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Richards V.P.,Cornell University | Choi S.C.,Cornell University | Choi S.C.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Bitar P.D.P.,Cornell University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results: Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine, glycerol and glucose, and possibly aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance. Conclusion: We detected several genetic factors likely important in S. agalactiae's adaptation to the bovine environment, in particular lactose metabolism. Of concern is the up regulation of a putative antibiotic resistance gene (GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase) that might reflect an adaptation to the use of aminoglycoside antibiotics within this environment. © 2013 Richards et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Herlekar D.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Shashikant C.S.,Pennsylvania State University | Gurjar A.A.,Global Ruminants Business Unit | Jayarao B.M.,Pennsylvania State University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

About 20 to 35% of milk samples from cows with intramammary infection or high somatic cell count (SCC) are negative on bacteriological culture analysis. However, little is known about SCC in milk of cows infected with viruses. In the first part of our study, we developed a real-time PCR assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, and BHV4, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in composite quarter milk samples. A total of 1,479 lactating cows of 1,964 cows in the dairy herd were initially selected because these cows had complete SCC data for at least 3 consecutive test results, of which 139 lactating cows from different lactation age groups were selected randomly and studied extensively. Composite quarter milk samples were collected on 3 alternate days and examined for viruses, SCC, and bacteriological analysis. In total, 10, 28, and 0.7% of the composite quarter milk samples from cows were positive for BHV1, BHV2, and BHV4, respectively; BVDV was not detected in composite quarter milk samples. Bovine herpesvirus was not associated with a particular bacterial species. Our study results indicate that cows positive for BHV in composite quarter milk samples alone are less likely to have elevated SCC compared with cows with bacterial intramammary infection; BHV1, BHV2, and BHV4 are probably not major udder pathogens. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Sipka A.,Cornell University | Gurjar A.,Cornell University | Klaessig S.,Cornell University | Duhamel G.E.,Cornell University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Mastitis in dairy cows is typically treated with intramammary antibiotics. The combination of antibiotics with corticosteroids tends to have a large market share where these products are registered. Our objective was to investigate the effect of prednisolone in combination with cefapirin on the inflammatory response of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. Six midlactating Holstein-Friesian cows were challenged in 3 quarters with E. coli and treated at 4, 12, 24, and 36. h postinfection with 300. mg of cefapirin in 1 quarter and a combination of 300. mg of cefapirin and 20. mg of prednisolone in another quarter. At 24. h (n = 3) or 48. h (n = 3) postinfection cows were euthanized for tissue sampling. Clinical scores, somatic cell count, and California mastitis test scores, as well as IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 levels and bacterial growth in milk, were measured every 6. h. Experimental inoculation caused a moderate clinical mastitis in all cows in challenged, untreated quarters. The E. coli challenge strain was recovered from all infected quarters and confirmed by PCR-based fingerprinting. Challenged, untreated control quarters showed increased concentrations of all measured cytokines together with recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes at 24 and 48. h postchallenge. Both treatments reduced udder swelling and sensitivity with no statistically significant difference between treatment groups. Administration of cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone resulted in significantly lower concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-10 compared with challenged, untreated quarters. Treated quarters did show IL-4 production, but concentrations were significantly decreased compared with untreated, challenged quarters. Quarters treated with the combination of cefapirin and prednisolone showed a significantly lower concentration of IL-4 compared with cefapirin-only treatment. At both 24 and 48. h postinoculation, the level of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte recruitment was lowest in challenged quarters treated with a combination of cefapirin and prednisolone, followed by cefapirin alone. Taken together, treatment with cefapirin alone inhibited bacterial growth in milk and reduced the host inflammatory responses. Addition of prednisolone to cefapirin had a synergistic effect, resulting in a lower density of leukocytes in tissue and milk and a quicker restoration of milk quality. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Swinkels J.M.,Global Ruminants Business Unit | Schukken Y.H.,Cornell University | Lam T.J.G.M.,GD Animal Health Service | Lam T.J.G.M.,University Utrecht
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is difficult to cure. Extended antimicrobial treatment is often advocated as a practical approach to improve cure rates; however, scientific evidence of this hypothesis is lacking. A multi-centered, nonblinded, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 5 European countries-France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom-to study the efficacy of an extended intramammary cefquinome treatment (5 d) compared with a standard intramammary cefquinome treatment (1.5 d) of Staph. aureus clinical mastitis. Least squares means estimates of bacteriological cure during lactation were 34% [standard error (SE). = 9.9%] for the standard treatment group and 27% (SE. = 8.4%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, extended therapy was not significantly better. The only factor predicting bacteriological cure was pretreatment cow somatic cell count (SCC). Cows with >250,000 cells/mL in milk before treatment were less likely to cure. Least squares means of clinical cure during lactation was 60% (SE. = 19%) for the standard treatment group and 82% (SE. = 12%) for the extended treatment group. In the final model, clinical cure after extended treatment was significantly better. Pretreatment cow udder firmness predicted clinical cure. Firm udders were less likely to cure clinically. Irrespective of treatment regimen, new infection rates with pathogens other than Staph. aureus were higher (42%) after bacteriological cure than after nonbacteriological cure (22%) and cured cows had a significantly lower SCC. In conclusion, independent of the treatment protocol, cows with an SCC <250,000. cells/mL before treatment showed a higher probability of bacteriological cure. It appears that successful treatment of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis with cefquinome is associated with an increased number of new infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Extended treatment improved clinical, but not bacteriological, cure rates compared with the standard treatment. These results indicate that extending treatment of clinical Staph. aureus mastitis with cefquinome should not be recommended. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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