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Baig M.H.,Aligarh Muslim University | Baig M.H.,Yeungnam University | Balaramnavar V.M.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Wadhwa G.,Government of India | Khan A.U.,Aligarh Muslim University
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry | Year: 2015

TEM and SHV are class-A-type β-lactamases commonly found in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Previous studies reported S130G and K234R mutations in SHVs to be 41- and 10-fold more resistant toward clavulanic acid than SHV-1, respectively, whereas TEM S130G and R244S also showed the same level of resistance. These selected mutants confer higher level of resistance against clavulanic acid. They also show little susceptibility against other commercially available β-lactamase inhibitors. In this study, we have used docking-based virtual screening approach in order to screen potential inhibitors against some of the major resistant mutants of SHV and TEM types β-lactamase. Two different inhibitor-resistant mutants from SHV and TEM were selected. Moreover, we have retained the active site water molecules within each enzyme. Active site water molecules were placed within modeled structure of the mutant whose structure was unavailable with protein databank. The novelty of this work lies in the use of multilayer virtual screening approach for the prediction of best and accurate results. We are reporting five inhibitors on the basis of their efficacy against all the selected resistant mutants. These inhibitors were selected on the basis of their binding efficacies and pharmacophore features. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


PubMed | Government of India, Aligarh Muslim University and Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biotechnology and applied biochemistry | Year: 2015

TEM and SHV are class-A-type -lactamases commonly found in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Previous studies reported S130G and K234R mutations in SHVs to be 41- and 10-fold more resistant toward clavulanic acid than SHV-1, respectively, whereas TEM S130G and R244S also showed the same level of resistance. These selected mutants confer higher level of resistance against clavulanic acid. They also show little susceptibility against other commercially available -lactamase inhibitors. In this study, we have used docking-based virtual screening approach in order to screen potential inhibitors against some of the major resistant mutants of SHV and TEM types -lactamase. Two different inhibitor-resistant mutants from SHV and TEM were selected. Moreover, we have retained the active site water molecules within each enzyme. Active site water molecules were placed within modeled structure of the mutant whose structure was unavailable with protein databank. The novelty of this work lies in the use of multilayer virtual screening approach for the prediction of best and accurate results. We are reporting five inhibitors on the basis of their efficacy against all the selected resistant mutants. These inhibitors were selected on the basis of their binding efficacies and pharmacophore features.


Kumar K.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Pant N.C.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Ahmad S.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Fateh M.V.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: To prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for prolonged gastric residence and to study their effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion-solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Eudragit S 100 polymer in varying proportions. Ethanol/dichloromethane blend was used as solvent in a ratio of 1:1. The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow properties, particle size, incorporation efficiency, as well as in-vitro floatability and drug release. The anti-diabetic activity of the floating microspheres of batch FM4 was performed on alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Result: The floating microspheres had particle size, buoyancy, drug entrapment efficiency and yield in the ranges of 255.32 - 365.65 μm, 75.58 - 89.59, 72.6 - 83.5, and 60.46 - 80.02 %, respectively. Maximum drug release after 24 h was 82.62 % for formulation FM4 and 73.879, 58.613 and 46.106 % for formulations FM1, FM2, and FM3 respectively. In-vivo data obtained over a 120-h period indicate that curcumin floating microspheres from batch FM4 showed the better glycemic control than control and a commercial brand of the drug. Conclusion: The developed floating curcumin delivery system seems economical and effective in diabetes management in rats, and enhances the bioavailability of the drug. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved.


Saxena A.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Devillers J.,CTIS | Bhunia S.S.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Bro E.,National Game and Wildlife Institute ONCFS
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research | Year: 2015

The potential effects of pesticides and their metabolites on the endocrine system are of major concern to wildlife and human health. In this context, the azole pesticides have earned special attention due to their cytochrome P450 aromatase inhibition potential. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) catalyses the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into oestrone and oestradiol, respectively. Thus, aromatase modulates the oestrogenic balance essential not only for females, but also for male physiology, including gonadal function. Its inhibition affects reproductive organs, fertility and sexual behaviour in humans and wildlife species. Several studies have shown that azole pesticides are able to inhibit human and fish aromatases but the information on birds is lacking. Consequently, it appeared to be of interest to estimate the aromatase inhibition of azoles in three different avian species, namely Gallus gallus, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Taeniopygia guttata. In the absence of the crystal structure of the aromatase enzyme in these bird species, homology models for the individual avian species were constructed using the crystal structure of human aromatase (hAr) (pdb: 3EQM) that showed high sequence similarity for G. gallus (82.0%), T. guttata (81.9%) and C. japonica (81.2%). A homology model with Oncorhynchus mykiss (81.9%) was also designed for comparison purpose. The homology-modelled aromatase for each avian and fish species and crystal structure of human aromatase were selected for docking 46 structurally diverse azoles and related compounds. We showed that the docking behaviour of the chemicals on the different aromatases was broadly the same. We also demonstrated that there was an acceptable level of correlation between the binding score values and the available aromatase inhibition data. This means that the homology models derived on bird and fish species can be used to approximate the potential inhibitory effects of azoles on their aromatase. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.


