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Urbana, IL, United States

Global Change Solutions LLC | Date: 2014-06-06

A dendrometer comprises a dendrometer band whose length is extendable for encircling a tree trunk. The dendrometer further comprises an elongated electronic component that is closely or contiguously attached to the dendrometer band for moving along with the dendrometer band in order to follow length extension of the dendrometer band. Length variation of the dendrometer band is configured to be converted to electronic signals by the electronic component.

Anderson-Teixeira K.J.,Urbana University | Anderson-Teixeira K.J.,Global Change Solutions LLC | Duval B.D.,Urbana University | Duval B.D.,Global Change Solutions LLC | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Applications | Year: 2012

Widespread land use changes, and ensuing effects on ecosystem services, are expected from expanding bioenergy production. Although most U.S. production of ethanol is from corn, it is envisaged that future ethanol production will also draw from cellulosic sources such as perennial grasses. In selecting optimal bioenergy crops, there is debate as to whether it is preferable from an environmental standpoint to cultivate bioenergy crops with high ecosystem services (a "land-sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand (a "land-sparing" strategy). Here, we develop a simple model to address this question. Assuming that bioenergy crops are competing with uncultivated land, our model calculates land requirements to meet a given bioenergy demand intensity based upon the yields of bioenergy crops. The model combines fractional land cover of each ecosystem type with its associated ecosystem services to determine whether land-sharing or land-sparing strategies maximize ecosystem services at the landscape level. We apply this model to a case in which climate protection through GHG regulation-an ecosystem's greenhouse gas value (GHGV)-is the ecosystem service of interest. Our results show that the relative advantages of land sparing and land sharing depend upon the type of ecosystem displaced by the bioenergy crop; as the GHGV of the unfarmed land increases, the preferable strategy shifts from land sharing to land sparing. Although it may be preferable to replace ecologically degraded land with high-GHGV, lower yielding bioenergy crops, average landscape GHGV will most often be maximized through highyielding bioenergy crops that leave more land for uncultivated, high-GHGV ecosystems. Although our case study focuses on GHGV, the same principles will be applicable to any ecosystem service whose value does not depend upon the spatial configuration of the landscape. Whenever bioenergy crops have substantially lower ecosystem services than the ecosystems with which they are competing for land, the most effective strategy for meeting bioenergy demand while maximizing ecosystem services on a landscape level is one of land sparing: focusing simultaneously on maximizing the yield of bioenergy crops while preserving or restoring natural ecosystems. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America. Source

Anderson-Teixeira K.J.,Urbana University | Anderson-Teixeira K.J.,Global Change Solutions LLC | Snyder P.K.,University of Minnesota | Twine T.E.,University of Minnesota | And 4 more authors.
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2012

Terrestrial ecosystems regulate climate through both biogeochemical (greenhouse-gas regulation) and biophysical (regulation of water and energy) mechanisms. However, policies aimed at climate protection through land management, including REDD+ (where REDD is Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) and bioenergy sustainability standards, account only for biogeochemical mechanisms. By ignoring biophysical processes, which sometimes offset biogeochemical effects, policies risk promoting suboptimal solutions. Here, we quantify how biogeochemical and biophysical processes combine to shape the climate regulation values of 18 natural and agricultural ecoregions across the Americas. Natural ecosystems generally had higher climate regulation values than agroecosystems, largely driven by differences in biogeochemical services. Biophysical contributions ranged from minimal to dominant. They were highly variable in space, and their relative importance varied with the spatio-temporal scale of analysis. Our findings reinforce the importance of protecting tropical forests, show that northern forests have a relatively small net effect on climate, and indicate that climatic effects of bioenergy production may be more positive when biophysical processes are considered. Ensuring effective climate protection through land management requires consideration of combined biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Our climate regulation value index serves as one potential approach to quantify the full climate services of terrestrial ecosystems. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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