Global Engineering Institute Inc.

Shibuya-ku, Japan

Global Engineering Institute Inc.

Shibuya-ku, Japan
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Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Shyamkumar P.,University of Arkansas | Kwon H.,University of Arkansas | Rai P.,University of Arkansas | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Football players are regularly exposed to violent impacts. Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries that are one of the most common injuries experienced by football players. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves and the clinical criteria used to diagnose them. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. In addition, an athlete's fatigue level should be monitored to prevent any secondary injuries due to over exertion. Nitric Oxide acts as a metabolic adjustment factor that controls the flow of oxygen in blood and the contraction/relaxation of muscles. Fatigue can be evaluated by measuring the concentration change of nitric oxide in blood. However, measuring the concentration of nitric oxide in blood is not feasible during exercise. Nevertheless, the degree of fatigue can be measured with SpO2 during exercise because the change of nitric oxide also influences the SpO2. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet to diagnose concussions and evaluate fatigue in real time and on the field. The helmet is equipped with sensors and a transmitter module. As sensors, textile based electrodes are used to sense EEG and oximeter sensors are used to derive SpO2. The sensed physiological signals are amplified and processed in the transmitter module. The processed signals are transmitted to a server using Zigbee wireless communication. The EEG signals are classified to diagnose concussion or any abnormality of brain function. In conclusion, the system can monitor and diagnose concussions and evaluate fatigue in football players in real time by measuring their EEGs and SpO2. © 2013 SPIE.


Kwon H.,University of Arkansas | Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Varadana V.K.,University of Arkansas | Varadana V.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Varadana V.K.,Global Engineering Institute Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Wearable ECG(ElectroCardioGram) measurement systems have increasingly been developing for people who suffer from CVD(CardioVascular Disease) and have very active lifestyles. Especially, in the case of female CVD patients, several abnormal CVD symptoms are accompanied with CVDs. Therefore, monitoring women's ECG signal is a significant diagnostic method to prevent from sudden heart attack. The E-bra ECG measurement system from our previous work provides more convenient option for women than Holter monitor system. The e-bra system was developed with a motion artifact removal algorithm by using an adaptive filter with LMS(least mean square) and a wandering noise baseline detection algorithm. In this paper, ICA(independent component analysis) algorithms are suggested to remove motion artifact factor for the e-bra system. Firstly, the ICA algorithms are developed with two kinds of statistical theories: Kurtosis, Endropy and evaluated by performing simulations with a ECG signal created by sgolayfilt function of MATLAB, a noise signal including 0.4Hz, 1.1Hz and 1.9Hz, and a weighed vector W estimated by kurtosis or entropy. A correlation value is shown as the degree of similarity between the created ECG signal and the estimated new ECG signal. In the real time E-Bra system, two pseudo signals are extracted by multiplying with a random weighted vector W, the measured ECG signal from E-bra system, and the noise component signal by noise extraction algorithm from our previous work. The suggested ICA algorithm basing on kurtosis or entropy is used to estimate the new ECG signal Y without noise component. © 2013 SPIE.


Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Ramasamy M.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Varadan V.K.,Global Engineering Institute Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

A rectenna system delivers, collects, and converts RF energy into direct current to power the electronic devices or recharge batteries. It consists of an antenna for receiving RF power, an input filter for processing energy and impedance matching, a rectifier, an output filter, and a load resistor. However, the conventional rectenna systems have drawback in terms of power generation, as the single resonant frequency of an antenna can generate only low power compared to multiple resonant frequencies. A multi band rectenna system is an optimal solution to generate more power. This paper proposes the design of a novel rectenna system, which involves developing a multi band rectenna with a fractal structured antenna to facilitate an increase in energy harvesting from various sources like Wi-Fi, TV signals, mobile networks and other ambient sources, eliminating the limitation of a single band technique. The usage of fractal antennas effects certain prominent advantages in terms of size and multiple resonances. Even though, a fractal antenna incorporates multiple resonances, controlling the resonant frequencies is an important aspect to generate power from the various desired RF sources. Hence, this paper also describes the design parameters of the fractal antenna and the methods to control the multi band frequency.


Ramasamy M.,University of Arkansas | Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Varadan V.K.,Global Engineering Institute Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

The present day bio-technical field concentrates on developing various types of innovative ambulatory and wearable devices to monitor several bio-physical, physio-pathological, bio-electrical and bio-potential factors to assess a human body's health condition without intruding quotidian activities. One of the most important aspects of this evolving technology is monitoring heart beat rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) from which many other subsidiary results can be derived. Conventionally, the devices and systems consumes a lot of power since the acquired signals are always processed on the receiver end. Because of this back end processing, the unprocessed raw data is transmitted resulting in usage of more power, memory and processing time. This paper proposes an innovative technique where the acquired signals are processed by a microcontroller in the front end of the module and just the processed signal is then transmitted wirelessly to the display unit. Therefore, power consumption is considerably reduced and clearer data analysis is performed within the module. This also avoids the need for the user to be educated about usage of the device and signal/system analysis, since only the number of heart beats will displayed at the user end. Additionally, the proposed concept also eradicates the other disadvantages like obtrusiveness, high power consumption and size. To demonstrate the above said factors, a commercial controller board was used to extend the monitoring method by using the saved ECG data from a computer.


