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Wallis C.L.,Lancet Laboratories | Aga E.,Statistical Data Analysis Center | Ribaudo H.,Statistical Data Analysis Center | Saravanan S.,Center for Research and Education | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. The development of drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) has been associated with baseline human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 RNA level (VL), CD4 cell counts (CD4), subtype, and treatment failure duration. This study describes drug resistance and levels of susceptibility after first-line virologic failure in individuals from Thailand, South Africa, India, Malawi, Tanzania. Methods. CD4 and VL were captured at AIDs Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) A5230 study entry, a study of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy after first-line virologic failure on an NNRTI regimen. HIV drug-resistance mutation associations with subtype, site, study entry VL, and CD4 were evaluated using Fisher exact and Kruskall-Wallis tests. Results. Of the 207 individuals who were screened for A5230, sequence data were available for 148 individuals. Subtypes observed: subtype C (n = 97, 66%) AE (n = 27, 18%), A1 (n = 12, 8%), and D (n = 10, 7%). Of the 148 individuals, 93% (n = 138) and 96% (n = 142) had at least 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation associated with NRTI and NNRTI resistance, respectively. The number of NRTI mutations was significantly associated with a higher study screening VL and lower study screening CD4 (P < .001). Differences in drug-resistance patterns in both NRTI and NNRTI were observed by site. Conclusions. The degree of NNRTI and NRTI resistance after first-line virologic failure was associated with higher VL at study entry. Thirty-two percent of individuals remained fully susceptible to etravirine and rilpivirine, protease inhibitor resistance was rare. Some level of susceptibility to NRTI remained; however, VL monitoring and earlier virologic failure detection may result in lower NRTI resistance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Cahn P.,Fundacion Huesped | Andrade-Villanueva J.,HIV Unit | Arribas J.R.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Gatell J.M.,University of Barcelona | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Daily oral triple therapy is effective at halting HIV disease progression, but can have toxic effects and is costly. We investigated whether dual therapy with lopinavir and ritonavir plus lamivudine is non-inferior to standard triple therapy. Methods: The GARDEL study (Global AntiRetroviral Design Encompassing Lopinavir/r and Lamivudine vs LPV/r based standard therapy) is a 48 week, phase 3, randomised, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial in antiretroviral-therapy-naive adults (age ≥18 years) with documented HIV-1 RNA viral load of at least 1000 copies per mL. The study was done at 19 centres in six countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to dual therapy or triple therapy by sealed envelopes, in blocks of four, stratified by baseline viral load (<100-000 vs ≥100-000 copies per mL). Dual therapy consisted of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg, both twice daily. Triple therapy consisted of lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily and lamivudine or emtricitabine plus another nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in fixed-dose combination. Efficacy was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. The primary endpoint was virological response rate, defined as the proportion of patients with HIV RNA less than 50 copies per mL at 48 weeks. Dual therapy was classed as non-inferior to triple therapy if the lower bound of the 95% CI for the difference between groups was no lower than -12%. Patients and investigators were unmasked to treatment allocation. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01237444. Findings: Between Dec 10, 2010, and May 15, 2012, 217 patients were randomly assigned to the dual-therapy group and 209 to the triple-therapy group. 198 patients in the dual-therapy group and 175 in the triple-therapy group completed 48 weeks of treatment. At week 48, 189 patients (88·3%) in the dual-therapy group and 169 (83·7%) in the triple-therapy group had viral response (difference 4·6%, 95% CI -2·2 to 11·8; p=0·171). Patients with baseline viral load of at least 100-000 copies per mL showed similar results (87·2% vs 77·9%, respectively; difference 9·3%, 95% CI -2·8 to 21·5; p=0·145). Toxicity-related or tolerability-related discontinuations were more common in the triple-therapy group (n=10 [4·9%]) than in the dual-therapy group (n=1 [0·4%]; difference 4·5%, 95% CI -8·1 to -0·9; p=0·011). 65 adverse events in the dual-therapy group and 88 in the triple-therapy group were possibly or probably drug related (p=0·007). Two serious adverse events occurred, both in the dual-therapy arm, one of which (a case of gastritis) was reported as possibly or probably related to drug treatment. Interpretation: Dual therapy with lopinavir and ritonavir plus lamivudine regimen warrants further clinical research and consideration as a potential therapeutic option for antiretroviral-therapy-naive patients. Funding: Fundación Huésped and AbbVie. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Haig G.M.,Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Pritchett Y.,Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Pritchett Y.,Astellas Pharma Inc. | Meier A.,Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2014

