GNI Ltd | Date: 2001-11-20
PRINTED BUSINESS REPORTS, NAMELY PAMPHLETS AND BROCHURES; NEWSLETTERS; AND REPORTS IN MAGAZINES, ALL RELATING TO BUSINESS INVESTMENT AND FINANCE; AND CALENDARS. BUSINESS RESEARCH. MONEY MARKET SERVICES; EQUITY STOCK LENDING; STOCK BROKERING; INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT; FINANCIAL PLANNING AND ADVICE; FOREIGN EXCHANGE BROKERING; DERIVATIVE BROKERING; INTERNATIONAL STOCK LENDING AND FUND MANAGEMENT; BROKERING IN GILTS AND BONDS; FINANCIAL RESEARCH; FINANCIAL BROKERING SERVICES; INVESTMENT, EQUITY AND COMMODITY BROKERAGE VIA THE INTERNET; TRADING IN FINANCIAL FUTURES.
PRINTED BUSINESS REPORTS, NAMELY PAMPHLETS AND BROCHURES; NEWSLETTERS; AND REPORTS IN MAGAZINES, ALL RELATING TO BUSINESS INVESTMENT AND FINANCE; AND CALENDARS. BUSINESS RESEARCH. MONEY MARKET SERVICES; EQUITY STOCK LENDING; STOCK BROKERING, INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT; FINANCIAL PLANNING AND ADVICE; FOREIGN EXCHANGE BROKERING; DERIVATIVE BROKERING; INTERNATIONAL STOCK LENDING AND FUND MANAGEMENT; BROKERING IN GILTS AND BONDS; FINANCIAL RESEARCH; FINANCIAL BROKERING SERVICES; INVESTMENT, EQUITY AND COMMODITY BROKERAGE VIA THE INTERNET; TRADING IN FINANCIAL FUTURES.
G. N. I. Inc. | Date: 1998-04-21
Affara M.,University of Cambridge |
Sanders D.,University of Cambridge |
Araki H.,GNI Ltd. |
Tamada Y.,Tokyo Medical University |
And 10 more authors.
Background: Apoptosis is a critical process in endothelial cell (EC) biology and pathology, which has been extensively studied at protein level. Numerous gene expression studies of EC apoptosis have also been performed, however few attempts have been made to use gene expression data to identify the molecular relationships and master regulators that underlie EC apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to understand these relationships by generating a Bayesian gene regulatory network (GRN) model.Results: ECs were induced to undergo apoptosis using serum withdrawal and followed over a time course in triplicate, using microarrays. When generating the GRN, this EC time course data was supplemented by a library of microarray data from EC treated with siRNAs targeting over 350 signalling molecules.The GRN model proposed Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) as one of the candidate master-regulators of EC apoptosis with numerous downstream mRNAs. To evaluate the role played by VASH1 in EC, we used siRNA to reduce the expression of VASH1. Of 10 mRNAs downstream of VASH1 in the GRN that were examined, 7 were significantly up- or down-regulated in the direction predicted by the GRN.Further supporting an important biological role of VASH1 in EC, targeted reduction of VASH1 mRNA abundance conferred resistance to serum withdrawal-induced EC death. Conclusion: We have utilised Bayesian GRN modelling to identify a novel candidate master regulator of EC apoptosis. This study demonstrates how GRN technology can complement traditional methods to hypothesise the regulatory relationships that underlie important biological processes. © 2013 Affara et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source
Wang L.,University of Auckland |
Hurley D.G.,University of Auckland |
Watkins W.,University of Auckland |
Araki H.,University of Auckland |
And 10 more authors.
Background: Our understanding of the molecular pathways that underlie melanoma remains incomplete. Although several published microarray studies of clinical melanomas have provided valuable information, we found only limited concordance between these studies. Therefore, we took an in vitro functional genomics approach to understand melanoma molecular pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings: Affymetrix microarray data were generated from A375 melanoma cells treated in vitro with siRNAs against 45 transcription factors and signaling molecules. Analysis of this data using unsupervised hierarchical clustering and Bayesian gene networks identified proliferation-association RNA clusters, which were co-ordinately expressed across the A375 cells and also across melanomas from patients. The abundance in metastatic melanomas of these cellular proliferation clusters and their putative upstream regulators was significantly associated with patient prognosis. An 8-gene classifier derived from gene network hub genes correctly classified the prognosis of 23/26 metastatic melanoma patients in a cross-validation study. Unlike the RNA clusters associated with cellular proliferation described above, co-ordinately expressed RNA clusters associated with immune response were clearly identified across melanoma tumours from patients but not across the siRNA-treated A375 cells, in which immune responses are not active. Three uncharacterised genes, which the gene networks predicted to be upstream of apoptosis- or cellular proliferation-associated RNAs, were found to significantly alter apoptosis and cell number when over-expressed in vitro. Conclusions/Significance: This analysis identified co-expression of RNAs that encode functionally-related proteins, in particular, proliferation-associated RNA clusters that are linked to melanoma patient prognosis. Our analysis suggests that A375 cells in vitro may be valid models in which to study the gene expression modules that underlie some melanoma biological processes (e.g., proliferation) but not others (e.g., immune response). The gene expression modules identified here, and the RNAs predicted by Bayesian network inference to be upstream of these modules, are potential prognostic biomarkers and drug targets. © 2012 Wang et al. Source