Global Green Growth Institute

Seoul, South Korea

Global Green Growth Institute

Seoul, South Korea

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Oh M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Kim Y.S.,Global Green Growth Institute
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation, ISC 2016 | Year: 2016

In order to demonstrate the applicability of bulk electrical conductivity breakthrough curves for estimating solute transport in soil with residual diesel fuel, electrical conductivity breakthrough curves on column test was investigated. In addition, the electrical conductivity breakthrough curves were compared with Mobile-Immobile Model to verify the amount of solute in the immobile fraction of the pore volume. Changes in the electrical conductivity represented as a relative parameter with time gives information about solute transport in both clean saturated soils and saturated soils with residual diesel fuel. This illustrates the advantage of electrical conductivity BTC to monitor solute concentration continuously with time based on instantaneous electrical measurements. Electrical conductivity BTCs can provide an effective means of qualitative monitoring on solute transport with longitudinal direction of transport. © 2016 Australian Geomechanics Society.


News Article | May 16, 2017
Site: www.gwec.net

The 8th Mongolian National Renewable Energy Forum on 5 May was held under the auspices of the Prime Minister of Mongolia, organized by the Mongolian Wind Energy Association (MWEA) and the Mongolian Renewables Industries Association. GWEC was a co-organizer of the event, along with the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI). The forum attracted more than 600 participants, which is a new record for an energy event in Mongolia. After the workshop, MWEA will introduce the Forum’s outcomes and recommendations to the Prime Minister of Mongolia, to Parliament Members, the Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Tourism and Environment, as well as to the Energy Regulatory Commission of Mongolia. GWEC’s collaboration with MWEA started two years ago when the board urged us to start to look into the Mongolian market. In 2015, we jointly organized a wind-specific conference to serve the following purposes: a) to create a forum for key policy and political issues to be discussed; b) to create a networking opportunity for GWEC members with the government and local players; c) to expand our collaboration with the local association to strengthen their capacity and to help with future policy and events needs. The collaboration from two years ago proved to be successful, and our goals were met. Our efforts also helped to strengthen MWEA, as its team has now doubled and its increased influence has turned out to be valuable for both GWEC and the industry. Regarding the development of wind farms, after the first 50 MW wind farm (Salkhit) was put into operation in 2013, two more projects (Tsetsii and Sainshand) are moving forward. With just the first three projects, the total wind capacity would reach 155MW, which represents around 13% of the total system capacity of about 1.1 GW. Given the state of the system, this 155MW of wind will approach the amount that the grid can handle. Mining operations in the south of the country will have huge electricity demand, which is now using electricity imported from China and diesel generators on site. But without the correct stimulus and grid build-out, the additional power requirements will not necessarily be met by wind or other RE (solar) sources.


News Article | May 29, 2017
Site: www.greentechmedia.com

Investor appetite for cleantech remains strong following the Paris climate agreement. But experts at the World Bank's Innovate4Climate conference in Barcelona, Spain said that funding levels are still not high enough to reach global emissions targets. “I think that since COP21 there has been a visible increase in the interest and appetite in investing in this sector, from more general investors,” said Jonathan Taylor, vice president of the European Investment Bank (EIB). “You see an increasing number of investors using ESG [environmental, social and governance] metrics as part of their investment decisions. COP21 is making us think: ‘These guys really mean it.’ And I haven’t seen this change significantly since the U.S. election in November," said Taylor. Institutional investors are also becoming more wary of putting money into fossil-fuel ventures that may end up as stranded assets, he said. For example, AXA Investment Managers (AXA IM) last month announced that it will pull cash out of companies that get more than half of their revenues from coal-related activities. “This decision is consistent with our ambitions for continued and greater ESG integration across AXA IM,” said company CEO Andrea Rossi in a press release. “It is also in line with our belief that asset managers have an important role to play in helping the global transition to a low-carbon economy.” The EIB makes sure at least 25 percent of its annual lending goes toward projects related to climate change mitigation and adaptation. In 2016, this lending rose to 26 percent, totaling €19 billion (USD $21 billion). Of this, €8 billion ($9 billion) went to climate-friendly transport, €3.9 billion ($4.4 billion) to renewables, €3.6 billion ($4 billion) to energy-efficiency measures, €1.8 billion ($2 billion) to research and innovation, and €1.2 billion ($1.4 billion) to climate change adaptation. The bank also has a policy of not lending to energy projects that will emit in excess of 550g of carbon-dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour, which restricts it from supporting coal- or lignite-fired plant proposals unless the plants are equipped with carbon capture and storage. So far, none have been put forward, Taylor said. Neither have any new nuclear projects, although these could conceivably be funded. The EIB expects to lend $100 billion to climate-related initiatives over the next five years,  “which is consistent with the number for last year,” said Taylor. He said the bank would also remain committed to green bonds, which it pioneered 10 years ago. So far, the EIB remains the world’s largest provider of the instruments, having issued €16 billion ($18 billion) in Climate Awareness Bonds across 11 currencies. A World Bank study released during Innovate4Climate showed the number of carbon pricing initiatives worldwide has nearly doubled in the last five years. And the growing appetite for carbon-related investments is forcing the EIB to shift its loan strategy, Taylor told GTM. Previously the bank focused on large-scale projects, such as the Noor Ouarzazate solar power complex in Morocco or the Lake Turkana wind project in Kenya. Now it is looking to support aggregated small-scale initiatives, such as building efficiency plans. “What we’re now doing is we’re spreading out to do smaller-size lending, [especially] inside Europe,” Taylor said. “It is a change in business model for us.” Other development finance bodies also see their role becoming more important. At an Innovate4Climate side event organized by the Global Green Growth Institute, Jiwoo Choi, the Green Climate Fund’s private sector facility acting head, said $250 million in junior equity investments by the fund had helped attract around $30 billion for 200 projects globally. However, financing still needs to increase by a lot. Assaad Razzouk, CEO of Sindicatum Sustainable Resources Group, worried that global lenders weren't on a path to achieving the trillion-dollar-level annual investments needed to meet the Paris agreement goals. “The gap to how you get to the trillion [dollars] is the critical issue,” he said. “If you don’t get to the trillion in time, we’re not going to build a global clean economy. I’m talking about how do we get hold of another $640 billion per year. It’s a huge number.” Razzouk’s concerns echoed those of Dr. Stephan Singer, senior adviser for global energy policies at Climate Action Network International, who this month wrote in the London Financial Times that change was not happening fast enough to curtail climate change. To achieve the step change in investment that is needed, said Razzouk, cleantech must do more to court the world’s capital markets. “We have to be very careful not to give the private sector the idea that we’re addicted to aid,” he warned. “We’re not going to plug the $640 billion gap without the participation of the stock markets. The stock markets, local and global, are simply not participating," said Razzouk.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.gwec.net

