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Vadodara, India

Thakkar S.,GMERS Medical College | Patel S.,Medical College
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Introduction: Early diagnosis and early adequate drug treatment is very important aspect to reduce the load in cases of leprosy. So, correct labeling of paucibacillary and multibacillary cases is a prerequisite for the adequate treatment. Confirmation of diagnosis is an important indication for histopathological examination in doubtful cases. Objectives: The present study was carried out to know the clinical profile of leprosy patients, concordance between clinical and histopathological diagnosis in cases of leprosy, and to assess the therapeutic efficacy of antileprosy therapy. Study Design: Two hundred and fifty clinically diagnosed leprosy patients attending skin outdoor patient department (OPD) were included in the study. Slit skin smear was performed in all the cases. In that case concordance between clinical and histology can be determined only in 30 cases. All the patients were treated with MDT (multidrug therapy) as per WHO guideline. Results: A total of 250 patients attended the clinic with male to female ratio of 1.7:1. The highest incidence was noted in 17-40 years of age group. In the clinical disease spectrum, 40% patients were in the borderline spectrum followed by tuberculoid leprosy (TT) (29.2%), lepromatous leprosy (LL) (26.8%), and 3.9% of indeterminate leprosy (IL). A total of 18% of patients were of primary neuritic leprosy. A total of 8.3% patients had definite history of contact in the family or neighborhood. Clinicopathological correlation was noted in 60% of patients with maximum disparity (52.9%) in the borderline group of patients. A total of 52.8% were MB (Multibacillary) and 47.2% were PB (Paucibacillary) cases. Morphological index became negative after 6 months in all patients. Mean fall of bacteriological index after 6 months was 0.19, while after 1 year, it was 1.05. Conclusion: Timely diagnosis and adequate treatment of cases with MDT is most effective. Histopathological examination is must in doubtful cases of leprosy. Source

Paralikar S.J.,GMERS Medical College
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in lowlanders who ascend rapidly to altitudes greater than 2500-3000 m. Early symptoms of HAPE include a nonproductive cough, dyspnoea on exertion and reduced exercise performance. Later, dyspnoea occurs at rest. Clinical features are cyanosis, tachycardia, tachypnoea and elevated body temperature generally not exceeding 38.5°C. Rales are discrete initially and located over the middle lung fields. HAPE mainly occurs due to exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and elevated pulmonary artery pressure. It has been observed that HAPE is a high permeability type of edema occurring also due to leaks in the capillary wall (′stress failure′). Slow descent is the most effective method for prevention; in addition, graded ascent and time for acclimatization, low sleeping altitudes, avoidance of alcohol and sleeping pills, and avoidance of exercise are the key to preventing HAPE. Treatment of HAPE consists of immediate improvement of oxygenation either by supplemental oxygen, hyperbaric treatment, or by rapid descent. Source

Dave M.R.,GMERS Medical College | Yagain V.K.,Medical University of the Americas | Anadkat S.,Medical University of the Americas
International Journal of Morphology | Year: 2013

Pain is a common distressing symptom in dental practice. Depending upon the cases, different techniques are used to relieve pain. One of these is peripheral trigeminal nerve block. Peripheral trigeminal nerve block anaesthesia has proved to be an effective and convenient way to anaesthetise large regions of oral and maxillofacial complex. This block can be intraoral or extra oral. The intraoral route is through the greater palatine foramen in which the dental surgeons enter into the pterygopalatine fossa, where the maxillary nerve is situated. The morphological variations in the position of greater palatine foramen may be of clinical importance in the administration of local anaesthesia and in palatal surgery. In the present study, the distance of greater palatine foramen from the median palatine suture, and from the posterior border of hard palate have been noted, and the position of greater palatine foramen relative to the maxillary molars, as well as the direction of the foramen have been examined. Source

Patel N.,Medwise Pharmaceuticals | Mishra V.,GMERS Medical College | Patel P.,B J Medical College | Dikshit R.K.,GCS Medical College
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders | Year: 2014

Background: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common, symptomatic, long-term complication of diabetes mellitus. Many of the agents used to treat DN have not been compared with each other. This study was, therefore, undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine, pregabalin and alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic neuropathy patients.Methods: This was a prospective, observational study. The patients were categorized into three groups, Group I included those patients who were prescribed carbamazepine while group II included those on pregabalin and group III patients received alpha-lipoic acid. Each patient was followed up at every month for total duration of 6 months. Demographic details, presenting symptoms, history of diabetes, laboratory values pertaining to diabetes (Fasting blood sugar, Post prandial blood sugar and HbA1c) were recorded. Intensity of pain, using a visual analogue scale (VAS), diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS) score and diabetic neuropathy examination (DNE) score were assessed at baseline and then at each monthly follow-up. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was also measured at baseline and then at the end of 3 and 6 months.Results: A total of 101 patients were enrolled out of them 96 completed the study. Regarding VAS, the number of patients having pain was reduced substantially however, the speed and the quantum of this reduction were best in group II (pregabalin). Regarding DNS, also group II showed the best response in terms of number of patients as well as the speed of improvement. The results also imply that the relief from diabetic neuropathy (as per DNE score) is superior with pregabalin administration. However, no improvement in NCV was evident in any group.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that treatment with pregabalin gives faster and better improvement in diabetic neuropathy. © 2014 Patel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Patel T.K.,GMERS Medical College | Patel P.B.,GMERS Medical College
Current Drug Safety | Year: 2016

This systematic review estimated the incidence of ADRs that lead to hospitalization (ADRAd) and that developed during hospitalization (ADRIn) and factors affecting in Indian population. Two independent investigators searched the electronic databases describing ADRs. Due to high heterogeneity, incidence of ADRAd and ADRIn were presented as median (interquartile range-IQR). We performed the subgroup analysis of incidence based on characteristics of the included studies. The meta-analysis (generic inverse variance method with random effect model) was possible for the fatal ADR incidence. The risk factors for ADRs were also explored from the included studies. We used 'Review manager software version 5.0' and 'Graph Pad Prism version 6.0' for the analysis. Of 77 fully evaluated references, 21 prospective studies were selected. The median incidence of ADRAd and ADRIn were 2.85% (IOR: 1.25 - 3.93%) and 6.34% (IQR: 3.36 - 16.37%), respectively. The subgroup analysis found high incidence rate with studies conducted in intensive care units, elderly age groups, with intensive monitoring, duration of > 1 year and multidisciplinary team. The fatal ADR incidence was 0.08% (95% CI: 0.00-0.15%). Important risk factors for ADRs included elderly, female sex and polypharmacy. The hospitalized patients have a significant burden of ADRs. The multiple factors may have affected their occurrence. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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