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Yoon H.-S.,Hanyang University | Kim J.-W.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Cho H.-R.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Moon S.-B.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The immunomodulatory effects of Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 exopolymers containing β-1,3/1,6-glucan were evaluated in cyclophosphamide (CPA)-treated mice. To induce immunosuppression, 150 and 110 mg/kg of CPA were intraperitoneally injected 3 days and 1 day, respectively, before beginning administration of the test material. Exopolymers were delivered subcutaneously or orally, four times, in a volume of 10 ml/kg at 12-h intervals beginning 24 h after the second CPA treatment. Changes in thymus and spleen weights, splenic amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10, and numbers of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and TNF-α+ thymus and spleen cells were monitored in CPA-treated mice. As a result of CPA treatment, dramatic decreases in the number of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and TNF-α+ cells were detected in the thymus and spleen, along with decreases in thymus and spleen weights. In addition, splenic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 contents were also decreased on observation with flow cytometry. However, oral and subcutaneous treatments with exopolymers effectively reduced the immunosuppressive changes induced by CPA. Therefore, it is concluded that exopolymers of A. pullulans SM-2001 can effectively prevent immunosuppression through, at least partially, the recruitment of T cells and TNF-α+ cells or enhancement of their activity, and can provide an effective component of prevention or treatment regimens for immunosuppression related to cancer, sepsis, and high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy. © The Korean Society for Microbiology ad Biotechnology.


Choi J.-S.,Silla University | Kim J.W.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Kim Y.K.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Cho H.-R.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2014

The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimum composition of Polycan (β-glucan complex) and calcium lactate-gluconate (CaLG) that exhibited the most beneficial effects in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic rats. Polycan and CaLG single formulas (100 mg/kg each), and three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of three mixed formulas [polycan:CaLG (PCLG)=1:99, 5:95 and 10:90] were orally administered once a day for 84 days. The effects of the test materials were compared with those of a risedronate sodium-treated group. OVX resulted in an increase in body weight, decreased bone formation, elevated serum osteocalcin levels and urine deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio, as well as decreased serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels, femur indices, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and failure load. However, these OVX-induced osteoporotic changes markedly decreased following the administration of the test materials. Continuous oral treatment of Polycan or CaLG single formulas and the PCLG mixed formulas preserved bone mass and strength. The PCLG 10:90 mixed formula exhibited the most favorable synergistic antiosteoporotic effects in the OVX-induced osteoporotic rats as compared with equal doses of the Polycan or CaLG single formulas.


Choi J.-S.,Silla University | Shin H.-S.,Namyang Dairy Products Co. | Kim K.Y.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Ku S.K.,Daegu Haany University | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2015

In the present study, the beneficial and synergistic effects of Polycalcium, a mixture of Polycan and calcium (Ca) lactate-gluconate in a 1:9 weight ratio, on a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA) were explored. Polycalcium (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally once per day for 28 days from 1 week after the OA-modeling surgery. Diclofenac sodium (2 mg/kg) was administered as a reference drug. Following the OA surgery, increases in the maximum extension angles, edematous changes in knee and capsule thickness, reductions in chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, as well as changes in cartilage degeneration were observed. However, these OA-related symptoms were inhibited after 28 days of continuous oral treatment with Polycalcium. Anti-OA effects, including the induction of chondrocyte proliferation, were detected in the Polycalcium-treated rats and were more favorable compared with those in rats treated with Polycan or Ca lactate-gluconate alone (100 mg). Therefore, a mixture of Polycan and Ca lactate-gluconate was demonstrated to have beneficial synergistic effects on OA. © 2015 Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Daegu Haany University, Glucan Corporation Research Institute and Silla University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine | Year: 2014

The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimum composition of Polycan (-glucan complex) and calcium lactate-gluconate (CaLG) that exhibited the most beneficial effects in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic rats. Polycan and CaLG single formulas (100 mg/kg each), and three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of three mixed formulas [polycan:CaLG (PCLG)=1:99, 5:95 and 10:90] were orally administered once a day for 84 days. The effects of the test materials were compared with those of a risedronate sodium-treated group. OVX resulted in an increase in body weight, decreased bone formation, elevated serum osteocalcin levels and urine deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio, as well as decreased serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels, femur indices, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and failure load. However, these OVX-induced osteoporotic changes markedly decreased following the administration of the test materials. Continuous oral treatment of Polycan or CaLG single formulas and the PCLG mixed formulas preserved bone mass and strength. The PCLG 10:90 mixed formula exhibited the most favorable synergistic antiosteoporotic effects in the OVX-induced osteoporotic rats as compared with equal doses of the Polycan or CaLG single formulas.