This renewable energy (RE) conference aims at discussing renewable energy activities for the year, including important projects and developments in Mongolia. This annual event will bring together the main actors of the renewable energy sector, including high-level government officials who are eager to put Mongolia on the map, given the very high potential capacity for wind power. Join us in Ulaanbaatar on 5 May at the 8th National Renewable Energy Forum, for a full day of dialogue and presentations to gain a better understanding of the real opportunities currently available in Mongolia. GWEC is a co-partner of this event, led by the Mongolian Wind Energy Association and supported by the Ministry of Energy, the Energy Regulatory Commission of Mongolia, the Global Green Growth Institute, and under the auspices of the Prime Minister of Mongolia. Sponsorships are available for this event. Please enquire at [email protected] GWEC members benefit from a 20% discount on sponsorship and entrance fees. Mongolia has huge wind and solar resources. With large areas of Class I and Class II wind, the technical potential for wind power was estimated by NREL in 2001 to be in excess of 1TW. The Mongolian government is committed to exploiting the country’s rich renewable energy resources in order to meet the rapidly growing energy demand and to improve energy security, and in 2007 the Renewable Energy Law was adopted, introducing a feed-in-tariff for wind power. Additionally, the government’s National Renewable Energy Programme for the period 2005-2020 has a target of 20-25% share of renewable energy of total electricity production by 2020, which makes Mongolia one of the most strategic and most ready of the emerging wind markets in East Asia. The FIT, combined with the good wind resource, is already attracting wind developers, with the 50MW ‘Salkhit Wind Farm’ project in operation since 2013; the second project, the ‘Tsetsii Wind Farm’, is now under construction in the Gobi Area. There are dozens of other projects in the pipeline and are in varying stages of development.


