Glycologic Ltd

Glasgow, United Kingdom

Glycologic Ltd

Glasgow, United Kingdom
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Al-Ghazzewi F.H.,Glycologic Ltd | Tester R.F.,Glycologic Ltd
Beneficial Microbes | Year: 2014

This review discusses the role of pre- and probiotics with respect to improving skin health by modulating the cutaneous microbiota. The skin ecosystem is a complex environment covered with a diverse microbiota community. These are classified as either transient or resident, where some are considered as beneficial, some essentially neutral and others pathogenic or at least have the capacity to be pathogenic. Colonisation varies between different parts of the body due to different environmental factors. Pre- and probiotic beneficial effects can be delivered topically or systemically (by ingestion). The pre- and probiotics have the capacity to optimise, maintain and restore the microbiota of the skin in different ways. Topical applications of probiotic bacteria have a direct effect at the site of application by enhancing the skin natural defence barriers. Probiotics as well as resident bacteria can produce antimicrobial peptides that benefit cutaneous immune responses and eliminate pathogens. In cosmetic formulations, prebiotics can be applied to the skin microbiota directly and increase selectively the activity and growth of beneficial 'normal' skin microbiota. Little is known about the efficacy of topically applied prebiotics. Nutritional products containing prebiotics and/or probiotics have a positive effect on skin by modulating the immune system and by providing therapeutic benefits for atopic diseases. This review underlines the potential use of pre- and probiotics for skin health. © 2014 Wageningen Academic Publishers.


Al-Ghazzewi F.H.,Glycologic Ltd | Tester R.F.,Glycologic Ltd
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Glucomannan polysaccharides may be hydrolysed to lower molecular weight molecules using acids or enzymes, specifically mannanases or cellulases. Mannanases (β-mannanases) hydrolyse β-(1-4)-linked mannose residues randomly in mannans whilst cellulases (β-glucanase) hydrolyse β-(1-4)-linked glucose residues. The molecular weight of the hydrolysate is clearly dependent on the amount of hydrolysis. One use of such hydrolysates has been towards their capacity to function as prebiotics. The relative efficacy of cellulase and/or mannanase hydrolysates of konjac glucomannan to promote the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been evaluated. RESULTS: The LAB growth profiles (expressed in colony forming units, as a function of time) in UHT milk containing konjac glucomannan hydrolysed with cellulase were significantly greater than those containing glucose (control) or konjac glucomannan mannanase hydrolysates. An equivalent mixture (1:1) of cellulase-mannanase hydrolysates added to the UHT milk also showed significant improvement on the LAB growth profiles (compared to the glucose or mannanase alone hydrolysates). Different LAB strains showed some variation in growth profiles on the hydrolysates although this was not significant as a function of carbon source. CONCLUSIONS: Glucomannan hydrolysates produced with either mannanase or cellulase enzymes were effective growth promoters (carbon sources) of LAB. However, cellulase hydrolysates were most effective. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.


Tester R.F.,Glycologic Ltd | Al-Ghazzewi F.H.,Glycologic Ltd
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

The impact of ingesting glucomannans on health is not limited to colonic-focused fermentation into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which might have some local health benefits; it also helps in treating disease states and enhancing the body's immune system, both within the gut and in/on other parts of the body. The local and systemic roles of hydrolysed glucomannans, especially konjac glucomannans, in the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin and vagina, are highlighted. Therapeutic applications are discussed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry


Tester R.F.,Glycologic Ltd | Qi X.,Glycologic Ltd
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2011

The structure and properties of β-limit dextrins have received relatively little attention in the literature. This brief review aims to identify their key structural and functional properties and thus raise awareness for their potential utilisation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Qi X.,Glycologic Ltd | Tester R.F.,Glycologic Ltd
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2016

The composition (especially amylose, lipid and phosphorylation) and structure (semi-crystalline nature) of native starch granules does in part control the extent and rate of hydrolysis by amylases. This mini-review considers composition in this respect and follows a previous article directed towards how granule size impacts on hydrolysis. The final mini-review (to follow this article) considers how heat-moisture treatments impact further on starch hydrolysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


