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Gomez-Gallego C.,University of Murcia | Frias R.,University of Turku | Perez-Martinez G.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology | Bernal M.J.,Global Technology Center for Infant Nutrition | And 4 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2014

The aim of this work was to study whether the proportion of polyamine found in human milk, administered with a commercial infant formula, affected the maturation of the immune system in a BALB/cOlaHsd mouse model. Forty-eight pups (14-days old) were randomly assigned to four-day intervention groups: 1) breast-fed (normal lactation); 2) fed infant formula; and 3) two different groups fed with infant formula supplemented with two different amounts of polyamines. The influence of polyamine administration on lymphocyte populations in the blood, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes, as well as on the modulation of immune system-related gene expression in the small intestine, was analyzed. The results demonstrated that polyamine supplementation induced an increase in splenic B cells to levels observed during normal lactation when compared with formula without supplementation. The correlation coefficients for the splenic lymphocyte populations increased with polyamine supplementation, with a dose-dependent effect. Our results demonstrate that polyamines influence gene expression profile, mainly Cd1d1, Cd40, Hdac5, Hdac7, Clcf1 and Tlr4 compared with normal lactation. In general, the gene expression results verified that the expression of genes associated with immune system was similar in the group with high polyamine supplementation to that observed in the group with normal lactation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bernal M.J.,Global Technology Center for Infant Nutrition | Periago M.J.,University of Murcia | Martinez R.,Global Technology Center for Infant Nutrition | Ortuno I.,Global Technology Center for Infant Nutrition | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Infant cereals are often the elected foodstuff for beginning complementary feeding and provide carbohydrates which are different to those found in maternal milk. The objective of this preliminary study was to ascertain the colonic effects of two infant cereals, with different carbohydrate profiles, in a randomised and double-blind trial in healthy infants. Nineteen term infants between 6.3 and 9.8 months of age were enrolled, after written informed consent was obtained from parents. Ten subjects were allocated to take infant cereal A and nine, infant cereal B. An intervention period was 2 months, with five visits every 15 days, to take anthropometric measurements and faeces samples for the analysis of microbiota, short-chain fatty acids concentration (SCFA), pH value and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). An adequate growth and stool frequency was registered in both intervention groups. Faecal counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides did not show any statistical differences. However, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher butyric acid and sIgA, and lower faecal pH were observed in infants who had ingested infant cereal A, with a higher ratio complex/simple carbohydrates. In conclusion, small changes in the carbohydrate profile of infant cereals could lead to significant differences in parameters related to fermentative activity of intestinal microbiota. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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