Note to editors: There are two maps associated with this press release. Erdene Resource Development Corp. (TSX:ERD) ("Erdene" or "Company") is pleased to announce initial results from the Company's 2017 drill program at its 100%-owned Bayan Khundii Gold Project ("Bayan Khundii") in southwest Mongolia, and to announce changes to its management team in Mongolia. Highlights (see attached plan map and cross-sections for reference) Table 1. Highlights for holes drilled within Midfield Zone (see attached map and section) Since the beginning of the 2017 program, drilling at Bayan Khundii has been focused in the area between, as well as west of, the Midfield and Striker zones, with 11 drill holes completed and three additional hole extensions. The Company has also commenced drilling with a second drill rig at its Altan Nar gold-polymetallic project, 16 kilometres northwest of Bayan Khundii, where three holes have been completed targeting the high-grade gold zone intersected in Q4-2016 within the Discovery Zone (hole TND-101). Results reported today are from the first six new holes at Bayan Khundii including: two holes drilled within Midfield; two holes testing the down-dip extension of Midfield towards the Striker Zone; one west of Midfield and one hole testing a geophysical target outside of the main northeast trend. As shown in the attached plan map and cross-section, the five holes completed within the Striker-Midfield area (BKD-98 to BKD-102) were drilled on 20 to 40-metre centers and with a dip between -45 to -55 degrees oriented towards the north-northeast to intersect the mineralized zones approximately perpendicular to their interpreted orientation (dipping approximately 45 degrees to the southwest). The reconnaissance hole was drilled at -85 degrees to the north. The drilling results for Midfield are significant in that they have extended the area of gold mineralization down dip to the south. They have also begun to confirm that gold mineralization continues within the approximately 170 metre un-tested area between Striker and Midfield, the two most prominent gold mineralized zones identified to date within the 2 kilometre by 1.8 kilometre Bayan Khundii prospect area. The results also strengthen the continuity of the high gold grades reported previously in the central Midfield area, and support the observation that this area contains the most intense hydrothermal activity and the most pervasive gold mineralization at Bayan Khundii. This observation is now supported by the repeated intersection of up to 8 metre wide, high-grade gold zones centered on quartz-adularia veins (BKD-98: 111 m to 119 m; 51.0 g/t gold). Hole BKD-100 tested the western edge of Midfield and intersected intrusive syenite at shallower depths than expected, truncating the down-dip western extension in that area. However, drilling further west intersected anomalous gold in Devonian volcanics at greater depths, suggesting the intrusive bodies are relatively restricted in extent. Current drilling also confirmed that gold mineralization continues at greater depths to the south of Midfield. The intrusion intersected in previous drilling at Midfield is deepening to the south where up to 162 metres (vertical thickness) of altered and mineralized Devonian volcanic units have been intersected. The Midfield Zone is located under younger, post-mineralization cover and has provided some of the highest grades and longest, continuously mineralized intervals intersected to date. It is located approximately 200 metres north of the original discovery area, which includes the Striker and Gold Hill zones where gold mineralization is exposed at surface. An additional mineralized zone is located 600 metres northeast of the Midfield Zone where limited exploration has been completed (Northeast Zone), with the area between covered by younger Cretaceous (post mineralization) units. The reconnaissance hole drilled in the northwest portion of Bayan Khundii is one of many holes that will test targets outside the main trend of mineralization in the coming months. These holes are designed to test new concepts but also to provide data to support the Company's broader understanding of the alteration and mineralizing event. This hole was drilled 400 metres west of the Northeast Zone and 300 metres north of the Midfield Zone. While not hosting anomalous gold values, it did intersect a sequence of weak to moderately altered tuffaceous rocks and dacite intrusions, starting at 12 metres depth beneath younger cover. Locally, zones of intense silicification, mica and magnetite alteration were encountered confirming that hydrothermal fluids did penetrate this far from the known mineralized zones. Similar indications have been observed at the bottom of the most western hole (BKD-75), 300 metres west of Midfield, where the hole encountered higher gold values at the end of the hole (185 metre vertical depth), up to 0.5 g/t gold over 2 metres. Dr. Jeffrey Hedenquist and other renowned experts, including Imants Kavalieris and Dr. Khashgerel Bat-Erdene, will be visiting the project again in the coming months to continue to assist the Erdene technical team in improving its understanding of the controls on mineralization which will be used, in part, to direct the Company's reconnaissance drilling program. The initial phase of 2017 drilling includes the completion of a series of holes in the untested areas around the original discovery areas at Bayan Khundii in order to expand and increase confidence in the continuity of the following areas; between Striker and Midfield, north of Midfield, west and northeast of Striker, and between Gold Hill and Striker. As that work progresses, the second rig, which commenced drilling in late April, will complete a series of holes at the Discovery Zone at Altan Nar (16 kilometres north of Bayan Khundii) and the new Altan Arrow gold discovery (3.5 kilometres north of Bayan Khundii) before joining the drill program at Bayan Khundii in mid-May. The second rig will then begin systematically testing geophysical targets throughout the 2 kilometre by 1.8 kilometre Bayan Khundii area, while the first rig commences more detailed infill work around the new and existing high-grade zones at Midfield, Striker, and Gold Hill. As the field season progresses and results are received, the program will be refined and expanded where necessary to concentrate additional drilling around the highest priority targets at Bayan Khundii, Altan Nar and Altan Arrow. A follow-up second phase program will be defined and implemented in early Q4-2017, based on the results from the Q2-Q3 exploration program. On May 1, the Company made several changes to its management team in Mongolia, including the hiring of Jon Lyons as Vice President Regulatory Affairs and Strategy. The changes are aimed at preparing the Company for a transition into permitting and development related work in the coming months and years. The appointments include: Bayarmaa Bagabandi - Ms. Bagabandi has been appointed Chief Administrative Officer for Erdene Mongol LLC, the Company's main Mongolian subsidiary, responsible for overseeing all financial, legal and human resource responsibilities. Bayarmaa earned an MSc in International Economics from Korea's Sogang University and has been employed with the Company for the past 12 years. Bayarmaa has been involved in the administrative side of Mongolia's resource industry for the past 17 years. Jon M. L. Lyons - Mr. Lyons will take on the role of Vice President Regulatory Affairs and Strategy, responsible for managing the various government permitting processes required to advance Erdene's mineral exploration and mining projects. Jon will also be responsible for