Alvani K.,Glycologic Ltd | Qi X.,Glycologic Ltd | Tester R.F.,Glycologic Ltd
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2011

Carbohydrates are used extensively in the pharmaceutical sector as excipients to facilitate packaging and delivery of drugs. These formats include tablets, capsules, liquids, suspensions, gels, inhalation products and strips. Apart from being very diverse in structure and properties, carbohydrates benefit from a safe history of usage with a positive health profile. These incorporate a number of starch derivatives. Dextrins represent hydrolysis products of starches and are thus α-glucans with both α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) bonds. They are used in different formats in pharmaceutical systems, and provide a number of technical advantages over other materials. This short review focuses on the use of carbohydrates and especially dextrins as oral delivery vehicles and their associated functionality and properties in these systems. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Tester R.,Glycologic Ltd | Al-Ghazzewi F.,Glycologic Ltd
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2016

The roles of native and depolymerised glucomannans in the diet are reviewed together with their impact in health and disease. The structure and properties of the carbohydrates are also considered together with their roles as microbiological substrates and their interactions with non-pathogens and pathogens. Native glucomannans have been consumed for centuries in Asia within food products and are permitted food thickeners through the world. However, their strong gel structures limit applications in the diet. Depolymerised and native glucomannans are considered therefore in this review with relevant dietary applications. These applications include swallowing (dysphagia), nutrient absorption control, satiety, dietary-fibre, inflammatory bowel disease, colonic benefits (such as prebiotic). © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Alvani K.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Tester R.F.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Tester R.F.,Glycologic Ltd | Lin C.-L.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Qi X.,Glycologic Ltd
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

The extent of α-amylase hydrolysis of normal potato starches, extracted from different varieties grown under the same conditions in the same season, is regulated more by gelatinisation than the composition or structure of the granules. This is evident for native and annealed starches gelatinised and then hydrolysed with α-amylase. With similar gelatinisation peak (Tp) temperatures (62.5-66.1 and 70.2-72.3°C respectively) and enthalpies (15.1-17.8 and 15.8-19.5Jg-1 respectively) for the native and annealed starches, increasing the temperature exposure in excess water (to cause progressive gelatinisation) by 10°C increments creates progressively more hydrolysis reflecting the (similar) gelatinisation transition. Overall, therefore, processing has a greater potential impact on the glycaemic index (GI) of potato starches than any variety specific variations. © 2013 .


Tester R.F.,Glycologic Ltd | Al-Ghazzewi F.H.,Glycologic Ltd
Food Research International | Year: 2013

This review aims to highlight some of the health benefits associated with consuming native and depolymerised glucomannans - especially konjac glucomannans. The mannans provide a number of health benefits in the body. The ability of mannans, especially konjac glucomannans, to prevent specific pathogens including Escherichia coli from adhering to the gut or bladder mucosa is highlighted. Other benefits associated with the local gut environment are discussed together with more systemic effects in and on other organs. The glucomannans could be candidates for use as possible therapeutic tools for the treatment of a range of physiological disorders such as diverticulitis, Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Alvani K.,Glycologic Ltd | Qi X.,Glycologic Ltd | Tester R.F.,Glasgow Caledonian University
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2012

The relationship between the gelatinisation parameters of native and annealed starches extracted from ten different potato varieties grown at the same site at the same time was studied. The objective was to identify how native gelatinisation temperatures and enthalpies impacted on annealed starch gelatinisation parameters. Prior to ANN, the initial onset (T o), peak (T p) and conclusion (T c) gelatinisation temperatures ranged from 58.71 to 62.45, 62.52 to 66.05 and 68.67 to 72.27°C, respectively, which increased to 66.15 to 69.12, 70.22 to 72.30 and 76.21 to 77.44°C, respectively, post ANN. Overall, the greater the initial gelatinisation temperatures the smaller the increment (ΔGT) post ANN. Comparable enthalpy values pre- and post-ANN were 15.13 to 18.37 and 15.76 to 18.37 J/g, respectively. These data indicate that the more 'perfect' the crystallites were before ANN the less they could be enhanced by the ANN process and that against a constant background of α-glucan structure, the pattern (rate) of starch deposition might be the primary differentiator of starch architecture across the varieties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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