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Kendall C.W.C.,St Michaels Hospital | Kendall C.W.C.,University of Toronto | Kendall C.W.C.,University of Saskatchewan | West S.G.,Pennsylvania State University | And 15 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background/Objective: Nut consumption has been found to decrease risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes and to promote healthy body weights possibly related to their favorable macronutrient profile. We therefore assessed the effect of pistachios on postprandial glucose and insulin levels, gut hormones related to satiety and endothelial function. Subjects/Methods: In this randomized crossover study, 20 subjects with metabolic syndrome consumed five study meals over 5-10 weeks. The meals differed in fat type and quantity, but were matched according to available carbohydrates (CHOs). Three meals had 50 g available CHO: white bread (WB50g), white bread, butter and cheese (WB+B+Ch) and white bread and pistachios (WB+P). Two meals had 12 g available CHO: white bread (WB12g) and pistachios (P). Results: Within each group of available CHO meals, postprandial glucose levels were the highest following the white bread-only meals, and glucose response was significantly attenuated when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed (P<0.05). Postprandial insulin levels were highest after the WB+B+Ch meal (P<0.05), but did not differ between the white bread-only and pistachio meals. Both endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index) significantly increased after the white bread-only meals compared with the WB+B+Ch meal (all P<0.05). Insulin secretagogue levels were higher when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed than when white bread only was consumed (P<0.05). Conclusions: Compared with white bread, pistachio consumption reduced postprandial glycemia, increased glucagon-like-peptide levels and may have insulin-sparing properties. These effects could be beneficial for individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Tosh S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Brummer Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Miller S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Regand A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The tendency of mixed linkage oat β-glucan to form viscous solutions is generally assumed to be related to its ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in humans. However, the association has not been clearly demonstrated. To conduct a clinical trial showing the relationship between LDL-cholesterol levels and viscosity, a series of extruded oat bran cereals were prepared in which the β-glucan had a range of molecular weights and modified solubility. An extraction protocol using physiological enzymes at 37 °C was used to estimate the effect that the cereals would have on gut viscosity. By reducing the molecular weight from 1,930,000 to 251,000 g/mol, the apparent viscosity in the physiological extract dropped from 2900 to 131 mPa·s (at 30 s-1). Microscopic examination showed that as the extrusion conditions were made more severe, to cause depolymerization, the integrity of the cell walls was lost and β-glucan dispersed throughout the cereal. Differences in the hardness and density of the extruded cereals were also evident as the molecular weight was reduced. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Regand A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Chowdhury Z.,University of Toronto | Tosh S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Wolever T.M.S.,University of Toronto | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The interaction between oat β-glucan and other food components has the potential to influence starch digestibility and consequently affect its bioactivity in reducing glycemic responses. Blood glucose concentrations were measured before and after ingesting wheat and oat granolas, with 0.6 and 6.2 g of β-glucan, respectively, and two starch doses (40 and 60 g). As the in vitro extract viscosity of β-glucan increased, the in vitro starch digestibility was reduced and the glucose responses were lowered. The peak blood glucose response (PBGR) and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) were lower in the 40 g than in the 60 g starch formulation. β-Glucan was significantly more active in reducing PBGR and iAUC when the β-glucan/starch ratio was 1.6:10 rather than 1.1:10. This information is valuable for new product development and for quality assessment of bioactive foods containing oat β-glucan. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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