oversight of Health, Safety, Environment, and Community areas for the Company, especially to ensure compliance and cultivate shared value for all stakeholders. Most recently, Jon was with the Global Green Growth Institute as Country Representative to Mongolia. Jon has lived and worked intermittently in Mongolia and the region, including a previous posting with the Company, since 2001. Jon earned an MBA from Maastricht University and the EuroMBA consortium and a B.A. (summa cum laude) in physics and anthropology from Wheaton College, MA, and is fluent in Mongolian and Russian. Bilguun Ankhbayar - Mr. Ankhbayar has been appointed Vice President Business Development, responsible for assisting the Company's CEO in advancing Erdene's projects to development, including economic evaluations, strategic market analysis, investor and other stakeholder relations and business development in the local communities. Bilguun graduated from Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 2007 with a B.Comm in Finance. He worked in the resource investment industry in Toronto, Canada before returning to Mongolia to become CEO of the Mongolian International Banking Group (MIBG). Bilguun became a strategic advisor to Erdene in 2016, and is now taking on increased responsibilities. Erdenebileg Pagva - Mr. Pagva has been appointed Senior Representative for Bayankhongor, the province that hosts the Company's Bayan Khundii, Altan Nar and other projects. Erdenebileg's responsibilities include managing the Company's stakeholder relations in Bayankhongor, and ensuring alignment of the Company's business activities with local and regional development trends. Erdenebileg has worked in Mongolia's mineral exploration and gold mining sector for nearly 25 years, and holds a BSc in Geology and Mine Engineering from the Mongolian University of Science and Technology. In Q2-2015, Erdene conducted an initial exploration program on the southern portion of the Company's 100%-owned Khundii exploration license in southwest Mongolia. An early rock-chip sampling program revealed multiple very high-grade surface quartz veins that returned up to 4,380 g/t gold, leading to a comprehensive exploration program that has included: geological mapping; soil geochemical surveys; additional surface rock chip sampling; a ground magnetic survey; gradient array and dipole-dipole induced polarization surveys; and the completion of 11,300 meters of drilling in 96 drill holes (as of Q4-2016). In addition to this work, a series of detailed follow-up studies have also been completed, predominantly on drill core and minor surface outcrop, including: petrographic and mineralogical analyses; a fluid inclusion study; SEM gold composition analysis; Short-Wave Infra-Red Analysis (SWIR); structural analysis; and overall petrogenetic analysis. Drilling has revealed the presence of very high gold grades, with up to 306 g/t gold over 1 metre intervals, within broad mineralized envelopes, with up to 65 metres averaging 6.3 g/t gold, including 12 metres of 29 g/t gold. Detailed studies indicate the mineralized zones can be characterized as low-sulphidation, quartz-sericite (illite)-adularia type mineralization that was formed in a back-arc extensional environment. In Q1-2016, the Company concluded preliminary metallurgical test work at Bayan Khundii, indicating that gravity concentration and cyanidation of the gravity tails yielded very good overall gold recoveries for both high-grade and low-grade composites: 99% gold recovery from the high-grade composite (24.9 g/t gold), and 92% gold recovery from the low-grade composite (0.7 g/t gold). Additional metallurgical work is underway with completion anticipated in Q3. The Bayan Khundii license has a 2% net smelter returns royalty ("NSR Royalty") in favour of Sandstorm Gold Ltd., with a buy-back option to reduce the NSR Royalty to 1%. Michael MacDonald, P.Geo. (Nova Scotia), Vice President Exploration for Erdene, is the Qualified Person as that term is defined in National Instrument 43-101 and has reviewed and approved the technical information contained in this news release. All samples have been assayed at SGS Laboratory in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. In addition to internal checks by SGS Laboratory, the Company incorporates a QA/QC sample protocol utilizing prepared standards and blanks. Erdene's sampling protocol for drill core consisted of collection of samples over 1 metre or 2 metre intervals (depending on the lithology and style of mineralization) over the entire length of the drill hole, excluding minor post-mineral lithologies and un-mineralized granitoids. Sample intervals were based on meterage, not geological controls or mineralization. All drill core was cut in half with a diamond saw, with half of the core placed in sample bags and the remaining half securely retained in core boxes at Erdene's Bayan Khundii exploration camp. All samples were organized into batches of 30 samples including a commercially prepared standard, blank, and either a field duplicate, consisting of two 1/4 core intervals, or a laboratory duplicate. Sample batches were periodically shipped directly to SGS in Ulaanbaatar via Erdene's logistical contractor, Monrud Co. Ltd. Erdene Resource Development Corp. is a Canada-based resource company focused on the acquisition, exploration, and development of base and precious metals in underexplored and highly prospective Mongolia. In addition to Bayan Khundii and Altan Nar, the Company has three other exploration licenses and a mining license in southwest Mongolia. Other deposits and prospects within these licenses include: Khuvyn Khar - an early-stage, copper-silver porphyry project with multiple drill targets and significant copper intersections; Nomin Tal - a narrow, high grade copper-gold discovery; Zuun Mod - a large molybdenum-copper porphyry deposit; and Altan Arrow - an early-stage, high-grade, gold-silver project. In addition to the above properties, the Company has an Alliance with Teck Resources Limited on regional copper-gold exploration in the prospective Trans Altai region of southwest Mongolia. For further information on the Company, please visit www.erdene.com. Erdene has 145,550,586 issued and outstanding common shares and a fully diluted position of 156,592,160 common shares. Certain information regarding Erdene contained herein may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements may include estimates, plans, expectations, opinions, forecasts, projections, guidance or other statements that are not statements of fact. Although Erdene believes that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, it can give no assurance that such expectations will prove to have been correct. Erdene cautions that actual performance will be affected by a number of factors, most of which are beyond its control, and that future events and results may vary substantially from what Erdene currently foresees. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include market prices, exploitation and exploration results, continued availability of capital and financing and general economic, market or business conditions. The forward-looking statements are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement. The information contained herein is stated as of the current date and is subject to change after that date. The Company does not assume the obligation to revise or update these forward-looking statements, except as may be required under applicable securities laws. NO REGULATORY AUTHORITY HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THE CONTENTS OF THIS RELEASE To view the maps associated with this press release, please visit the following links:


