Time filter

Source Type

Patent
University of Bristol and Gloucestershire Hospitals Nhs Foundation Trust | Date: 2016-11-08

A probe, such as a spectroscopic probe, for enabling a fluid or tissue sample to be tested in situ. The probe includes a conduit, such as a hypodermic needle, that can be inserted into a test subject and a wave coupling arranged to direct electromagnetic radiation, such as light, from an energy source to the sample and/or from the sample to a receiver for analysis. The receiver may comprise a Raman spectroscope. The probe may include a carriage that can be used to move at least some of the optical coupling towards and away from the insertion tip of the conduit. The probe may include a pressure modifier that can be used to draw fluid into or expel fluid from the conduit.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.3.5 | Award Amount: 10.64M | Year: 2012

In recent years it has become clear that mid-IR imaging spectroscopy has the potential to open a new chapter in bio-medical imaging and offers an effective tool for early cancer diagnosis and improved survival rates. Rather than a search for cancer marker absorption peaks, great progress has been made by analysing the entire bio-molecular mid-IR spectral signature using automated algorithms. However, the lack of suitable sources, detectors and components has restricted the technology to one of academic interest, based on weak thermal sources, low power lasers or synchrotron research tools.For the first time the photonic technology is in place to develop a new mid-IR technology platform on which entirely novel supercontinuum sources (c. 1000x brighter than thermal sources) covering the whole range from 1.5 to 12 m may be built:-Low loss robust chalcogenide fibres for fibre lasers, supercontinuum generation and delivery -Fibre end caps, splicing and fusion technology for soft glass fibres -Crystal technology and novel designs for mid-IR AO modulators based on calomel -Flexible fast AO driver technology to enable high speed HSI acquisition -Low cost T2SL FPA detectors with performance matching state-of-the-art MSL devices -2.9 m Er:ZBLAN and 4.5 m Pr-doped chalcogenide fibre laser pumps -Robust designs for a range of mid-IR SCG sources: a) 1.5-4.5 m from ZBLAN fibre b) 1.5-5.5 m from InF3 fibre c) 3-9 m from 2.9 m pumped PCF chalcogenide fibre d) 4-12 m from 4.5 m pumped step-index chalcogenide fibre.Two specific high impact applications will be addressed: high volume pathology screening (i.e. automated microscope-based examination of samples) and in vivo, remote, real-time skin surface examination (i.e. non-invasive investigation of suspected skin cancer).This project will open the mid-IR to further exploitation, and the technology developed will be transferable to a huge range of applications both in bio-photonics and in wider industry.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-29-2016 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016

The project GALAHAD targets the critical need for better glaucoma diagnostic systems. Glaucoma is an age-related major cause of blindness. The eye disease is characterized by an irreversible damage to the optic nerve head caused by increased intra-ocular pressure. The current screening and basic diagnostics for the disease involve intra-ocular pressure measurement, visual field tests and detection of structural damage to the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fibre layer. The present methods have high rates of false positive or false negative results since the in depth analysis of optical nerve head damage is not possible due to the poor resolution of available optical technologies. A leading candidate is optical coherence tomography (OCT), but the required axial resolution is ~1 m, well beyond the 3-5 m resolution of commercial systems. GALAHAD aims to develop a label free, compact and easy to operate high resolution diagnostic OCT system. The multiband and multimodal system will use submicron ultra-high resolution polarisation sensitive OCT (UHR PS OCT). The key breakthrough elements are: (i) A revolutionary low cost multiband supercontinuum light source. (ii.) Ground-breaking ultra-broadband photonic components required to exploit such a source. (iii.) Automated glaucoma screening algorithms: using end user evaluation of cell and animal models and tissue samples, automated algorithms will be developed, trained and tested so that non-expert operators will be able to perform glaucoma screening. The GALAHAD in depth glaucoma diagnostics after a positive screening with conventional methods will dramatically reduce false positive and false negative screening results and decrease the number of patients suffering from glaucoma-related disability. The project is driven by world leading companies and manufacturers of OCT systems and guided by requirement specifications and validated by high ranking clinical and experimental ophthalmologists in their clinical settings.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.3-1 | Award Amount: 7.76M | Year: 2012

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness among working-age individuals in developed countries has been classically considered to be a microcirculatory disease of the retina. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of DR. For this reason, it is reasonable to hypothesize that therapeutic strategies based on neuroprotection will be effective not only in preventing or arresting retinal neurodegeneration but also in preventing the development and progression of the early stages of DR (ie. microaneurysms and/or retinal thickness). EUROCONDOR (European Consortium for the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy) is a solid and well balanced consortium (ophthalmologists, endocrinologists, basic researchers) which has been created in order to implement the first clinical trial using eye drops for treatment of the early stages of DR. The participants are top leaders in their field and central readings will be performed by the Coordinating Centre of the European Vision Institute Clinical Research Network (EVICR.Net). The main objectives of the project are the following: Primary objective: To assess whether the selected neuroprotective drugs (brimonidine and somatostatin) administered topically are able to prevent or arrest neurodegeneration, as well as the development and progression of the early stages of DR. Secondary objectives: 1) To determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities related to neurodegeneration in those patients without or with minimal microvascular damage under ophthalmoscopic examination. 2) To compare the effectiveness of the selected drugs. 3) To evaluate the local and systemic adverse effects of the selected drugs. 4) To identify those patients most prone to progressive worsening (characterization of phenotypes and circulating biomarkers). 5) To determine the molecular mechanisms by which the selected drugs exert their beneficial effects.