Background: ABT-288, a highly selective histamine-3 receptor antagonist, demonstrated efficacy across several preclinical cognitive domains, and safety in healthy subjects and elderly volunteers. Objective: Evaluate the efficacy and safety of ABT-288 in subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's dementia. Methods: The study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-and active-controlled, parallel group design with pre-defined futility criteria to permit early study termination. A total of 242 subjects were randomized in an equal ratio to ABT-288 1 mg or 3 mg, donepezil 10 mg, or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline to final evaluation on the 13-item Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) total score. Results: The study was prematurely terminated because futility criteria were met. Point estimates on the ADAS-Cog scores for both ABT-288 dose groups were numerically inferior to placebo but no statistical differences were detected. Donepezil demonstrated statistically significant improvement. Adverse events were generally mild and self-limiting. Conclusion: ABT-288 did not demonstrate efficacy in the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's dementia. © 2014-IOS Press. Source

Asahina A.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Ohtsuki M.,Jichi Medical University | Etoh T.,Tokyo Teishin Postal Services Agency Hospital | Gu Y.,Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

The tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor, adalimumab, is approved to treat moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis (40 mg every-other-week or 80 mg every-other-week following inadequate response at 40 mg in Japan). This open-label extension (OLE) trial evaluated the optimal adalimumab dose for long-term efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis following a prior 24-week, phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind study. Of the 169 patients from the phase 2/3 trial, 147 entered the OLE on 40 mg (n = 89) or 80 mg (n = 58) adalimumab every-other-week. Patients on 40 mg with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) of less than 50 could escalate to 80 mg. At week 52 (28 of OLE), patients entering the OLE on 80 mg were reduced to 40 mg, with the option to re-escalate. For patients entering the OLE on 40 mg, final PASI 50/75/90 response rates were 85.1%/73.3%/60.4%, respectively, including effects of dose escalation. Among patients whose dose was escalated, final PASI 50/75/90 response rates were 70.0%/53.3%/36.7%, respectively. For patients entering the OLE on 80 mg, final PASI 50/75/90 response rates were 92.5%/84.9%/73.6%, respectively, including effects of dose re-escalation. Overall incidence rates of adverse events (AE) and injection-site reaction AE declined over time; rates for serious AE and infections were generally stable. Clinically meaningful efficacy of adalimumab was sustained to 4 years. Dose escalation to 80 mg every-other-week for patients with suboptimal response to 40 mg every-other-week, and dose reduction to 40 mg every-other-week for patients satisfactorily controlled on 80 mg every-other-week, are viable strategies for adalimumab optimization. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association. Source

Brown T.T.,Johns Hopkins University | Hoy J.,Monash University | Borderi M.,University of Bologna | Guaraldi G.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Thirty-four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) specialists from 16 countries contributed to this project, whose primary aim was to provide guidance on the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Four clinically important questions in bone disease management were identified, and recommendations, based on literature review and expert opinion, were agreed upon. Risk of fragility fracture should be assessed primarily using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in all HIV-infected men aged 40-49 years and HIV-infected premenopausal women aged ≥ 40 years. DXA should be performed in men aged ≥ 50 years, postmenopausal women, patients with a history of fragility fracture, patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid treatment, and patients at high risk of falls. In resource-limited settings, FRAX without bone mineral density can be substituted for DXA. Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy should be followed; adjustment should avoid tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or boosted protease inhibitors in at-risk patients. Dietary and lifestyle management strategies for high-risk patients should be employed and antiosteoporosis treatment initiated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Source

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