News Article | November 18, 2015
Site: www.reuters.com

Abdullahi Majeed, a veteran negotiator on climate change for the Maldives who has been warning of the risks of sea level rise since a meeting in 1989, attends U.N. talks in Bonn, Germany, October 22, 2015. Abdullahi Majeed, a veteran negotiator on climate change for the Maldives who has been warning of the risks of sea level rise since a meeting in 1989, attends U.N. talks in Bonn, Germany, October 22, 2015. Now a 60-year-old veteran, Majeed is still repeating that message, one of a handful of delegates to this month's Paris climate summit who have been attending tortuous U.N. negotiations to combat global warming from the start. "It's frustrating," he said. "The sense of urgency is simply not there." In countless conference halls from Bangkok to Buenos Aires, Majeed has seen more setbacks than breakthroughs, not least the failed Copenhagen conference in 2009. He is now pinning cautious hopes on the Paris summit, from Nov. 30-Dec. 11, when almost 200 nations will once more seek an accord to curb manmade greenhouse gas emissions, blamed by almost all leading climate scientists for rising global temperatures and sea levels. "There is more hope," he said. "We can't have another Copenhagen." In November 1989, Majeed was head of his country's meteorological service when 14 island nations met in the capital of the Indian Ocean archipelago to sign the Male Declaration about the risks of climate change. It went almost unnoticed outside the signatories, which included Grenada, Fiji and Malta. At the time, few scientists blamed mankind for global warming, and the fall of the Berlin Wall a week earlier was dominating the world's headlines. "We knew it wouldn't be plain sailing but we thought ‘We have to begin somewhere’," Majeed said. Now, the risks are far more widely known. Sea levels have risen by about 20 cm (8 inches) since 1900 and the U.N. panel of climate scientists says they could swell again by between 26 and 82 cm by the late 21st century, driven by a thaw of ice from Greenland to Antarctica. That would be a creeping threat to coasts from Bangladesh to Florida, to coastal cities from London to Shanghai and to many low-lying coral atolls. The Maldives, with a population of 345,000, is among the most vulnerable since its highest natural point is just 2.4 metres (8 feet) above sea level. Robert Van Lierop of Vanuatu, the first chair of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) from 1991-94, said Majeed had helped to set the tone for island negotiators by blending concern with humility. "Through the ups and downs of the negotiations, he has been a steady rock," Van Lierup said. Majeed, now Minister of State for Environment and Energy, said he had first become interested in the weather as a child when his father had been unable to answer the question "How do you measure rainfall?". Delegates often jokingly liken the negotiations to herding cats. Just like AOSIS, now grown to 44 members, the United States, China, African nations, OPEC oil producers or left-wing Latin American states all have often-competing national interests. OPEC nations, for instance, immediately realized that any shift to wind and solar power was a threat to oil exports. At climate talks in the early 1990s, "half of the OPEC delegates were lawyers", Majeed said. It was not until 1992 that a U.N. climate convention in Rio de Janeiro finally set a goal of limiting greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2000, albeit only for developed economies. But the goal was non-binding, and was not met. After a grind of unproductive annual U.N. meetings, the next accord was the U.N.'s 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which initially obliged about 40 rich nations to cut greenhouse gas emissions by about 5 percent below 1990 levels in the period 2008-12. Those cuts have been met overall, but Kyoto had fatal flaws, and the number of participants in an extended period to 2020 has shrunk to a small core around the European Union. U.S. President George W. Bush concluded that Kyoto was giving big emerging economies such as China and India a free ride, and would cost U.S. jobs. Having signed the deal, Washington never ratified it. "It was a very minor step in the right direction," Majeed said, remembering that his delegation had to leave before the agreement was reached, in overtime, to avoid missing their expensive flight home. One of the lowest points was a two-week meeting in Buenos Aires in 2004, which ended with an agreement merely to hold a seminar about climate change the following year. To some, given the U.S. opposition to Kyoto, even that was a victory. "At the time, I was very happy to get this workshop," said Yvo de Boer, the U.N. climate chief from 2006-10 who was a senior member of the Dutch delegation in Buenos Aires. He says the core problem is that climate change ultimately means transforming the world economy. Crops will have to be replaced or planted elsewhere, for instance, industry will have to find new ways of working without fossil fuels, and low-lying countries may one day have to move whole cities. "If it was just about cutting emissions, it would be much easier," said de Boer, who now heads the Global Green Growth Institute in South Korea. Majeed said the pace picked up in Bali in 2007, when nations agreed to work out a global accord to succeed Kyoto within two years. Washington dropped its opposition at a stormy final session during which U.S. delegates were booed. But the 2009 Copenhagen summit failed, with only a partial accord for emissions cuts until 2020 and a promise to mobilize $100 billion a year in climate finance for developing nations by 2020. By last year, about $62 billion had been amassed. Majeed says Copenhagen was the worst meeting: "People started with such optimism, and it ended with such doom." Prospects for a global accord are now brighter, partly because the United States and China are working together. But ambitions are also lower: a Paris accord will compile voluntary national pledges for action beyond 2020, forsaking the binding model of Kyoto. In Male, Majeed lives in a house that is about 2 metres (7 feet) above sea level and 50 metres from the waterfront. He grumbles that there are few beaches, because of the sea defenses that occupy much of the capital's coast. After the Paris talks, set to take place under heightened security after the attacks that killed 129 people last week, he reckons he may stay with climate negotiations for another five years. "Nobody likes traveling to so many places," he said. "We all have families too." Majeed has four daughters. Asked why he has stayed on so long when many others have given up, he shrugs: "I've got climate in my veins."


