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Hue K.T.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Van D.T.T.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Ledin I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sporndly E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wredle E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Weaned lambs of the Phan Rang breed with an initial weight of 15.0 kg and 3.5 months of age were used to study the effects of feeding fresh, wilted and sun-dried cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance, HCN consumed and thiocyanate concentration in urine during 24 h. The treatments were three diets containing guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and cassava chips supplemented with fresh cassava foliage (FCFd), wilted cassava foliage (WCFd) or cassava hay (CHd). Six male lambs were used in a digestibility trial in a double 3×3 Latin square design and twenty-four lambs (6 males and 18 females) in a growth trial lasting 84 days. Dry matter intake ranged from 33 to 36 g/kg body weight. No significant difference between treatments was observed in live weight gain, which was 73.1, 76.7 and 75.6 g/day for FCFd, WCFd and CHd, respectively. The DM digestibility was significantly higher, 674 and 687 g/kg DM for FCFd and WCFd, compared to 600 g/kg DM for CHd. The nitrogen retained was 3.2, 3.8 and 3.5 g/day for FCFd, WCFd and CHd, respectively, and was not significantly different among treatments. Hydrogen cyanide content in fresh cassava foliage, wilted cassava foliage and cassava hay was 333, 217 and 60 mg/kg DM, and the amount consumed was significantly different among treatments, 114.6, 86.6 and 25.5 mg/day for FCFd, WCFd and CHd, respectively. The thiocyanate concentration in the urine of the lambs from diet CHd was significantly lower compared to diets FCFd and WCFd, where the thiocyanate level in urine increased from before feeding, reaching a peak at 12 h after feeding and then decreasing. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Hue K.T.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Van D.T.T.,National Institute of Animal science | Sporndly E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ledin I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wredle E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The objective of the experiment was to study different adaptation strategies to avoid HCN intoxication when feeding fresh cassava foliage to sheep. Twenty-four Phan Rang lambs (initial weight = 19. 6 kg at 5. 5 months of age) were used in the study. The four experimental diets contained guinea grass (Panicum maximum) supplemented with concentrate at 1. 5% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM) (control) or supplemented with fresh cassava foliage (FCF) that was introduced into the diet with an adaptation period of 0 (FCF-0), 7 (FCF-7) or 21 (FCF-21) days before reaching the target feeding level of 2% of BW. The average intake of FCF expressed as DM was not different amongst the supplemented treatments and ranged from 1. 4 to 1. 5% of BW but gradually increased during the first 7 days without any adaptation. The hydrogen cyanide consumed varied from 5. 1 to 5. 4 mg/kg BW and no difference between treatments with cassava foliage in the diet was found. The live weight gain was significantly higher in the treatments control and FCF-7 compared to FCF-21. No significant differences in heart rate, respiration rate and rumen movement were found between diets. The thiocyanate concentration in the urine of the lambs increased concomitantly with the increase in fresh cassava foliage offered during the first part of the experiment. In conclusion, an adaptation period of approximately 7 days seems to be favourable in combined diets where cassava foliage is offered in quantities up to 2% of BW. This level of intake could enhance the intake and LWG of the lambs without any documented effects on heart rate, respiration rate or rumen movements. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Hue K.T.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Van D.T.T.,National Institute of Animal science | Ledin I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wredle E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sporndly E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. Copyright © 2012 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source


van Sao N.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Mui N.T.,NIAH | van Binh,NIAH
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Three experiments were carried out at the Goat and Rabbit Research Centre and on farms in Bavi, Ha Tay province of North Vietnam. In the first experiment, biomass production of Tithonia diversifolia (Wild Sunflower) and the effect on soil fertility was studied in a complete random plot design with three treatments: (TD) Tithonia in pure stand; (GG) Guinea grass in pure stand; and TD-GG Association of Tithonia and guinea grass. Cattle manure (10 tonnes/ha/year) was supplied for all plots. Soil fertility changes were monitored with the bio-test method by using maize plants grown in the soil taken from experimental plots before and at the end of the trial. The second experiment was a 3*3 Latin square design to determine apparent digestibility and nitrogen retention when goats were fed Tithonia as sole feed compared with foliage of Stylosanthes and Jackfruit. In the third experiment, feed intake was recorded in a trial with 5 treatments: (TD) Tithonia as sole feed fed ad libitum; (TD-GG) Tithonia fed ad libitum + 1.5% of LW (DM basis) of guinea grass; (TD-GG-JA) Tithonia fed ad libitum + 1.5% LW of guinea grass + 1% LW of Jackfruit foliage, (TD-GG-BL); Tithonia fed ad libitum + 1.5% LW of guinea grass + 1% LW of Banana leaf; and (TD-GG-CA) Tithonia fed ad libitum + 1.5% LW of guinea grass + 1% LW of Caliandra foliage. After 12 months growth, the edible biomass yield of Tithonia was 172 tonnes/ha/year in fresh form equal to 25 tonnes DM with 6 tonnes crude protein (CP)/ha/year when Tithonia was planted in pure stand. Soil fertility was improved according to maize biomass yield grown in the soil taken from plots planted with Tithonia. Foliage of Tithonia contained 23.9% CP (DM basis) and had low NDF content (38.4%). Apparent digestibility coefficients of DM and CP were 53.7% and 67.8%, respectively, higher than for Jackfruit foliage (51.52% and 38.37%) and Stylosanthes (51.0% and 62.3%). However, nitrogen retention of goats when fed Tithonia as sole feed was lower than that obtained with Jack fruit foliage and Stylosanthes. Urine N was 15.8 g/day on Tithonia compared with 5.7 and 7.2 on Jackfruit and Stylo, indicating that a high proportion of the feed N was degraded in the rumen and excreted in the urine. It is concluded that Tithonia plants have high biomass yield per unit of land and could improve soil fertility. Foliage of Tithonia is well consumed by goats but needs appropriate supplementation for the expression of its potential nutritive value. Source


Thanh T.X.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Hue K.T.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Anh N.N.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Preston T.R.,TOSOLY
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

Thirty two Bach Thao goats with an initial weight of 15.3 kg at 4 months of age were used to study the nutritive value of chopped cassava stems supplemented with Guinea grass or one of three protein-rich foliages - fresh cassava foliage (CF), cassava hay (CH) or fresh jackfruit foliage (JF). Highest values for total DM intake were recorded with supplements of fresh cassava foliage and jackfruit with the lowest value when the supplement was Guinea grass. Growth rates were increased by 79%, and feed conversion improved by 34%, when the cassava foliage was fed fresh rather than being made into hay; while compared with Guinea grass the growth on fresh cassava foliage as the supplement was 99% greater and the DM feed conversion 35% better. Source

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