Gavin D.R.,Cranfield University | Gavin D.R.,Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust | Valori R.M.,Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust | Anderson J.T.,Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust | And 3 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2013

Objective: To perform a comprehensive audit of all colonoscopy undertaken in the UK over a 2-week period. Design Multi-centre survey. All adult (≥16 years of age) colonoscopies that took place in participating National Health Service hospitals between 28 February 2011 and 11 March 2011 were included. Results: Data on 20 085 colonoscopies and 2681 colonoscopists were collected from 302 units. A validation exercise indicated that data were collected on over 94% of all procedures performed nationally. The unadjusted caecal intubation rate (CIR) was 92.3%. When adjusted for impassable strictures and poor bowel preparation the CIR was 95.8%. The polyp detection rate was 32.1%. The polyp detection rate for larger polyps (≥10mm diameter) was 11.7%. 92.3% of resected polyps were retrieved. 90.2% of procedures achieved acceptable levels of patient comfort. A total of eight perforations and 52 significant haemorrhages were reported. Eight patients underwent surgery as a consequence of a complication. Conclusions: This is the first national audit of colonoscopy that has successfully captured the majority of adult colonoscopies performed across an entire nation during a defined time period. The data confirm that there has been a significant improvement in the performance of colonoscopy in the UK since the last study reported seven years ago (CIR 76.9%) and that performance is above the required national standards.


Jones B.,University of Oxford | Grant W.,Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

The purpose of this overview is to describe radiotherapy retreatment of primary central nervous system tumours from a practical clinical management perspective, including patient selection, choice of radiation technique, dose and fractionation. Useful relief of clinical symptoms and occasionally prolonged survival can follow retreatment. Further analysis of a previously published data set shows that the duration of remission after initial radiotherapy does not correlate with the duration of the remission after retreatment. Also there is no clear relationship between delivered tissue and tumour biological effective dose (BED) and duration of second remission. 'Recovery' of radiation tolerance with time is important and the radiobiological experiments that show this phenomenon have important limitations. To improve the decision as to how much recovery safely occurs with increasing time after radiotherapy, a new mathematical formulation is proposed. This is essentially conservative in its intent, compatible with experimental data sets, and provides a method for tentative calculation of retreatment dose and fractionation. Worked examples are provided of such calculations.As an increasing number of relatively young patients are now retreated, it is important to extend the experimental and human evidence base. A nationally co-ordinated analysis of patients already retreated would be valuable, in order to make future retreatment as safe and effective as possible, with validation of the permissible retreatment schedules for the particular radiation technique used. A national register and task force is proposed to facilitate this. © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists.


Whitehurst J.L.,Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust | Reid C.M.,University of Bristol
Palliative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the general population and has been implicated as a cause of chronic pain. The palliative care population has a number of risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. We present two cases of unexplained pain in patients attending the palliative medicine outpatient clinic that improved after vitamin D replacement. Cases: Case 1 is a 46-year-old man with thalassaemia intermedia and back and leg pain without a clear cause. Case 2 is a 28-year-old woman undergoing treatment for cervical cancer whose initial disease and treatment-related abdominal pain resolved but subsequently reported ongoing non-specific aches and pains. Case management: Both patients were found to have vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L and were treated with vitamin D replacement therapy. Case outcome: Following vitamin D replacement therapy, pain resolved in both patients allowing a reduction in analgesic therapy. Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the palliative care population merits further investigation, since these patients are at high risk of deficiency. Having an index of suspicion, particularly in those patients with known risk factors and pain that is not fully explained, may result in better pain control and functional outcomes. © 2013 The Author(s).


Brereton R.G.,University of Bristol | Lloyd G.R.,Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2014

Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) has been available for nearly 20years yet is poorly understood by most users. By simple examples, it is shown graphically and algebraically that for two equal class sizes, PLS-DA using one partial least squares (PLS) component provides equivalent classification results to Euclidean distance to centroids, and by using all nonzero components to linear discriminant analysis. Extensions where there are unequal class sizes and more than two classes are discussed including common pitfalls and dilemmas. Finally, the problems of overfitting and PLS scores plots are discussed. It is concluded that for classification purposes, PLS-DA has no significant advantages over traditional procedures and is an algorithm full of dangers. It should not be viewed as a single integrated method but as step in a full classification procedure. However, despite these limitations, PLS-DA can provide good insight into the causes of discrimination via weights and loadings, which gives it a unique role in exploratory data analysis, for example in metabolomics via visualisation of significant variables such as metabolites or spectroscopic peaks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Patent
Gloucestershire Hospitals Nhs Foundation Trust and University of Bristol | Date: 2012-07-27

An optical device with a first sub-assembly and a second sub-assembly. The first sub-assembly has: an input lens for collimating illuminating light, the input lens having an optical axis, an output lens for focusing collimated light received from a sample, the output lens having an optical axis which is offset and substantially parallel with the optical axis of the input lens, and a first support piece which houses and supports the input lens and the output lens. The second sub-assembly has: an input filter for filtering the collimated illuminating light, an output filter for filtering the collimated light received from the sample, and a second support piece which houses and supports the input filter and the output filter. The first and second support pieces are joined together by a liquid-tight joint.


Patent
University of Bristol and Gloucestershire Hospitals Nhs Foundation Trust | Date: 2012-10-12

A probe, such as a spectroscopic probe, for enabling a fluid or tissue sample to be tested in situ. The probe includes a conduit, such as a hypodermic needle, that can be inserted into a test subject and a wave coupling arranged to direct electromagnetic radiation, such as light, from an energy source to the sample and/or from the sample to a receiver for analysis. The receiver may comprise a Raman spectroscope. The probe may include a carriage that can be used to move at least some of the optical coupling towards and away from the insertion tip of the conduit. The probe may include a pressure modifier that can be used to draw fluid into or expel fluid from the conduit.

Loading Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust collaborators
Loading Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust collaborators