Ku S.K.,Daegu Haany University | Kim J.W.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Cho H.R.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Kim K.Y.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Pharmacal Research | Year: 2012

The objective of this study is to detect the effect of beta-glucan derived from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, a UV induced mutant of A. pullulans on the ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic asthma. The test articles were orally administered to OVA-inducing asthmatic mice 4 days after sensitization for 13 days at 31.25, 62.5 or 125 mg/kg levels. Three days after the OVA sensitization, ten mice were selected per group based on body weight and were sacrificed three days after the OVA aerosol challenge. The changes on the body weight, lung weight, total leukocytes in peripheral blood and total cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were observed with changes on the lung histopathology and histomorphometry. The results were compared with dexamethasone (DEXA) 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally treated mice. The results showed increases of body weight after the OVA aerosol challenge, lung weight, total leukocytes and eosinophils in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, neutrophil and eosinophils in BALF were detected in the OVA control compared to sham control (non-OVA). However, these changes from asthmatic responses were significantly or dose-dependently decreased in the beta-glucan-dosing groups compared to those of the OVA control. Therefore, it is concluded that beta-glucan has favorable effects on asthmatic response induced by OVA. It was found that beta-glucan 125 mg/kg showed similar or slightly lower efficacy compared with DEXA 3 mg/kg.


Kim J.-W.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Cho H.-R.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Ku S.-K.,Daegu Haany University
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The object of this study was to assess the efficacy of Polycan from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, which is composed mostly of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, on osteoarthritis (OA)-induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT&PMM). Three different dosages of Polycan (85, 42.5, and 21.25 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day for 84 days to male rats a week after ACLT&PMM surgery. Changes in the circumference and maximum extension angle of each knee, and in cartilage histopathology were assessed using Mankin scores 12 weeks after Polycan administration. In addition, cartilage proliferation was evaluated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). As the result of ACLT&PMM, classic OA was induced with increases in maximum extension angles, edematous knees changes, and capsule thickness, as well as decreases in chondrocyte proliferation, cartilages degenerative changes, and loss of articular cartilage. However, these changes (except for capsule thickness) were markedly inhibited in all Polycan- and diclofenac sodium-treated groups compared with OA control. Although diclofenac sodium did not influence BrdU uptake, BrdU-immunoreactive cells were increased with all dosages of Polycan, which means that Polycan treatment induced proliferation of chondrocytes in the surface articular cartilage of the tibia and femur. The results obtained in this study suggest that 84 days of continuous oral treatment of three different dosages of Polycan led to lesser degrees of articular stiffness and histological cartilage damage compared with OA controls 91 days after OA inducement, suggesting that the optimal Polycan dosage to treat OA is 42.5 mg/kg based on the present study. © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotexhnology.


Kim J.-W.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Cho H.-R.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Moon S.-B.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Kim K.-Y.,Glucan Corporation Research Institute | Ku S.,Daegu Haany University
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

β-Glucan purified from oats (OG) and bitter melon, Momordica charantia Linn (MC), water extracts have shown favorable effects on diabetes and its complications. We investigated to find out the optimal composition showing hypoglycemic and antidiabetic complication effects in variable compositions (OG:MC = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1). Extracts were administered orally once a day for 28 days following 7 days post streptozotocin (STZ) dosing. Five rats per group (total 15 groups; Intact, STZ, OG, MC, and the variable composition groups) were selected according to the blood glucose and body weight at 6 days after STZ dosing. After 28 days of extracts dosing, the changes on the body weight, liver and kidney weight, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total-cholesterol levels were observed. As the result of STZ-induced diabetes, decreases of body weight, increases of the liver and kidney weights, blood glucose, BUN, creatinine, AST, ALT, LDL, and total-cholesterol levels in STZ control were detected compared with intact control. However, these changes of hyperglycemia, diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, and hyperlipemia were dramatically decreased in the OG and MC single-dosing group, and all composition groups. In addition, there were more favorable effects in all composition groups compared with the OG and MC single-dosing groups. Among variable compositions, the OG:MC 1:2 mixed group showed the most synergic effects in this study.