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-03b-2014 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2015

The GREEN-WIN project will develop a major international transdisciplinary research collaboration to apply a solution-oriented approach targeted at increasing the understanding of links between climate action and sustainability and overcoming implementation barriers through win-win strategies. The project will critically assess where and under which conditions win-win and in particular green growth strategies work in practice and where fundamental trade-offs must be faced. We thereby focus on four critical barriers that have been identified by practitioners and policy makers. First, we develop transformative narratives highlighting opportunities in climate and sustainability action in order to contribute to overcoming cognitive barriers and empowering people. Second, we examine climate and sustainability finance policies and governance arrangements in order to contribute to overcoming financial barriers to mitigation and adaptation. Third, we substantiate the economics of green growth in order to contribute to overcoming economic and collective action barriers to de-carbonisation. Towards this end we introduce major innovations into the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model required to discover green growth strategies. These include developing a network-based model of technological diffusion, and introducing financial market constraints and adaptive expectations of agents. Fourth, we contribute to overcoming economic and institutional barriers through identifying win-win strategies, sustainable business models and enabling environments in three action fields of coastal zone flood risk management, urban transformations and energy poverty eradication and resilience. We embed all these activities within a sustained international dialogue involving stakeholders from policy, research, civil society and the private sector, and an open knowledge management and capacity building strategy to promote knowledge transfer and learning beyond the project lifespan.


SEOUL – August 23, 2016: Dr. Frank Rijsberman, the former CEO of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Consortium, has been appointed as the Director-General of the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI). Dr. Rijsberman will lead the Seoul-based international organization for a four-year term, beginning on October 1, 2016, succeeding Yvo de Boer. “The opportunity to support developing countries to achieve their economic growth ambitions while reducing poverty and minimizing the environmental impact is inspiring and very motivating to me,” Dr. Rijsberman said. “While GGGI is a relatively young organization, it has already established a strong track record in laying the policy foundations for green growth, increasing green investment flows, and sharing its knowledge and experience with partner countries. I look forward to building on this success and driving the Institute’s work towards achieving its vision of a resilient world with strong, inclusive, and sustainable green growth.” The appointment of Dr. Rijsberman became effective following the unanimous agreement by the GGGI Assembly, GGGI’s supreme organ. “On behalf of GGGI’s 26 Member countries, I warmly welcome Dr. Rijsberman to the Institute,” said H.E. Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, President of the Assembly and Chair of the Council of GGGI. “We are confident that under Dr. Rijsberman’s leadership, GGGI will accelerate its Members’ transition to a new model of growth, aligned with their Nationally-Determined Contributions to the Paris Climate Agreement and the internationally-agreed Sustainable Development Goals.” At CGIAR, Dr. Rijsberman led the Consortium’s transformation from 15 independent research centers towards a single integrated organization. This included a process of cultural and institutional change towards results-based management, including the development of the Consortium’s 2016-2030 Strategy and new portfolio of research programs for 2017-2022, building an integrated organization and governance structure, and developing its policies and procedures to ensure accountability. Prior to leading CGIAR, Dr. Rijsberman was the first Director of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, where he developed a strategy to help achieve universal access to sustainable sanitation services using radical new technologies and innovative market-based mechanisms. Dr. Rijsberman also has worked as Program Director at Google.org, the philanthropic arm of Google, where he led grant making in the public health initiative and was responsible for programs and partnerships in health, disaster response, geo-informatics, and climate-change adaptation. Before Google Dr. Rijsberman was Director-General of the International Water Management Institute, an international research institute with HQ in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Originally from the Netherlands, Dr. Rijsberman received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in civil engineering from Delft University of Technology, and earned a multi-disciplinary Ph.D. in water resources planning and management and civil engineering from Colorado State University. About GGGI Based in Seoul, GGGI is an intergovernmental organization founded to support and promote green growth. The organization partners with countries to help them build economies that grow strongly, are more efficient and sustainable in the use of natural resources, less carbon intensive, and more resilient to climate change. GGGI works with countries around the world, building their capacity and working collaboratively on green growth policies that can impact the lives of millions. To learn more about GGGI, see http://www.gggi.org and visit us on Facebook and Twitter.


