Ludhiāna, India
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Singh R.,GNDEC | Singh S.,Punjab Technical University
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2015

Investment casting (IC) process, with assistance of rapid prototyping technologies (RPTs), has successfully overcome the problems (such as; long lead time and high tooling costs) for its commercial applications. In the present research work, an effort has been made to investigate statistically controlled solution of fused deposition modelling (FDM) assisted Nylon6-Al-Al2O3replica basedIC process. An alternativeFDM filament with different proportions of Al and Al2O3 reinforced Nylon-6 matrix composite mixture were tested for their compatibility with existing FDM system(prior to the extrusion process). Single screw extruder was used for the development of selected proportions of the composite mixtures in form of FDM filaments. The measurements on final casting prepared were used to calculate the international tolerance (IT) grades to establish the dimensional accuracy of the components. It has been found that the castings produced using Nylon-6 matrix based replicas are acceptable as per international standard organization (ISO) standard UNI-EN-20286-I (1995). Further the microscopic analysis of the castings highlighted the presence of Al2O3 particles in the castings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Singh S.,Punjab Technical University | Singh R.,GNDEC
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2016

In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the tribological properties of Al-Al2O3 composites (under dry sliding conditions) prepared via fused deposition modeling assisted investment casting (FDMAIC) route. Initially, two proportions/mixtures-nylon60%-Al30%-Al2O310% and nylon60%-Al 28%-Al2O312%-were fabricated in the form of fused deposition modeling (FDM) filament on a single screw extruder of L/D 20. Finally, the alternative filaments were used as feedstock filaments of existing FDM system for the fabrication of reinforced investment casting (IC) sacrificial patterns. The effect of process parameters (namely, filament proportion (FP), volume of reinforced FDM pattern, density of FDM pattern (DP), barrel finishing (BF) time, barrel finishing media weight (BFW), and number of IC slurry layers (NSL)) on tribological properties of Al-Al2O3 composites has been studied and optimized using Taguchi L18 OA. Tribotests were performed on pin-on-disk type tribotester at a sliding speed: 239rpm, sliding diameter-80mm, load-19.61N, and time-10min. Wear was measured both in terms of length and weight loss. Finally, the composites developed were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffractogram (XRD). © 2016 by ASME.

Singh R.,GNDEC | Singh J.,GNDEC | Singh S.,Punjab Technical University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2016

In the recent years, the whole world is facing a serious problem in handling nylon-6 wastes of various societies like: fibres/textile, household, carpets, tires, military supplies, etc. Ordinary recycling process of such wastes is costlier process and also omits its major mechanical properties. In the present research work, nylon-6 waste (collected from local plastic based industry) has been recycled, through extrusion process, in the form of fused deposition modelling (FDM) feedstock filament. This alternatively developed FDM filament has been successfully used to fabricate sacrificial patterns for investment casting process (ICP). The process was started with investigating the melt flow index (MFI) of collected nylon-6 waste which was matched with the commercial FDM filament through reinforcement. Finally, single screw extruder of has been used for the development of FDM filament proportion with a mixture of 60% nylon-6, 30% Al and 30% Al2O3 (by wt.). The resulting FDM patterns have been used in ICP for development of aluminum matrix composite (AMC). Taguchi L9 was used to investigate the affect of process parameters (volume of pattern, density of pattern and number of IC coatings) on dimensional accuracy of AMC developed. Apart from suggesting an alternative method for management and recycling of nylon-6 waste, the present research work also described a new approach for the development of AMC with tailor made properties. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Singh H.P.,BGIET | Brar Y.S.,GNDEC | Kothari D.P.,J B Group of Insitutions
Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 8th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2013 | Year: 2013

Major objective for the Thermal power generation is to minimize fuel consumption by allocating optimal power generation from each unit and to maintain emissions within the environmental license limit subject to equality and inequality constraints. The objectives considered in this paper for minimization i.e. cost and emission are of conflicting nature, therefore weighting method has been applied to convert multiobjective optimization problem to a scalar optimization. The weighting method assigns different weights to each objective function based upon their importance. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique has been applied to find the best comprised solution. The equality constraints have been handled by exterior Peñalty method. Fuzzy cardinal approach has been used for the evaluation of the best solution. In order to show the effectiveness, the proposed approach has been tested on three test systems. Numerical results obtained from the proposed approach are compared with different techniques. © 2013 IEEE.