PubMed | Glucan Corporation Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2013

The object of this study was to obtain acute oral toxicity information of Polycalcium, a mixed composition of Polycan and Calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (g/g), in Sprague-Dawely (SD) rats. In order to investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, Polycalcium were once orally administered to female and male SD rats at dose levels of 2000, 1000, 500 and 0 (control) mg/kg body weights. The mortality, changes on body weight and clinical signs were monitored during 14 days after treatment with gross observation, changes on the organ weights and histopathology of principle organs and treatment sites based on the recommendation of KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009]. As the results of single oral treatment of Polycalcium, no treatment related mortalities were observed within 14 days after end of treatment up to 2000 mg/kg, the limited dosage of rodents in the both genders. In addition, no Polycalcium treatment related changes on the body and organ weights, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings were detected. The results obtained in this study suggest that the Polycalcium is non-toxic in rats. The LD50 and approximate LD in rats after single oral dose of Polycalcium were considered over 2000 mg/kg in both female and male, respectively.


PubMed | Glucan Corporation Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2012

-Glucan purified from oats (OG) and bitter melon, Momordica charantia Linn (MC), water extracts have shown favorable effects on diabetes and its complications. We investigated to find out the optimal composition showing hypoglycemic and antidiabetic complication effects in variable compositions (OG:MC = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1). Extracts were administered orally once a day for 28 days following 7 days post streptozotocin (STZ) dosing. Five rats per group (total 15 groups; Intact, STZ, OG, MC, and the variable composition groups) were selected according to the blood glucose and body weight at 6 days after STZ dosing. After 28 days of extracts dosing, the changes on the body weight, liver and kidney weight, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total-cholesterol levels were observed. As the result of STZ-induced diabetes, decreases of body weight, increases of the liver and kidney weights, blood glucose, BUN, creatinine, AST, ALT, LDL, and total-cholesterol levels in STZ control were detected compared with intact control. However, these changes of hyperglycemia, diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, and hyperlipemia were dramatically decreased in the OG and MC single-dosing group, and all composition groups. In addition, there were more favorable effects in all composition groups compared with the OG and MC single-dosing groups. Among variable compositions, the OG:MC 1:2 mixed group showed the most synergic effects in this study.


PubMed | Glucan Corporation Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2012

The object of this study was to assess the efficacy of Polycan from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, which is composed mostly of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, on osteoarthritis (OA)-induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT&PMM). Three different dosages of Polycan (85, 42.5, and 21.25 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day for 84 days to male rats a week after ACLT&PMM surgery. Changes in the circumference and maximum extension angle of each knee, and in cartilage histopathology were assessed using Mankin scores 12 weeks after Polycan administration. In addition, cartilage proliferation was evaluated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). As the result of ACLT&PMM, classic OA was induced with increases in maximum extension angles, edematous knees changes, and capsule thickness, as well as decreases in chondrocyte proliferation, cartilages degenerative changes, and loss of articular cartilage. However, these changes (except for capsule thickness) were markedly inhibited in all Polycan- and diclofenac sodium-treated groups compared with OA control. Although diclofenac sodium did not influence BrdU uptake, BrdU-immunoreactive cells were increased with all dosages of Polycan, which means that Polycan treatment induced proliferation of chondrocytes in the surface articular cartilage of the tibia and femur. The results obtained in this study suggest that 84 days of continuous oral treatment of three different dosages of Polycan led to lesser degrees of articular stiffness and histological cartilage damage compared with OA controls 91 days after OA inducement, suggesting that the optimal Polycan dosage to treat OA is 42.5 mg/kg based on the present study.

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