Hotta Y.,Global Strategies Group |
Aoki-Suzuki C.,Global Strategies Group
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2014
Waste reduction and recycling at the city level will acquire greater significance in the near future due to rising global volumes of waste. This paper seeks to identify policy-relevant drivers for successful promotion of waste reduction and recycling. Factors influencing the success of waste reduction and recycling campaigns are identified. Two case study cities in Japan which depict the successful use of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle) at the municipal level are presented. In these cases, the existence of incinerators, which are generally considered as disincentives for recycling, was not functioning as a disincentive but rather as an incentive for waste reduction. Owing to the high cost of incineration facilities, the movement to close incinerators has become a strong incentive for waste reduction and recycling in these two cities. The study suggests that careful consideration is necessary when making decisions concerning high-cost waste treatment facilities with high installation, maintenance and renewal outlays. In addition, intensive source separation and other municipal recycling initiatives have a high potential for producing positive results. © The Author(s) 2014.
Menikpura S.N.M.,Global Strategies Group |
Santo A.,Global Strategies Group |
Santo A.,Chiyoda Corporation |
Hotta Y.,Global Strategies Group
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014
The electronics industry leads the world's largest and fastest growing manufacturing sector. Consequently the management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) has become a prominent problem in the modern world. In some developed countries, like Japan, strategies have been adopted (e.g. the home appliance recycling law), and comprehensive policy mechanisms have been implemented which aim to recuperate materials from WEEE, conserve resources, and control environmental pollution. At present, global warming and climate-change issues have been identified as key environmental considerations in policy agendas in both developed and developing countries. In this regard assessment of the potential of WEEE recycling in terms of a country's greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target would offer a new path towards climate-change mitigation. Thus, this study aims to provide an in-depth investigation of the effectiveness of WEEE recycling on GHG mitigation. Life cycle GHG emissions were estimated from the overall recycling process of major home appliances in Fukuoka Prefecture under Japan's home appliances recycling law. The calculation indicates that by implementing an appropriate WEEE recycling and resource recovery program, a significant amount of GHG emissions could be avoided that would have otherwise occurred through the virgin production of materials. For instance, recycling of unit weight of washing machines, refrigerators, air conditioners and televisions could contribute to 17.70, 27.34, 45.62 and 3.61 kg CO2-eq of GHG emissions reduction respectively. The findings will be useful for strengthening and implementing appropriate legislation and policies in countries across the Asia-Pacific and enhancing the systematic approaches of sound material recycling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Menikpura S.N.M.,Global Strategies Group |
Sang-Arun J.,Global Strategies Group |
Bengtsson M.,Global Strategies Group
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from conventional solid waste management in developing Asian countries contribute significantly to global climate change. This paper argues that moving towards Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) offers a practical solution for mitigating these GHG emissions and for realising socio-economic as well as other environmental benefits. The study assesses the GHG emissions of an existing ISWM system in Muangklang Municipality, Thailand as compared to conventional treatment from a life cycle perspective. The integrated system which recovers nutrients, materials and energy from the waste stream, and reduces landfill disposal of organic and recyclable waste was found to have reduced GHG emissions very significantly compared to conventional landfill disposal, which is currently the most common waste treatment technology in Thailand. Among the individual technologies assessed, materials recycling was found to offer the largest reductions in GHG emissions from a life-cycle perspective. The calculations indicate that a properly designed integrated system with high but fully realistic recovery rates can drastically reduce the climate impact of waste management. Most municipalities in developing Asia are small-to-medium scale and share many characteristics with Muangklang. Therefore, the authors argue that most municipalities in the region could apply this type of low-cost locally adapted ISWM system. This would have numerous sustainability benefits, including drastically reduced GHG emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakamura H.,Global Strategies Group |
Kato T.,University of Kitakyushu
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2013
This study uses an experimental social survey in two large Japanese cities to explore citizens' attitudes toward international voluntary carbon offsetting that encourages low carbon development in developing countries. In particular, the study focuses on whether the offsetting is a contribution to meet national target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction under the Kyoto Protocol or reduction beyond the national target, using Kyoto credits generated from climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. The study finds that around 40% of the survey respondents chose real carbon offsetting over a gift certificate as compensation for their participation in the survey, around half of whom chose carbon offsetting contribution to the world. However, most of the current Japanese carbon offsetting providers utilise only the carbon offsetting contribution to the Japanese government. Thus, Japanese citizens have significant untapped potential for undertaking more carbon offsetting to meet targets other than national targets. However, the results also show that there is a general lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of carbon offsetting. Carbon offsetting providers in Japan and other countries that may have national self-imposed targets and allowing the usage of international carbon offsetting should therefore be considered, so as to provide individuals with the options of either contributing to their government to help it meet its national target or contributing to the world to help reduce GHG emissions beyond the national targets. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kanaev A.V.,Global Strategies Group |
Murray-Krezan J.,U.S. Navy
Applied Optics | Year: 2010
Abstarct Although several hyperspectral anomaly detection algorithms have proven useful when illumination conditions provide for enough light, many of these same detection algorithms fail to perform well when shadows are also present. To date, no general approach to the problem has been demonstrated. In this paper, a novel hyperspectral anomaly detection algorithm that adapts the dimensionality of the spectral detection subspace to multiple illumination levels is described. The novel detection algorithm is applied to reflectance domain hyperspectral data that represents a variety of illumination conditions: well illuminated and poorly illuminated (i.e., shadowed). Detection results obtained for objects located in deep shadows and light-shadow transition areas suggest superiority of the novel algorithm over standard subspace RX detection. © 2010 Optical Society of America.
