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Kwon H.,University of Arkansas | Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Kumar P.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,University of Arkansas | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

Electrocardiography (ECG) is an important diagnostic tool that can provide vital information about diseases that may not be detectable with other biological signals like, SpO2(Oxygen Saturation), pulse rate, respiration, and blood pressure. For this reason, EKG measurement is mandatory for accurate diagnosis. Recent development in information technology has facilitated remote monitoring systems which can check patient's current status. Moreover, remote monitoring systems can obviate the need for patients to go to hospitals periodically. Such representative wireless communication system is Zigbee sensor network because Zigbee sensor network provides low power consumption and multi-device connection. When we measure EKG signal, another important factor that we should consider is about unexpected signals mixed to EKG signal. The unexpected signals give a severe impact in distorting original EKG signal. There are three kinds of types in noise elements such as muscle noise, movement noise, and respiration noise. This paper describes the design method for EKG measurement system with Zigbee sensor network and proposes an algorithm to remove noises from measured ECG signal. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source

Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Kwon H.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Varadan V.K.,Global Engineering Institute Inc.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2012

Good sleep is critical for one's overall physical and mental health but more than 50 million Americans have experienced or are suffering from sleep disorders. Nevertheless, 85% of them remain undiagnosed or untreated. They can lead to chronic diseases. Sleep disorders are diagnosed through polysomnography, also known as sleep study, performed in a sleep laboratory overnight. This perturbs his/her daily sleep routine, and consequently, an accurate diagnosis cannot be made. Many companies have been developing home sleep test systems to reduce the cost of sleep studies and provide a more convenience solution to patients. The category of the system varies as type II, type III and type IV according to the type of sleep study. Current systems cannot be easily extended from one type to include a higher type. A patient who has a type III system to diagnose sleep apnea should additionally purchase a type II system which has functions that overlap with a type III system, to evaluate sleep stages. In this paper, we propose a wireless telemedicine system for easy extension of channels using the start network topology of the Zigbee protocol. The HST system consists of two wireless HST devices with a Zigbee module, a wireless HST receiver with both a Zigbee and a Wi-Fi module, and a sever which monitors/saves the physiological signals. One transmitter provides 5 channels for 2x EOG, 2x EEG and EMG to evaluate sleep stages. The other transmitter provides 5 additional channels for ECG, nasal air flow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation to diagnose sleep apnea. These two transmitters, acting as routers, and the receiver as a coordinator form a Zigbee star network. The data from each transmitter in the receiver are retransmitted to the monitoring unit through Wi-Fi. By building a star network with Zigbee, channels can be easily extended so that low level systems can be upgraded to higher level systems by simply adding the necessary channels. In addition, the proposed system provides real time monitoring of physiological signals at remote locations using Wi-Fi. © 2012 SPIE. Source

Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Shyamkumar P.,University of Arkansas | Kwon H.,University of Arkansas | Rai P.,University of Arkansas | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Football players are regularly exposed to violent impacts. Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries that are one of the most common injuries experienced by football players. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves and the clinical criteria used to diagnose them. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. In addition, an athlete's fatigue level should be monitored to prevent any secondary injuries due to over exertion. Nitric Oxide acts as a metabolic adjustment factor that controls the flow of oxygen in blood and the contraction/relaxation of muscles. Fatigue can be evaluated by measuring the concentration change of nitric oxide in blood. However, measuring the concentration of nitric oxide in blood is not feasible during exercise. Nevertheless, the degree of fatigue can be measured with SpO2 during exercise because the change of nitric oxide also influences the SpO2. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet to diagnose concussions and evaluate fatigue in real time and on the field. The helmet is equipped with sensors and a transmitter module. As sensors, textile based electrodes are used to sense EEG and oximeter sensors are used to derive SpO2. The sensed physiological signals are amplified and processed in the transmitter module. The processed signals are transmitted to a server using Zigbee wireless communication. The EEG signals are classified to diagnose concussion or any abnormality of brain function. In conclusion, the system can monitor and diagnose concussions and evaluate fatigue in football players in real time by measuring their EEGs and SpO2. © 2013 SPIE. Source

Shyamkumar P.,University of Arkansas | Rai P.,University of Arkansas | Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Ramasamy M.,University of Arkansas | And 4 more authors.
Electronics | Year: 2014

Wearable and ultraportable electronics coupled with pervasive computing are poised to revolutionize healthcare services delivery. The potential cost savings in both treatment, as well as preventive care are the focus of several research efforts across the globe. In this review, we describe the motivations behind wearable solutions to real-time cardiovascular monitoring from a perspective of current healthcare services, as well as from a systems design perspective. We identify areas where emerging research is underway, namely: nanotechnology in textile-based wearable monitors and healthcare solutions targeted towards smart devices, like smartphones and tablets. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Arakawa F.,Global Engineering Institute Inc.
IEEJ Transactions on Fundamentals and Materials | Year: 2011

It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been on of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as "endangered". So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary. © 2011 The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Source

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