Saxena A.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Devillers J.,CTIS | Pery A.R.R.,INERIS | Beaudouin R.,INERIS | And 2 more authors.
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research | Year: 2014

The circulating endogenous steroids are transported in the bloodstream. These are bound to a highly specific sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and in lower affinity to proteins such as the corticosteroid-binding protein and albumin in vertebrates, including fish. It is generally believed that the glycoprotein SHBG protects these steroids from rapid metabolic degradation and thus intervenes in its availability at the target tissues. Endocrine disrupters binding to SHBG affect the normal activity of natural steroids. Since xenobiotics are primarily released in the aquatic environment, there is a need to evaluate the binding affinity of xenosteroid mimics on fish SHBG, especially in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish originating in India and widely employed in ecotoxicology, toxicology, and genetics. In this context, a zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) homology model was developed using the human SHBG (hSHBG) receptor structure as template. It was shown that interactions with amino acids Ser-36, Asp-59 and Thr-54 were important for binding affinity. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was also developed for both zfSHBG and hSHBG inhibitors that differentiated binders from non-binders, but also demonstrated structural requirements for zfSHBG and hSHBG ligands. The study provides insights into the mechanism of action of endocrine disruptors in zebrafish as well as providing a useful tool for identifying anthropogenic compounds inhibiting zfSHBG. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Kumar K.,NIMS University | Kumar K.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Rai A.K.,Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: To prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for prolonged gastric residence time and increased drug bioavailability. Methods: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit S 100 polymer in varying ratios. Ethanol/dichloromethane blend was used as solvent in a ratio of 1:1. The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow properties, particle size, incorporation efficiency, as well as in-vitro floatability and drug release. The shape and surface morphology of the microspheres were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Result: The floating microspheres showed particle size, buoyancy, drug entrapment efficiency and yield in the ranges of 251 - 387 μm, 74.6 - 90.6 %, and 72.6 - 83.5 %, and 45.5 - 82.0 %, respectively. Maximum drug release after 20 h was 47.1, 55.7, 69.4 and 81.3 % for formulations F1, F2, F3 and F4, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs indicate pores both on the surface and interior of the microspheres. Conclusion: The developed curcumin microsphere system is a promising floating drug delivery system for oral sustained administration of curcumin. © Pharmacotherapy Group.


Azad C.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Balaramnavar V.M.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Khan I.A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Doharey P.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

An efficient, cost effective and green methodology for ipso nitration in the synthesis of the 3-nitro derivative of 3-carboxy 4-quinolones has been developed by the quantitative use of copper acetate and silver nitrate in water. The observed regioselectivity of nitration is explained by the DFT calculations. Three of these compounds with IC50 values (2.9-3.4 μmol) against Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase may be good antifilarial agents as also evidenced by molecular docking studies. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Saxena M.,Amity University | Bhunia S.S.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Saxena A.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research | Year: 2015

The human histamine H2 receptor (hH2HR) is a G-protein coupled receptor protein with seven transmembrane (TM)-spanning helices primarily involved in regulation of gastric acid secretion. Antagonists targeting hH2HR are useful in the treatment of hyperacidic conditions such as peptic ulcers, gastresophageal reflux disease and gastrointestinal bleeding. We have previously reported the antagonism of 2-substituted pyrazinopyridoindoles at the human histamine H1 receptor and mode of binding of these compounds at the hH1HR using in silico methods. Interestingly, some of the compounds in the series also showed promising activity towards hH2HR that prompted us to investigate the mode of binding of these compounds at hH2HR. In the absence of the crystal structure of hH2HR a homology model has been constructed using multiple sequence alignment, using the X-ray crystal structures of Turkey β1-adrenergic receptor (tβ1AR), Human histamine H1 receptor (hH1HR), Human β2-adrenergic receptor (hβ2AR) and Human D3 dopamine receptor (hD3R). The important residues for binding were depicted in TMIII, TMV, TMVI and TMVII by the homology modelled hH2HR for 2-substituted pyrazinopyridoindoles. A comparative study for deducing the selectivity regarding the binding towards hH1HR and hH2HR has been carried out, which may be useful in designing of selective hH1HR/hH2HR antagonists in these classes of compounds. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Sashidhara K.V.,BS 10 1 | Avula S.R.,BS 10 1 | Doharey P.K.,BS 10 1 | Singh L.R.,BS 10 1 | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

In our continuing search for safe and efficacious antifilarials, a series of novel chalcone-benzothiazole hybrids have been synthesized and evaluated for their Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) enzyme inhibition activity. Their selectivity towards BmTMK was studied and compared to the human TMK (HsTMK) by an in silico method. Out of seventeen derivatives, compounds 34 and 42 showed higher interactions with the BmTMK active site. MolDock docking model revealed the interactions of these two derivatives and the results corroborated well with their in vitro antifilarial activities. Our studies suggest that these hybrids are selective towards the BmTMK enzyme and may serve as potential therapeutic agents against filariasis. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Bhunia S.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Bhunia S.S.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research | Singh S.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Saxena S.,Global Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | And 2 more authors.
Current Computer-Aided Drug Design | Year: 2015

Induction of apoptosis by the activation of caspase 3 makes it a promising target for designing anticancer drugs hence an investigation for the essential structural features mandatory for caspase 3 activation has been carried out using a dataset comprising of caspase 3 activator candidate drug Azixa in phase II clinical trial and its analogs using DS2.0. A training set of 40 compounds was selected for the purpose of model generation from 76 molecules with an activity range spanning from 0.002μM to 6.9μM. Among the generated pharmacophore models, the best model Hypo1 constituted by two hydrophobic aliphatic (Hal), two hydrophobic aromatic (Har), and one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) features with a correlation coefficient of 0.85, and a cost difference (null cost – total cost) of 46 bits well predicted the test set of 36 compounds (Rpred = 0.8). The key mechanism conferring caspase 3 activation is due to binding of Azixa at β-tubulin site that is located close to or at same site as colchicine. In the absence of co-crystal structure we have proposed a binding mode of Azixa at the tubulin site by performing docking studies and performed molecular dynamics simulation to ascertain the temporal changes of the protein-ligand complex. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

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