Nakamura H.,Global Strategies Group |
Nakamura H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology |
Kato T.,University of Kitakyushu
Energy Policy | Year: 2011
This study explores the motivation of domestic and international interregional collaboration on climate change mitigation through carbon crediting by Japanese local governments, using a social survey. The study finds balanced collaboration with domestic partner regions and developing countries is preferred in the case of collaboration, given that the unit cost of collaboration is assumed lower than that of no collaboration. Appreciation of benefits such as technology transfer and local environmental improvement in developing countries increases the preference of collaboration with developing countries. Two factors hinder Japanese local governments' collaboration with developing countries from the perspective of citizens: a sense of environmental responsibility to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the city and a preference for domestic orientation even if the collaboration with developing countries is less costly and has benefits of technology transfer and local environmental improvement. The preference for a lower total cost of GHG emissions reductions is confirmed except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. The study also finds that provision of information on mitigation projects and co-benefits would increase the preference for interregional collaboration with developing countries depending on the types of collaborative project, except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Akenji L.,Global Strategies Group |
Hotta Y.,Global Strategies Group |
Bengtsson M.,Global Strategies Group |
Hayashi S.,Global Strategies Group
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2011
The amount of e-waste is growing rapidly in developing countries, and the health and environmental problems resulting from poor management of this waste have become a concern for policy makers. In response to these challenges, a number of Asian developing countries have been inspired by policy developments in OECD countries, and have drafted legislations based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, the experiences from developed countries show that a successful implementation of EPR policies requires adequate institutions and sufficient administrative capacity. Even advanced countries are thus facing difficulties. This paper concludes from existing literature and from the authors' own observations that there seems to be a mismatch between the typical policy responses to e-waste problems in developing Asia and the capacity for successful implementation of such policies. It also notes that the e-waste situation in developing Asian countries is further complicated by a number of additional factors, such as difficulties in identifying producers, import of used electronic products and e-waste (sometimes illegal), and the existence of a strong informal waste sector. Given these challenges, the authors conclude that comprehensive EPR policy schemes of the kind that have been implemented in some advanced countries are not likely to be effective. The paper therefore proposes an alternative phase-in approach whereby developing Asian countries are able to move gradually towards EPR systems. It argues that this approach would be more feasible, and discusses what could be the key building blocks of each implementation stage. © The Author(s) 2011.
Politzer P.,CleveTheoComp |
Murray J.S.,CleveTheoComp |
Bulat F.A.,Global Strategies Group
Journal of Molecular Modeling | Year: 2010
The average local ionization energy ̄I(r) is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the point r in the space of a system. Its lowest values reveal the locations of the least tightly-held electrons, and thus the favored sites for reaction with electrophiles or radicals. In this paper, we review the definition of ̄I(r) and some of its key properties. Apart from its relevance to reactive behavior, ̄I(r) has an important role in several fundamental areas, including atomic shell structure, electronegativity and local polarizability and hardness. All of these aspects of ̄I(r) are discussed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Kuramochi T.,Global Strategies Group |
Ramirez A.,University Utrecht |
Turkenburg W.,University Utrecht |
Faaij A.,University Utrecht
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013
CO2 emissions from distributed energy systems are expected to become increasingly significant, accounting for about 20% for current global energy-related CO2 emissions in 2030. This article reviews, assesses and compares the techno-economic performance of CO2 capture from distributed energy systems taking into account differences in timeframe, fuel type and energy plant type. The analysis includes the energy plant, CO 2 capture and compression, and distributed transport between the capture site and a trunk pipeline. Key parameters, e.g., capacity factor, energy prices and interest rate, were normalized for the performance comparison. The findings of this study indicate that in the short-mid term (around 2020-2025), the energy penalty for CO2 capture ranges between 23% and 30% for coal-fired plants and 10-28% for natural gas-fired plants. Costs are between 30 and 140 €/tCO2 avoided for plant scales larger than 100 MW LHV (fuel input) and 50-150 €/tCO2 avoided for 10-100 MWLHV. In the long-term (2030 and beyond), the energy penalty for CO2 capture might reduce to between 4% and 9% and the costs to around 10-90 €/tCO2 avoided for plant scales larger than 100 MW LHV, 25-100 €/tCO2 avoided for 10-100 MW LHV and 35-150 €/tCO2 avoided for 10 MWLHV or smaller. CO2 compression and distributed transport costs are significant. For a distance of 30 km, 10 €/tCO2 transported was calculated for scales below 500 tCO2/day and more than 50 €/tCO2 transported for scales below 5 tCO2/day (equivalent to 1 MWLHV natural gas). CO2 compression is responsible for the largest share of these costs. CO2 capture from distributed energy systems is not prohibitively expensive and has a significant cost reduction potential in the long term. Distributed CO2 emission sources should also be considered for CCS, adding to the economies of scale of CO2 transport and storage, and optimizing the deployment of CCS. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nakamura H.,Global Strategies Group
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
An online social survey was conducted to reveal household electricity-saving behaviour and its relationship with participation in social group activities, as well as face-to-face and online social interactions, i.e., information sources used and information dissemination through personal networks, in a disaster-affected region of Kanagawa, Japan, during the summer of 2011. The study confirms the positive contribution of respondents' participation in social group activities to the number of power-saving practices conducted. It also reveals the emergence of voluntary social face-to-face and/or online interactions for power-saving. The study suggests it would be useful to provide effective information to proactive individuals who are closely engaged in power-saving in households and who are proactively disseminating power-saving information practices to others. Such individuals include (1) women who have school-children and who are proactively engaging in the social interactions of their children's schools, other parents, neighbours, as well as their own parents and relatives; and (2) men and women who are using various kinds of online interaction tools and are also engaged in face-to-face social interactions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.