PubMed | Glostrup Hospital Glostrup, Danish Institute for Health Services Research Copenhagen, itracks Klosterport 4E and Copenhagen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brain and behavior | Year: 2014
Nonmotor symptoms are probably present prior to, early on, and following, a diagnosis of Parkinsons disease. Nonmotor symptoms may hold important information about the progression of Parkinsons disease.To evaluated the total early and prediagnostic morbidities in the 3 years before a hospital contact leading to a diagnosis of Parkinsons disease.Retrospective morbidity data from Danish National Patient Registry records (1997-2007) of 10,490 adult patients with a secondary care diagnosis of Parkinsons disease were compared with 42,505 control cases.Parkinsons disease was associated with significantly higher morbidity rates associated with conditions in the following categories: mental and psychiatric, nervous system, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, genitourinary, abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, injury, poisoning and certain other external causes, and other factors influencing health status and contact with health services. It was negatively associated with neoplasm, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases.Patients with a diagnosis of Parkinsons disease present significant differences in morbidities early on, following, and prior to, their diagnosis, compared with healthy controls.
PubMed | Glostrup Hospital Glostrup and Rigshospitalet Copenhagen
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in physiology | Year: 2014
Acetylcholine may contribute to the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during cerebral activation since glycopyrrolate, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholine, abolishes the exercise-induced increase in middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity. We tested the hypothesis that cholinergic vasodilatation is important for the increase in rCBF during cerebral activation. The subjects were 11 young healthy males at an age of 24 3 years (mean SD). We used arterial spin labeling and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate rCBF with and without intravenous glycopyrrolate during a handgrip motor task and visual stimulation. Glycopyrrolate increased heart rate from 56 9 to 114 14 beats/min (mean SD; p < 0.001), mean arterial pressure from 86 8 to 92 12 mmHg, and cardiac output from 5.6 1.4 to 8.0 1.7 l/min. Glycopyrrolate had, however, no effect on the arterial spin labeling or BOLD responses to the handgrip motor task or to visual stimulation. This study indicates that during a handgrip motor task and visual stimulation, the increase in rCBF is unaffected by blockade of acetylcholine receptors by glycopyrrolate. Further studies on the effect of glycopyrrolate on middle cerebral artery diameter are needed to evaluate the influence of glycopyrrolate on mean flow velocity during intense exercise.