are potent biomarkers, provided the natural process is well documented for the species under investigation. © Springer-Verlag 2009.
Bartzke M.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Bartzke M.,Gobio GmbH |
Bartzke M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Delov V.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2010
Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods: Sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion: The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality elements at the sampling sites. Conclusions: The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. © Springer-Verlag 2010.