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Ross A.L.,French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis | Brave A.,Karolinska Institutet | Scarlatti G.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Manrique A.,Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases

The search for an HIV/AIDS vaccine is steadily moving ahead, generating and validating new concepts in terms of novel vectors for antigen delivery and presentation, new vaccine and adjuvant strategies, alternative approaches to design HIV-1 antigens for eliciting protective cross-neutralising antibodies, and identification of key mechanisms in HIV infection and modulation of the immune system. All these different perspectives are contributing to the unprecedented challenge of developing a protective HIV-1 vaccine. The high scientific value of this massive effort is its great impact on vaccinology as a whole, providing invaluable scientific information for the current and future development of new preventive vaccine as well as therapeutic knowledge-based infectious-disease and cancer vaccines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Burgers W.A.,University of Cape Town | Manrique A.,Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise | Masopust D.,University of Minnesota | McKinnon L.R.,University of Toronto | And 9 more authors.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Well-defined correlates of protective immunity are an essential component of rational vaccine development. Despite years of basic science and three HIV vaccine efficacy trials, correlates of immunological protection from HIV infection remain undefined. In December 2010, a meeting of scientists engaged in basic and translational work toward developing HIV-1 vaccines was convened. The goal of this meeting was to discuss current opportunities and optimal approaches for defining correlates of protection, both for ongoing and future HIV-1 vaccine candidates; specific efforts were made to engage young scientists. We discuss here the highlights from the meeting regarding the progress made and the way forward for a protective HIV-1 vaccine. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012. Source

Voronin Y.,Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise | Phogat S.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

The symposium "HIV/AIDS: Vaccines and Alternate Strategies for Treatment and Prevention" brought together HIV vaccine researchers to discuss the latest developments in the field. From basic discoveries in virus diversity and mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies to nonhuman primate research and clinical trials of vaccine candidates in volunteers, scientists aremaking great strides in understanding themechanisms that may protect againstHIV and pathways to achieve this protection through vaccination. Source

Voronin Y.,Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise | Snow W.,Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS

Purpose of Review: To describe and compare the diverse organizational structures and funding mechanisms applied to advance HIV preventive vaccine research and development and to help explain and inform evolving infrastructures and collaborative funding models. Recent Findings: On the basis of models that have been tried, improved or abandoned over three decades, the field seems to have settled into a relatively stable set of diverse initiatives, each with its own organizational signature. At the same time, this set of organizations is forging cross-organizational collaborations, which promise to acquire newly emergent beneficial properties. Summary: Strong motivation to expedite HIV vaccine R&D has driven a diversity of customized and inventive organizational approaches, largely government and foundation funded. Although no one approach has proven a panacea, the field has evolved into a constellation of often overlapping organizations that complement or reinforce one another. The Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise, a responsive, rapidly evolving loose infrastructure, is an innovative collaboration to catalyze that evolution. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Manrique A.,Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise | Adams E.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Barouch D.H.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Fast P.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative | And 9 more authors.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Empirical testing of candidate vaccines has led to the successful development of a number of lifesaving vaccines. The advent of new tools to manipulate antigens and new methods and vectors for vaccine delivery has led to a veritable explosion of potential vaccine designs. As a result, selection of candidate vaccines suitable for large-scale efficacy testing has become more challenging. This is especially true for diseases such as dengue, HIV, and tuberculosis where there is no validated animal model or correlate of immune protection. Establishing guidelines for the selection of vaccine candidates for advanced testing has become a necessity. A number of factors could be considered in making these decisions, including, for example, safety in animal and human studies, immune profile, protection in animal studies, production processes with product quality and stability, availability of resources, and estimated cost of goods. The "immune space template" proposed here provides a standardized approach by which the quality, level, and durability of immune responses elicited in early human trials by a candidate vaccine can be described. The immune response profile will demonstrate if and how the candidate is unique relative to other candidates, especially those that have preceded it into efficacy testing and, thus, what new information concerning potential immune correlates could be learned from an efficacy trial. A thorough characterization of immune responses should also provide insight into a developer's rationale for the vaccine's proposed mechanism of action. HIV vaccine researchers plan to include this general approach in up-selecting candidates for the next large efficacy trial. This "immune space" approach may also be applicable to other vaccine development endeavors where correlates of vaccine-induced immune protection remain unknown. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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