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Paz-Soldan V.A.,Global Development Systems
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2012

Using a sample of 656 men and 930 women from rural Malawi in 2000, the authors examined the association between various individual and community level factors, as well as participation in social groups, and four reproductive health outcomes: intentions to use any contraceptives in the next six months, current use of modem contraceptives, wanting an HIV test, and having had an HIV test. Women in social groups have higher odds of reporting intentions to use contraceptives, wanting an HIV test, and of having had an HIV test than those not in groups. Among men, social group participation is only slightly associated with having had an HIV test. For all, education is positively associated with all four outcomes, and number of children is associated with intentions to use and actual use of contraceptives. At a community level, proximity to a health center or school is positively associated with three outcomes for women and with use of modern contraceptive methods for men. Source

Holmes C.B.,Office of Research and Science | Blandford J.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sangrujee N.,Global Finance | Stewart S.R.,Global Development Systems | And 6 more authors.
Health Affairs | Year: 2012

Amid the global economic crisis, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and other organizations have been pressed to do more with constrained resources to meet unmet needs in the worldwide HIV/AIDS pandemic. PEPFAR has approached this challenge through the development of an Impact and Efficiency Acceleration Plan, which includes improving the collection and use of economic and financial data, increasing the efficiency of HIV/AIDS program implementation, and collaborating with governments and multilateral organizations to maximize the impact of the resources provided by the United States. For example, by linking financial data with program outputs, PEPFAR was able to help its implementing partners in Mozambique reduce mean unit expenditures for people receiving antiretroviral treatment by 45 percent, from $265 to $145 per person, between 2009 and 2011. This article describes the plan's elements, provides examples of progress and challenges to its implementation, and assesses the prospects for further improvements in efficiency and impact. © 2012 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Nsubuga P.,Global Development Systems | Nwanyanwu O.,Center for Global Health | Nkengasong J.N.,Center for Global Health | Mukanga D.,A+ Network | Trostle M.,Health-U
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task. Specifically, several nations are faced with an immense challenge of revamping an entire system. To accomplish this, it is essential to first identify the components of the system that require modification. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed health system building blocks, which are now widely recognized as essential components of health systems strengthening. With increased travel and urbanization, the threat of emerging diseases of pandemic potential is increasing alongside endemic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and hepatitis virus infections. At the same time, the epidemiologic patterns are shifting, giving rise to a concurrent increase in disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. These diseases can be addressed by public health surveillance and response systems that are operated by competent public health workers in core public health positions at national and sub-national levels with a focus on disease prevention. We describe two ways that health ministries in developing countries could leverage President Obamas Global Health Initiative (GHI) to build public health surveillance and response systems using proven models for public health systems strengthening and to create the public health workforce to operate those systems. We also offer suggestions for how health ministries could strengthen public health systems within the broad health systems strengthening agenda. Existing programs (e.g., the Global Vaccine Alliance [GAVI] and the Global Fund Against Tuberculosis, AIDS, and Malaria [GFTAM]) can also adapt their current health systems strengthening programs to build sustainable public health systems. © 2010 Nsubuga et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Harville E.W.,The New School | Do M.,Global Development Systems
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness | Year: 2015

Objective We aimed to examine the relationship between exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake and pregnancy wantedness, interpregnancy interval, and birth weight. Methods From the nationally representative Haiti 2012 Demographic and Health Survey, information on size of child at birth (too small or not) was available for 7280 singleton births in the previous 5 years, whereas information on birth weight was available for 1607 births. Pregnancy wantedness, short (<1 year) interpregnancy interval, and maternal-reported birth weight were compared before and after the earthquake and by level of damage. Multiple logistic regression and linear regression analyses were conducted. Results Post-earthquake births were less likely to be wanted and more likely to be born after a short interpregnancy interval. Earthquake exposure was associated with increased likelihood of a child being born too small: timing of birth (after earthquake vs. before earthquake, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.45), region (hardest-hit vs. rest of country; aOR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.14- 1.80), and house damage (aOR: 1.27 95% CI: 1.02-1.58). Mean birth weight was 150 to 300 g lower in those exposed to the earthquake. Conclusions Experience with the earthquake was associated with worse reproductive and birth outcomes, which underscores the need to provide reproductive health services as part of relief efforts. Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2015. Source

Ryu K.,Global Development Systems | Ryu K.,Texas College | Andres L.S.,Texas College
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2012

Gas foil bearings (GFBs) operating at high temperature rely on thermal management procedures that supply needed cooling flow streams to keep the bearing and rotor from overheating. Poor thermal management not only makes systems inefficient and costly to operate but could also cause bearing seizure and premature system destruction. This paper presents comprehensive measurements of bearing temperatures and shaft dynamics conducted on a hollow rotor supported on two first generation GFBs. The hollow rotor (1.36 kg, 36.51 mm OD and 17.9 mm ID) is heated from inside to reach an outer surface temperature of 120 C. Experiments are conducted with rotor speeds to 30 krpm and with forced streams of air cooling the bearings and rotor. Air pressurization in an enclosure at the rotor mid span forces cooling air through the test GFBs. The cooling effect of the forced external flows is most distinct when the rotor is hottest and operating at the highest speed. The temperature drop per unit cooling flow rate significantly decreases as the cooling flow rate increases. Further measurements at thermal steady state conditions and at constant rotor speeds show that the cooling flows do not affect the amplitude and frequency contents of the rotor motions. Other tests while the rotor decelerates from 30 krpm to rest show that the test system (rigid-mode) critical speeds and modal damping ratio remain nearly invariant for operation with increasing rotor temperatures and with increasing cooling flow rates. Computational model predictions reproduce the test data with accuracy. The work adds to the body of knowledge on GFB performance and operation and provides empirically derived guidance for successful rotor-GFB system integration. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source

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