News Article | December 1, 2015
Site: www.reuters.com

But as the leaders departed Paris, it became apparent that disagreements which have blocked a deal over four years of lead-up negotiations remain unresolved. Negotiators from the 195 countries with a place at the table resumed work on a draft text that still runs to more than 50 pages and is riddled with sticky issues to be settled. The biggest obstacle is money: how to come up with the billions of dollars developing nations need to shift from fossil fuels and adapt to the impacts of climate change. At Tuesday's technical talks, countries restated their well-known negotiating positions on the question with few hints of compromise. China's delegate Su Wei "noted with concern" what he called a lack of commitment by the rich to make deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions and help developing nations with new finance to tackle global warming. And the group of the 48 least developed countries urged far tougher action to limit rising temperatures. "It's back to the nitty gritty," said Alden Meyer, of the Union of Concerned Scientists, adding the opening day was "all good but that does not resolve the crunch issues." Certainly there was still some hangover of goodwill from Monday, when a parade of leaders stepped to the podium to assert the imperative of getting a deal. Many delegates said the large turnout of leaders, almost all expressing sympathy for the French people after attacks by Islamic State militants killed 130 in Paris this month, set a less hostile tone than the one that prevailed in the last talks in Copenhagen in 2009. French President Francois Hollande said he was encouraged by the start of a conference that is planned to run until Dec. 11. "It's set off well but it has to arrive too," he told reporters. The mood had also been brightened by major spending announcements, including a plan by India and France to mobilize $1 trillion for solar power for some of the world's poorest people and a private sector initiative led by Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates to mobilize billions of dollars for new energy research and development. A deal in Paris would be by far the strongest ever agreed to bind both rich and poor nations to limit greenhouse gas emissions, which scientists say have blanketed the earth, raised global temperatures and begun upending the planet's climate system. But Tuesday showed that the Paris talks are still taking place under the shadow of politics-as-usual back home. In the United States, Republicans have signaled they will oppose authorizing the billions of dollars that President Barack Obama has pledged to help developing nations adapt to climate change. In response, Obama told reporters before boarding Air Force One to return to the United States that the impacts of climate change will force any future U.S. president -- Democrat or Republican -- to act. "Everybody else is taking climate change really seriously," he said of world leaders in Paris, adding: "People should be confident that we'll meet our commitments on this." Developing nations want the rich to pledge rising amounts beyond the current goal of $100 billion a year by 2020 to help them obtain clean energy sources and adapt to the effects of climate change, ranging from more floods to droughts and intense storms. Other disputes concern how to define a long-term goal for reducing or phasing out fossil fuels this century. So far, pledges made by 184 countries to curb greenhouse gas emissions beyond 2020, made in the run-up to the Paris summit, are too weak to limit rising global temperatures to 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial times. That is widely viewed as a threshold for dangerous and potentially catastrophic changes in the planet's climate system. As negotiators grapple with the details, they also appear motivated by the fearful consequences of failing to get an agreement. "Leaders still have the scars of Copenhagen on their hearts and brains," said Yvo de Boer, who was the U.N.'s climate chief in Copenhagen. De Boer, who works for the Global Green Growth Institute, said Monday's big turnout was encouraging for a deal - but acknowledged the challenge ahead. "The elephant in the room is still finance," he said.