Ramasamy M.,University of Arkansas | Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Varadan V.K.,Global Engineering Institute Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Detection of sleepiness and drowsiness in human beings has been a daunting task for both engineering and medical technologies. Accuracy, precision and promptness of detection have always been an issue that has to be dealt by technologists. Commonly, the rudimentary bio potential signals - ECG, EOG, EEG and EMG are used to classify and discriminate sleep from being awake. However, the potential drawbacks may be high false detections, low precision, obtrusiveness, aftermath analysis, etc. To overcome the disadvantages, this paper proposes the design of a wireless and a real time monitoring system to track sleep and detect fatigue. This concept involves the use of EOG and EEG to measure the blink rate and asses the person's condition. In this user friendly and intuitive approach, EOG and EEG signals are obtained by the dry gold wire nano-sensors fabricated on the inner side of a flexible headband. The acquired signals are then electrically transmitted to the data processing and transmission unit, which transmits the processed data to the receiver/monitoring module through WCDMA/GSM communication. This module is equipped with a software program to process, feature extract, analyze, display and store the information. Thereby, immediate detection of a person falling asleep is made feasible and, tracking the sleep cycle continuously provides an insight about the experienced fatigue level. The novel approach of using a wireless, real time, dry sensor on a flexible substrate reduces the obtrusiveness, and techniques adopted in the electronics and software facilitates and substantial increase in efficiency, accuracy and precision.


Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Kwon H.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Varadan V.K.,Global Engineering Institute Inc.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2012

Good sleep is critical for one's overall physical and mental health but more than 50 million Americans have experienced or are suffering from sleep disorders. Nevertheless, 85% of them remain undiagnosed or untreated. They can lead to chronic diseases. Sleep disorders are diagnosed through polysomnography, also known as sleep study, performed in a sleep laboratory overnight. This perturbs his/her daily sleep routine, and consequently, an accurate diagnosis cannot be made. Many companies have been developing home sleep test systems to reduce the cost of sleep studies and provide a more convenience solution to patients. The category of the system varies as type II, type III and type IV according to the type of sleep study. Current systems cannot be easily extended from one type to include a higher type. A patient who has a type III system to diagnose sleep apnea should additionally purchase a type II system which has functions that overlap with a type III system, to evaluate sleep stages. In this paper, we propose a wireless telemedicine system for easy extension of channels using the start network topology of the Zigbee protocol. The HST system consists of two wireless HST devices with a Zigbee module, a wireless HST receiver with both a Zigbee and a Wi-Fi module, and a sever which monitors/saves the physiological signals. One transmitter provides 5 channels for 2x EOG, 2x EEG and EMG to evaluate sleep stages. The other transmitter provides 5 additional channels for ECG, nasal air flow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation to diagnose sleep apnea. These two transmitters, acting as routers, and the receiver as a coordinator form a Zigbee star network. The data from each transmitter in the receiver are retransmitted to the monitoring unit through Wi-Fi. By building a star network with Zigbee, channels can be easily extended so that low level systems can be upgraded to higher level systems by simply adding the necessary channels. In addition, the proposed system provides real time monitoring of physiological signals at remote locations using Wi-Fi. © 2012 SPIE.


Shyamkumar P.,University of Arkansas | Rai P.,University of Arkansas | Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Ramasamy M.,University of Arkansas | And 4 more authors.
Electronics | Year: 2014

Wearable and ultraportable electronics coupled with pervasive computing are poised to revolutionize healthcare services delivery. The potential cost savings in both treatment, as well as preventive care are the focus of several research efforts across the globe. In this review, we describe the motivations behind wearable solutions to real-time cardiovascular monitoring from a perspective of current healthcare services, as well as from a systems design perspective. We identify areas where emerging research is underway, namely: nanotechnology in textile-based wearable monitors and healthcare solutions targeted towards smart devices, like smartphones and tablets. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Kwon H.,University of Arkansas | Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Kumar P.,University of Arkansas | Varadan V.K.,University of Arkansas | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

Electrocardiography (ECG) is an important diagnostic tool that can provide vital information about diseases that may not be detectable with other biological signals like, SpO2(Oxygen Saturation), pulse rate, respiration, and blood pressure. For this reason, EKG measurement is mandatory for accurate diagnosis. Recent development in information technology has facilitated remote monitoring systems which can check patient's current status. Moreover, remote monitoring systems can obviate the need for patients to go to hospitals periodically. Such representative wireless communication system is Zigbee sensor network because Zigbee sensor network provides low power consumption and multi-device connection. When we measure EKG signal, another important factor that we should consider is about unexpected signals mixed to EKG signal. The unexpected signals give a severe impact in distorting original EKG signal. There are three kinds of types in noise elements such as muscle noise, movement noise, and respiration noise. This paper describes the design method for EKG measurement system with Zigbee sensor network and proposes an algorithm to remove noises from measured ECG signal. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Rai P.,University of Arkansas | Kumar P.S.,University of Arkansas | Oh S.,University of Arkansas | Kwon H.,University of Arkansas | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Arakawa F.,Global Engineering Institute Inc.
IEEJ Transactions on Fundamentals and Materials | Year: 2011

It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been on of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as "endangered". So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary. © 2011 The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.

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