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Pritchard J.,GM Powertrain | Cheng W.K.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2015

The effects of secondary air on the exhaust oxidation of particulate matters (PM) have been assessed in a direct-injection-spark-ignition engine under fuel rich fast idle condition (1200 rpm; 2 bar NIMEP). Substantial oxidation of the unburned feed gas species (CO and HC) and significant reduction of both the particulate number (up to ∼80%) and volume (up to ∼90%) have been observed. The PM oxidation is attributed to the reactions between the PM and the radicals generated in the oxidation of the feed gas unburned species. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that the reduction in PM volume is proportional to the amount of heat release in the secondary oxidation. Copyright © 2015 SAE International. Source

Benajes J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Martin J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Garcia A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Villalta D.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2015

In the last two decades engine research has been mainly focused on reducing pollutant emissions. This fact together with growing awareness about the impacts of climate change are leading to an increase in the importance of thermal efficiency over other criteria in the design of internal combustion engines (ICE). In this framework, the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls can be considered as one of the main sources of indicated efficiency diminution. In particular, in modern direct-injection diesel engines, the radiation emission from soot particles can constitute a significant component of the efficiency losses. Thus, the main of objective of the current research was to evaluate the amount of energy lost to soot radiation relative to the input fuel chemical energy during the combustion event under several representative engine loads and speeds. Moreover, the current research characterized the impact of different engine operating conditions on radiation heat transfer. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used. In particular, soot radiation was quantified with a sensor that uses two-color thermometry along with its corresponding simplified radiation model. Experiments were conducted using a 4-cylinder direct-injection light-duty diesel engine fully instrumented with thermocouples. The goal was to calculate the energy balance of the input fuel chemical energy. Results provide a characterization of radiation heat transfer for different engine loads and speeds as well as radiation trends for different engine operating conditions. Copyright © 2015 SAE International. Source

He Y.,General Motors | Bucknor N.K.,General Motors | Smith A.L.,General Motors | Yang H.,GM Powertrain
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010

Using a clutch to disconnect and shut-off the engine when engine power is not required, the single-motor strong hybrid has the potential for significant fuel economy improvement with reduced costs and less system complexity. However, it is a challenge for the single-motor strong hybrid to maintain acceptable drivability at engine start since it requires diverting motor torque through a slipping clutch to start the engine. In this study, dynamic simulations of the hybrid transmission driveline with hydraulic and motor controls have been employed to assess the feasibility of the single-motor strong hybrid, to address drivability issues specific to this hybrid architecture at engine start, and to develop control methods to manage driveline disturbances to an acceptable level. Copyright © 2010 SAE International. Source

Lauer T.,Vienna University of Technology | Heiss M.,Vienna University of Technology | Bobicic N.,Vienna University of Technology | Holly W.,Vienna University of Technology | Pritze S.,GM Powertrain
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

The combustion of highly boosted gasoline engines is limited by knocking combustion and pre-ignition. Therefore, a comprehensive modelling approach consisting of cycle-to-cycle simulation, reactor modelling with detailed chemistry and CFD-simulation was used to predict the knock initiation and to identify the source of pre-ignition. A 4-cylinder DISI test engine was set up and operated at low engine speeds and high boost pressures in order to verify the accuracy of the numerical approach. The investigations showed that there is a correlation between the knocking combustion and the very first combustion phase. The onset of knock was simulated with a stochastic reactor model and detailed chemistry. In parallel, measurements with an optical spark plug were carried out in order to identify the location of knock onset. The simulation results were in good agreement with the measurements. Deposits and oil/fuel-droplets are possible triggers of pre-ignition. A multi-component fuel approach was therefore introduced to predict the wall film formation with the CFD-simulation. Droplet-stripping from the wall film was evaluated. The simulation of the chemistry of the oil/fuel droplets confirmed the results from high-speed imaging that identified droplets and deposits as a possible source of pre-ignition. Copyright © 2014 SAE International. Source

Groff E.G.,GM Powertrain
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

Spark-ignition direct-injection technology existed since about 1930 for the primary purpose to give multifuel capability over what the compression-ignited diesel engine could provide. In subsequent decades development of multifuel engines continued both as higher-compression-ratio "spark-ignited diesel" and moderate-compressionratio stratified-charge engines. Global events in the 1960-1970's, namely the oil embargo, oil-supply crises, and the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act intensified interest in such engines. The military and large commercial fleet operators were particularly focused on efficiency and multifuel capability over concerns for fuel supplies. Automobile manufacturers were focused on gasoline-fueled efficiency and the potential to reduce engine-out legislated NOx emissions with the stratified-charged combustion systems. In this paper the major direct-injection spark-ignited stratified-charge concepts pursued during the 1970-1980's are reviewed at a high level, and relevant references are cited. Examination of this development history should be of interest to those working on modern gasoline direct-injected engines, as a variety of concepts were pursued, with the physics of those combustion processes being pertinent to today's systems in production and under development. In many cases advances in fuel-injection hardware, enabled by modern manufacturing methods, and control technologies, enabled by modern computers and sensors, have allowed design objectives of the past to be implemented successfully today. © Copyright 2016 SAE International. Source

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