News Article | October 25, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

All eyes on Mars Planetary scientists are expecting the first successful landing of a European spacecraft on Mars. As Nature went to press, the Schiaparelli lander — part of the ExoMars joint mission with the Russian Space Agency, Roscosmos — was expected to touch down on the red planet on 19 October. The craft, which launched from Kazakhstan in March on a Russian rocket and separated from its mothership on 16 October, is intended to demonstrate landing technology, but it will also study dust storms that are expected to rage on Mars. The mission’s second component, an orbiter, will begin orbiting Mars on the same day and will analyse the composition of the planet’s thin atmosphere next year. See go.nature.com/2eduxjh for more. Protests at South African universities Student protests over tuition fees continue to disrupt teaching and academic life at South African universities. Violent clashes between students and police have been raging on campuses for several weeks despite calls from university officials to save the academic year from breakdown. Last week, protesters threw petrol bombs at buildings in the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, where a library was torched last month. At the University of Cape Town, teaching resumed on 17 October. But other campuses, including the University of the Western Cape and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, both in Cape Town, remain closed (pictured is Vaal University of Technology near Johannesburg). Green millions The Green Climate Fund, the United Nations’ financial mechanism for helping developing countries to deal with climate change, approved US$745 million in funding proposals on 14 October. The money will go towards 10 new projects involving 27 nations. The Fund, which six years after it was launched has not yet disbursed any money, has now earmarked a total of $1.17 billion for developing countries. At its meeting in Songdo, South Korea, the Fund’s governing board also selected Howard Bamsey, former director-general of the Global Green Growth Institute and Australia’s special envoy on climate change, as new executive director. Bamsey will replace Héla Cheikhrouhou, who has taken over as Tunisia’s minister for energy, mining and renewables. Big climate win Almost 200 nations have agreed to substantially curb their emissions of chemicals used in refrigeration and air conditioning that act as potent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. An expansion of the Montreal Protocol, signed on 15 October at a United Nations meeting in Kigali, Rwanda, aims to reduce projected emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by almost 90% over the course of the twenty-first century. The protocol was created in 1987 to halt the destruction of Earth’s protective ozone layer. If left unchecked, heat-trapping HFCs, which have since replaced ozone-depleting chemicals, might have contributed up to 0.5 °C of warming by the end of the century (see go.nature.com/2doehrn). Moonshot report The US Cancer Moonshot Task Force released a report on 17 October detailing its accomplishments and goals. The task force, which is led by US Vice President Joseph Biden, continued its call for data sharing, increased clinical trial participation and molecular tumour profiling. The moonshot aims to double the pace of cancer research. Obama’s Mars plan US President Barack Obama reiterated his goals to send NASA astronauts to Mars in the 2030s. In an 11 October op-ed piece for CNN and at a conference in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Obama said the space agency would work with private companies to develop deep-space habitats for astronauts. This includes asking companies for ideas about attaching privately built modules for living and working to the International Space Station. But with Obama leaving office in three months, the direction of NASA is up to the next president and Congress, so the goals remain uncertain at best. Comet hunter dies Klim Churyumov, co-discoverer of the rubber-duck-shaped comet studied by the European Space Agency’s Rosetta mission, has died aged 79. Working with fellow astronomer Svetlana Gerasimenko, the Ukrainian spotted the comet using a Maksutov telescope in 1969. The space agency selected the body, known as 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, as Rosetta’s target in 2003, and Churyumov followed the mission closely. He lived to see its finale, a crash-landing of the mothership on the comet on 30 September. As well as being an accomplished astronomer who co-discovered a second comet in 1986, Churyumov was an avid popularizer of science and published a series of poetry books for children. Next UN chief Former prime minister of Portugal António Guterres (pictured, left) will be the next secretary-general of the United Nations, taking the helm after Ban Ki-moon (pictured, right) steps down on 31 December. He was appointed by the General Assembly in New York City on 13 October. Guterres, 67, studied engineering and physics in Lisbon, and had a brief career in academia before going into politics. He was high commissioner of the UN’s refugee agency for ten years until 2015, and said that alleviating the suffering of vulnerable people, and gender equality, would be key priorities for his five-year tenure as secretary-general. Galaxy glut With the help of tens of thousands of citizen scientists from around the world, astronomers on 12 October released two data sets on the shapes of some 168,000 galaxies. The catalogues are part of the Galaxy Zoo project, which began in 2007 and has enlisted volunteers to classify nearly 1 million galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The latest projects (described in two papers at https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.03070; 2016 and https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.03068; 2016) include galaxies that are farther away, with images from the Hubble Space Telescope that show galaxies up to 3.6 billion parsecs (12 billion light years) away. The results could help astrophysicists understand how galaxies have evolved. AI manifesto Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning hold significant potential for innovation and economic growth, a White House report published on 12 October concludes. Calling for government and private sector investment in research and development, the report says that regulations and standards must keep pace with the conceivable benefits of using AI technology in finance, health care, aviation and self-driving cars. Impacts on the economy and workforce must be scrutinized because automation in industry might particularly affect low-wage jobs, the report argues. Weighing neutrinos The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment in Germany, which is designed to establish the elusive mass of neutrino particles, was switched on for the first time on 14 October. Neutrinos are known to have non-zero masses, but the actual values of those masses have been difficult to measure. KATRIN will weigh the extremely light particles indirectly by measuring the energies of electrons shooting out from the nuclear decay of tritium, an isotope of hydrogen. Researchers have now started beaming electrons inside the 70-metre-long, €60-million (US$66-million) machine, and plan to begin the tritium experiment — expected to last five years — in late 2017. Bob Dylan, who on 13 October became a Nobel laureate in literature, might be scientists’ favourite musician. A 2015 analysis found that Dylan’s song names were mentioned in at least 213 article titles (C. Gornitzki, A. Larsson and B. Fadeel Br. Med. J. 351, h6505; 2015); numerous fields were found to be “a-changin’”. The authors concluded that Dylan’s respect for the medical profession — as evidenced by his lyric “I wish I’d have been a doctor” — is reciprocated. 24–26 October Bill Gates and Richard Branson join 1,000 scientists from around the world for the Grand Challenges conference in London to share ideas on topics from crop research to menstrual hygiene. go.nature.com/2e75xb3 2–4 November The Africa Renewable Energy Forum meets in Marrakesh, Morocco, ahead of the COP22 climate meeting. africa-renewable-energy-forum.com

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