Singh K.,G.N.D.E.C. | Padhy N.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Sharma J.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a novel congestion management strategy for a pool based electricity market considering combined operation of hydro and thermal generator companies. The proposed congestion management problem is formulated as mixed binary nonlinear programming problem to minimize the cost of re-dispatching the hydro and thermal generator companies to alleviate congestion subject to operational, line overloading and water availability constraints. A piecewise-linearized unit performance curve is used in this formulation, which takes into account its non-concave nature. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by solving the modified IEEE 57-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems for congestion management under line outages. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mankoo H.S.,GNDEC | Kaur B.,GNDEC
MATEC Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

The intersatellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) is used because higher data rates for longer distances can be achieved with minimum time delay. The analysis of 16x16 multiple Tx/Rx system using IM/DD and CO-QPSK techniques is done and from simulations, it is observed that maximum achievable distance of IsOWC link is a function of bit rates. For the transmission of data at longer distances, data rates should be low. The results of simulation for comparison between the two techniques in ISOWC system model are presented and discussed. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

Rapid prototyping (RP) is being widely used in diverse areas, from the building of aesthetic and functional prototypes to the production of tools and moulds for prototypes. Many RP techniques like stereo lithography, laminated object manufacturing, three dimensional printing etc. are commercially available. The implication of these technologies revealed that the time and cost of developing new foundry tools could be greatly reduced. The purpose of the present research paper is to review three dimensional printing for generation of prototype for casting applications. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

Singh R.,GNDEC
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2015

Stainless steel (SS) is sensitized by thermal treatment in the range of 450°C to 800°C and inter-granular attack would occur upon subsequent exposure to certain media. This study is focused on modelling the effect of sensitization (by taking into consideration hardness as the weld property) in resistance spot welding (RSW) of 304SS, before and after cryogenic treatment on tungsten electrode. In the present work, outcome of Taguchi model has been used for developing a mathematical model for sensitization; using Buckingham’s π-theorem. The parameters of significance are coolant flow rate (CFR), voltage and time. This study will provide main effects of these variables on hardness of weld joint and will shed light on the sensitization mechanism in RSW of 304SS. The comparison with experimental results will also serve as further validation of model. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Singh R.,GNDEC
Rapid Prototyping Journal | Year: 2014

Purpose - The purpose of the present study is process capability analysis of fused deposition modelling (FDM) process as rapid pattern making (RDPM) solutions for plastic components. Design/methodology/approach - Starting from the identification of component, prototypes with ABS plastic material were produced and dimensional measurements were made with coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Findings - The study highlighted the best settings of orientation, support material quantity for the selected component as a case study on FDM machine from dimensional accuracy and economic point of view as RDPM solution for plastic components. Practical implications - This process ensures rapid production of statistically controlled pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I and DIN16901. Originality/value - The results of the study suggest that FDM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (σ) limit in regard to dimensional accuracy of plastic component is concerned and may be gainfully employed as RDPM solution for bio-medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

Purpose-This paper aims to investigate the dimensional accuracy of aluminium (Al) matrix composites (AMCs) prepared by using an alternative reinforced fused deposition modeling (FDM)-based sacrificial patterns in investment casting (IC) process. Further in this work, a barrel finishing (BF) process has been introduced as an intermediate step for the improvement of surface finish of sacrificial patterns and to study the effect of BF process parameters on dimensional features of the casted AMCs. In the present research, an effort has been made to ascertain the capability/producibility of the proposed route for obtaining good geometrical tolerances. Design/methodology/approach-Alternative reinforced FDM filaments were developed using single screw extruder whose melt flow index was matched with the commercial acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene filament. IC sacrificial patterns, fabricated on existing FDM system without making any change in its hardware/software, were barrel finished for improving the surface finish. The effect of FDM, BF and IC process parameters, namely, type of filament, volume of CAD-based cubical pattern, pattern density, BF time, BF media weight and numbers of IC slurry layers, was studied using Taguchi L18 OA approach. Findings-Dimensional accuracy of casted AMCs developed was optimized successfully using Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. Optical microscopic analysis made on the castings highlighted the presence of Al2O3 particles which will result into the improvement of mechanical and tribological properties. International tolerance grade of cast AMCs was calculated and found acceptable as per ISO standard UNI-EN-20286-I (1995). Further, there are strong possibilities of process to be under statistical control at proposed settings. Originality/value-The paper describes a new route for the development of AMC. The effect of FDM, BF and IC process parameters on dimensional accuracy of AMCs developed is also highlighted in the present research. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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